A Brief History of the Theory of Everything
Stephen Hawking Makes a Joke, and it Works
Stephen Hawking has disproven the existence of God in his new book, The Grand Design. written with co-author Leonard Mlodinow, who teaches probability in Pasadena and writes TV screenplays on the side. The two authors make use of string theory, long known as the "theory of everything," and now better known as "M-theory." According to the authors, this theory may soon provide us with a theory of everything that has no place for a creator. Clearly, this is not a trivial question.
Only a few scientists have ever had a brilliance that transcends the bounds of their own disciplines. Humphry Davy was the first example among modern scientists, a colorful figure in early 19th-century London. A century later, Albert Einstein practically became an overnight pop sensation when his spectacular theory of relativity was confirmed by the observation of the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. But even before that, he was fully convinced of his own theory. Why? He couldn't imagine it any other way. It's a mistake to be misled by Einstein's sometimes childish demeanor, just as it's a mistake to believe that he was joking when he said that God doesn't play dice. Einstein was clearly a deadly serious man.
With Stephen Hawking, it's just the opposite. Hawking is a phenomenon. Other physicists, like Richard Feynman and Harald Fritzsch, have written extremely successful books in the postwar era. The former received the Nobel Prize for his quantum theory, while the latter can claim the discovery of the quark, which the Nobel strangely ignored. Stephen Hawking, for his part, can boast of having held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University. The list of his predecessors in that office inspires respect, not only on account of Isaac Newton. But respect alone can't explain the fact that Hawking's A Brief History of Time is one of the bestselling books ever. Aside from the topics of his writing and the quality of his prose, Hawking benefited from the fact that he does not conform to the typical image of a genius, as Nietzsche once portrayed it. Hawking is not a daunting figure who towers over his time and his readers. In fact, he's a surprisingly approachable figure, and his wheelchair and speech synthesizer don't stop him from cultivating a well-developed public image. He's a pleasure to listen to. By the way: Some neurologists believe that "genius" generally has its origins in brain disorders, which lead to abnormal thought patterns. But who wants to be a genius, anyway? Hawking would rather be liked.
The search for a theory of everything, began in Copenhagen in 1820. That's when the Danish scientist Hans Christian Oersted, experimenting with a battery twenty years after its invention by Alessandro Volta, happened to notice that a compass needle responded whenever an electrical current was turned on nearby: It aligned itself perpendicular to the electrical cable. Oersted wasn't the first to notice this effect, but he immediately grasped its implications. He wrote a report that spread quickly throughout Europe, though it was written in Latin and often had to be translated into other languages before it was read. What made his discovery surprising was the fact that two natural phenomena - magnetism and electricity - appeared to be linked to each other. The leading opinion at the time would have held that to be impossible. Among the doubters was the great Charles Augustin de Coulomb, who later lent his name to the unit of electrical charge. Coulomb had always been convinced that magnetism and electricity were two fluids that could not flow through each other.
Oersted's observation was initially taken to indicate not a new harmony, but rather a "conflict between electricity and magnetism," until it triggered a major change in paradigms in the realm of natural forces. Instead of separating natural phenomena into isolated processes of one kind or another, famous scientists such as André-Marie Ampère, Alexander von Humboldt, and Humphry Davy began frantically seeking a law that explained this whole interaction as a single process. Now the search was on for a theory that would explain everything. Success came to Michael Faraday, a completely unknown lab assistant who solved the riddle during summer vacation in the basement of the Royal Institution in London, laying the groundwork for the theory that later came to prominence as magnetic field theory. The theory was worked out in detail by William Thomson, aka Lord Kelvin, and above all by a strange character from Scotland by the name of James Clerk Maxwell. The theory was based on Faraday's assumption that the lines made by iron filings were lines of magnetic force, which required time to spread out in space. The behavior of the lines in response to changes in the electric charge was called electrodynamics, and its sensational byproduct was the understanding of light as waves in these fields of lines. This theory replaced Isaac Newton's conviction, sacrosanct until then, that light is a particle.
The mathematical complexity and beauty of electrodynamics were unprecedented. Around 1890, this first theory of everything was hailed as the "end of physics." Professor Philip von Jolly in Munich even advised Heinrich Hertz, Max Planck, and Albert Einstein not to study physics, explaining that there was nothing left to discover.
But hardly had these words been spoken when doubts arose. The lack of any evidence for the hypothesized aether through which waves were thought to travel; the photoelectric effect observed by Heinrich Hertz, which could not be explained as a product of waves; and the consistency of the speed of light, regardless of the movement of the observer relative to its source, led within just a few years to theories of relativistic quantum fields, characterized by a peaceful coexistence of waves and particles. The so-called "standard model" that is accepted today was one of these theories. It describes electromagnetic and atomic forces, and has been confirmed by precise experiments. But we are still searching for the theory of everything, which has to do with the stage on which the theater of our world is played out: Space-time.
Space-time, too, had slowly but surely undergone a paradigm shift, from a construct based on sharply distinguished elements to a dynamic unity. In the mid-18th century, Gotthold Ephriam Lessing had insisted in his famous work "Laocoon: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry," that the painter's task is to portray simultaneous events in space, and the poet's to represent the movement of bodies in time. Anything else would appear tasteless.
This opinion did not prevent Charles Babbage, who pioneered computation theory together with Lord Byron's daughter Ada Lovelace, from writing in 1837 that sound impacts atoms, stores its energy in them, and thus creates an archive of everything that has ever been said - lies included. As soon as they have been dispersed in the air, the words that were originally uttered one after the other are no longer distinguished by anything but their position. In water, for example, sound could be instantly frozen. But even without this ideal case, the theory brings God into play. The Almighty can naturally use this archive at any time, however complicated it may be to read. He can track down every murderer, not to mention every unbeliever. Almost unnoticed, time has here become space, and space has become a means of storing and overcoming time. Ultimately, there is no difference in theory between hearing a sound over the course of time, and running along in space to hear the traces that the sound has left in matter. This simple consideration is at the root of one of the greatest revolutions in human thought.
The next step was taken by the Prussian jurist Felix Eberty, who applied Babbage's ideas to light. Indeed, dear reader, the man in the moon has just seen that you scratched your forehead a second ago, because that's how long it takes for light to get to him. And your friend in some far-off galaxy has just seen what you did last year, or sometime last decade. Even worse: Every bit of this information is stored in the traveling waves. According to Eberty, God's eye follows along on this archive of light and examines every second of the past. Eberty published his work "The Stars and the Earth" anonymously in 1846, perhaps out of fear of the church. His brief work shared the exceptional elegance and rapid acclaim of Hawking's new book. Karl Clausberg recently published a new edition of Eberty's work with extensive commentary. Not for nothing: In 1923, an edition was published with a foreword by Albert Einstein, who praised Eberty's critical spirit and noted the work's correspondence to the theory of relativity.
Einstein probably already had the book in his hands in the 1880s, when his family outfitted the Oktoberfest and Schwabing with electric street lights. The small city near Munich was the first in the world to have streetlights that blocked out the night sky, which had once inspired respect and the fear of God in people. With that, a rupture took place that would be brought to its conclusion by Hawking and Mlodinow.
Einstein was nine years old at the time. For the rest of his life, he would wonder what it was like to ride on a wave of light. Later, he arrived at a simple answer to the question of how to reconcile space and time with the curious consistency of the speed of light: You just have to bend them to fit. But Einstein still thought of the universe as static. Not until Edwin Hubble's observations of cosmic background radiation did we arrive at the contemporary model of the expanding universe, which must once have been very small and hot. But the Big Bang, and the infinite density it entails, lie beyond the purview of our current theories. This is unsatisfying. And that's not all: Looking at the more and more complex, more and more beautiful equations that have been derived to explain particle reactions long after the Big Bang, it's easy to feel like you're standing at the bowling alley in your underwear, with raw eggs in your hand. Quantum field theories aren't consistent with space-time, in fact many tricks are required to make the calculations of quantum theory even approximately accurate for massive particles. Ever since Einstein, mass has been seen as the "charge" of gravitation. What we're missing is quantum gravity.
That's where the new M-theory comes in. M stands for mother, or mystery, or whatever you please - that's how cool they are at Cambridge! To our satisfaction, we learn that in M-theory elementary particles - which have a restmass but no volume, and thus have infinite energy density just like the universe at the time of the Big Bang - have been replaced not only with strings, but also with membranes and even higher-dimensional objects. The concept of strings was so aesthetically insufficient that it never convinced the majority of physicists, even though it managed to pull a graviton - the hypothetical quantum particle of gravitation - out of its hat. But now the simplicity that used to make strings so sexy to their fans is gone, too.
Also, whereas strings required ten dimensions of space-time to provide consistency for this theory, now it's eleven. That's not a problem for a physicist. After all, we still only have three when we're watching TV: The height and width of the screen, and the dimension of time, which we quickly forget once we start watching. Still, it would be nice to have some reason to believe that these eleven dimensions actually exist. The fact that now all five formerly competing string theories are included in M-theory speaks neither for nor against it. It's hard to know when M-theory will be understood clearly enough to be simplified, so that all the phenomena of nature can be calculated using just one experimentally measured parameter. Compared to Newton's discovery of gravity and Einstein's equivalence principle, even compared to Faraday's new insight into the operation of forces in space-time, M-theory appears at the moment to be mere technophilia.
Hawking's books manifest the same strength as his scientific work: Once he starts down a path, he follows it all the way to the end. Naturally, this is also his weakness. Anyone seeking information about the current state of physics from the new book will be disappointed. Alternative ideas about the quantization of space-time don't even merit a mention - for instance, the quantum groups which use Heisenberg-type uncertainty relations not only between position and momentum, but also between two positions or two momentums, thus violating symmetry in the most elegant fashion. The symmetry that Martin Bojowald has found, which postulates an inside-out universe before the Big Bang, appears unknown to Hawking and Mlodinow. Maybe these are individual cases. A more troubling omission could be their failure to ask what the quantization of gravity actually is, and whether it even necessarily exists. Perhaps after all the decades and the widely divergent ideas of relativity and quantum fields, a totally different word than "quantization" would be preferable to Hawking's borrowing of Feynman's term for subatomic forces. In the end, space-time relates to quanta as intelligence does to genetics: We don't understand the system at all, and both terms are in urgent need of an overhaul. Perhaps for all our agility, we still fail to pose the right questions.
Of course, finding fault with a book like The Grand Design on these grounds is a bit like drinking monk's beer out of a wine glass after holding it up to the light like a connoisseur. This sort of reflection is not part of the authors' plan. They also aren't concerned about whether there could only be a finite number of different natural laws deep inside the particles, between the Big Bang itself and the moment thereafter. Given that temperature increases exponentially the closer we get to the Big Bang, such a conclusion is actually improbable. Hawking doesn't question the concept of the theory of everything, which has remained popular since Oersted's discovery. Nevertheless, we owe him and Leonard Mlodinow our thanks for this book. They can hardly be blamed for the fact that M-theory isn't immediately comprehensible, the way that Eberty's idea of preserved images may be. Rather, they should be praised for all that The Grand Design offers the reader. This is due to the remarkable elegance with which individual questions are brought to light. Even a passionate reader rarely encounters such a literary jewel.
Whereas Hawking's Brief History of Time kept its eloquence in bounds, here he exhibits sheer brilliance. With instinctive certainty, Hawking and Mlodinow sketch out the major questions in the first few sentences: Existence, limitations, searching, reality, creation in this "world that is by turns kind and cruel." It's about the big questions, or let's say: It's about everything, to the millionth power. The authors at once declare philosophy dead, in order to let physics take over. These tones are usually only struck in conversion texts, whose linguistic economy is fed by their lack of doubt. The impression is sublime. Hawking and Mlodinow carry out their program with love and knowledge, and without mercy. Driven towards salvation by their own brilliance, they quickly establish that quantized uni- and multiverses fluctuate into being from nothing, just as the elementary particles do. Time as we know it doesn't exist there. Everything, nothing, and us: A dream that needs no God, because it comes from nothing. Rather, the anthropic principle applies: Everything is the way it is because we fragile beings are here. The slights done to mankind by Copernicus, Darwin and Freud are all forgotten. It's an extremely mischievous trick, played for the reader's benefit, and it won't bother God, who's suddenly superfluous, anyhow.
Hawking and Mlodinow know this, too. They've studied their predecessors well, and they tell just the right anecdotes, such as one about Johan Kepler's idea that planets have senses with which they observe the laws of nature. Their wit, like their figurative language, functions without a hitch. Of course, they also know what the Sandemanian Michael Faraday knew: That religion cannot be subjected to criticism. For the mystery of being has a hold on people, as Hawking demonstrates so powerfully in his first paragraph, and it leads them to answers. So he writes about those, too - and convincingly. Rarely has anyone written more beautifully, sharply, and inspiringly about the universe and the ultimate questions of our existence. The last chapter alone, which deals with free will and natural law, is a gem that belongs on every bookshelf. Ideally next to other sacred texts.
Copyright by Ralf Bönt
English by Kurt Beals
Ralf Bönt, born in 1963, lives in Berlin.
Stephen Hawking has dazzled readers worldwide with a string of bestsellers exploring the mysteries of the universe. Now, for the first time, the most brilliant cosmologist of our age turns his gaze inwards for a revealing look at his own life and intellectual evolution. My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking's improbable journey, from his post-war London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him 'Einstein'; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of academia. Writing with characteristic humility and humour, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of motor neurone disease aged twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onwards through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece. A Brief History of Time - one of the iconic books of the twentieth century. Clear-eyed, intimate and wise, My Brief History opens a window for the rest of us into Hawking's personal cosmos.Product details
"Stephen Hawking [has] a brain of enviable vastness, seeing and understanding things that lie way beyond most of us. His modesty is engaging" Daily Mail "Hawking writes movingly. we hear his voice radiating directly from the black hole of his motor neuron disease, without the amplification and elaboration supplied by the co-authors with whom he wrote his last few books" Financial Times "A concise, gleaming portrait" Nature "Powerful. [his] brevity makes for a bold picture" Guardian "Read it for the personal nuggets. But above all, it's worth reading for its message of hope" Mail on SundayAbout Stephen Hawking
STEPHEN HAWKING is regarded as one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists since Einstein. He held the position of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for thirty years and is the author of A Brief History of Time which was an international bestseller and stayed on the Sunday Times bestseller list for 237 weeks. His other books for the general reader include Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, The Universe in a Nutshell, A Briefer History of Time and The Grand Design.Review Text
"Stephen Hawking [has] a brain of enviable vastness, seeing and understanding things that lie way beyond most of us. His modesty is engaging" Daily Mail
Sept. 6, 2013 8:35 p.m. ET
I first had the idea of writing a popular book about the universe in 1982. My intention was partly to earn money to pay my daughter's school fees. But the main reason was that I wanted to explain how far we had come in our understanding of the universe: how we might be near finding a complete theory that would describe the universe and everything in it.
Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking, around 1988. A literary agent told him a book about the universe could never become popular. TopFoto/The Image Works
If I was going to spend the time and effort to write a book, I wanted it to have as many readers as possible. I contacted a literary agent and gave him a draft of the first chapter, explaining that I wanted it to be the sort of book that would sell in airport bookstores. He told me there was no chance of that. It might sell well to academics and students, but a book like that couldn't break into best-seller territory.
I gave the agent a first draft of the book in 1984. He sent it to several publishers, and I decided to take an offer from Bantam Books. Bantam's interest was probably due to one of their editors, Peter Guzzardi, who took his job very seriously and made me rewrite the book so that it would be understandable to nonscientists. Each time I sent him a rewritten chapter, he sent back a long list of objections and questions. At times I thought the process would never end. But he was right: It is a much better book as a result.
I was sure that nearly everyone is interested in how the universe operates, but most people cannot follow mathematical equations. I don't care much for equations myself. This is partly because it is difficult for me to write them down, but mainly because I don't have an intuitive feeling for equations. Instead, I think in pictorial terms, and my aim in the book was to describe these mental images in words, with the help of familiar analogies and a few diagrams.
Still, even if I avoided using mathematics, some of the ideas would be difficult to explain. This posed a problem: Should I try to explain them and risk people being confused, or should I gloss over the difficulties? Some unfamiliar concepts were not essential to the picture I wanted to draw, but others were.
One was the so-called "sum over histories." This is the idea that there is not just a single history for the universe. Rather, there is a collection of every possible history for the universe, and all these histories are equally real (whatever that may mean). The other idea, which is necessary to make mathematical sense of the first one, is that of imaginary time.
With hindsight, I now feel that I should have put more effort into explaining these two very difficult concepts, particularly imaginary time, which seems to be the thing in the book with which people have the most trouble. But it is not really necessary to understand exactly what imaginary time is—just that it is different from what we call real time.
When the book was nearing publication in 1988, a scientist who was sent an advance copy to review for the journal Nature was appalled to find it full of errors, with misplaced and erroneously labeled photographs and diagrams. He called the publisher, which was equally appalled and decided that same day to recall and scrap the entire printing. (Copies of the original first edition are now probably quite valuable.) Still, it was ready in time to be in bookstores by the April Fools' Day publication date. By then, Time magazine had published a cover profile of me.
The publisher was taken by surprise by the demand for the book. It was on the New York Times best-seller list for 147 weeks and on the London Times best-seller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks, has been translated into 40 languages, and has sold over 10 million copies world-wide.
My original title was "From the Big Bang to Black Holes: A Short History of Time," but my editor Peter Guzzardi turned it around and changed Short to Brief. It was a stroke of genius and must have contributed to the success of the book. There have been many "brief histories" of this and that since, and even "A Brief History of Thyme."
Why did so many people buy the book? It is difficult for me to be objective, so I will go by what other people said. I found most of the reviews, although favorable, rather unilluminating. They tended to follow a single formula:
Stephen Hawking has Lou Gehrig's disease (the term used in American reviews) or motor neuron disease (in British reviews). He is confined to a wheelchair, cannot speak, and can only move X number of fingers (where X seems to vary from one to three, according to which inaccurate article the reviewer read about me). Yet he has written this book about the biggest question of all: Where did we come from and where are we going?
The answer Mr. Hawking proposes is that the universe is neither created nor destroyed: It just is. In order to formulate this idea, Mr. Hawking introduces the concept of imaginary time, which I (that is, the reviewer) find a little hard to follow. Still, if Mr. Hawking is right and we do find a complete unified theory, we shall really "know the mind of God." (In the proof stage, I nearly cut that last sentence of the book. Had I done so, the sales might have been halved.)
Rather more perceptive was an article in the Independent, a London newspaper, which said that even a serious scientific work such as "A Brief History of Time" could become a cult book. I was rather flattered to have my book compared with "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance." I hope that, like "Zen," it gives people the feeling that they need not be cut off from the great intellectual and philosophical questions.
Undoubtedly, the human interest story of how I have managed to be a theoretical physicist despite my disability has helped sales of the book. But those who bought it because of this angle may have been disappointed, because it contains only a couple of references to my condition. The book was intended as a history of the universe, not of me.
It also has been suggested that many people bought the book to display on their bookcase or coffee table, without having actually read it. I am sure this happens, but I do know that at least some people have waded into "A Brief History of Time." Even now, I get a pile of letters every day, many asking questions or making detailed comments that indicate that the writers have read the book, even if they do not understand all of it.
—Mr. Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for 30 years. His memoir, "My Brief History," from which this essay is adapted, will be published Tuesday.
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The oldest profession in the world is not what would be commonly accepted in society. Before a woman had a chance to sell her body, people looked up at the.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME The book A Brief History of Time (1988) by Stephen Hawking is a one of a kind introduction to today�s physics. It recently became a record standing over a hundred weeks on the New York Times Bestseller List and about 237 weeks in The London Sunday Times best-seller list. The book has been translated in forty languages and has reached international popularity in many countries. Its author, Stephen William Hawking (1942), is one of
The oldest profession in the world is not what would be commonly accepted in society. Before a woman had a chance to sell her body, people looked up at the.
the brightest scientist of our time, replacing the chair once held by Isaac Newton, as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. At first I was looking for some explanation about the Big Bang, my brother got me into the subject the day we saw the Blockbuster movie Contact. The motion picture is based on the novel created by Carl Sagan, a historical man of science. The movie is directed by Robert Zemeckis starring Jodie Foster as a radio astronomer who first
The oldest profession in the world is not what would be commonly accepted in society. Before a woman had a chance to sell her body, people looked up at the.
intercepts an intelligent alien radio signal from a distant region in space. When the message is fully understood, it is known that inside that signal were blueprints for creating a machine capable of sending a traveler to another world. This causes a religious, political and scientific chaos in our society. The movie beautifully combines the purposes of both science and religion into the ultimate search for the truth. And the possibility of reaching out this far changes the way humanity
If theories of their existence are true, black holes are the most powerful force in the known physical universe. Many people are familiar with the term black hole, but few.
look at themselves and their world. I found it fascinating how much there is to question and how little I knew. The beginning of Contact shows our little planet Earth, and in the background is the latest song released by Spice Girls in the radio. As the camera fades away, the radio and television transmission gradually changes to old songs and programs. The creators of the movie used remarkable pieces of our century to make the audience realize that the
If theories of their existence are true, black holes are the most powerful force in the known physical universe. Many people are familiar with the term black hole, but few.
radio frequency waves goes on
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A landmark volume in science writing by one of the great minds of our time, Stephen Hawking's book explores such profound questions as: How did the universe begin - and what made its start possible? Does time always flow forward? Is the universe unending - or are there boundaries? Are there other dimensions in space? What will happen when it all ends? Told in language we all can understand, A Brief History of Time plunges into the exotic realms of black holes and quarks, of antimatter and "arrows of time," of the big bang and a bigger God - where the possibilities are wondrous and unexpected. With exciting images and profound imagination, Stephen Hawking brings us closer to the ultimate secrets at the very heart of creation.Stephen Hawking
box_width = 250x
name = Stephen Hawking
image_size = 200px
caption = NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking
birth_date = birth date and age|df=yes|1942|01|8
birth_place = Oxford. England
residence = England
nationality = English
fields = Applied mathematician Theoretical physicist
workplaces = University of Cambridge
alma_mater = University of Oxford University of Cambridge
doctoral_advisor = Dennis Sciama
doctoral_students = Bruce Allen Fay Dowker Malcolm Perry Bernard Carr Gary Gibbons
known_for = Black holes Theoretical cosmology Quantum gravity
influences = Dikran Tahta
awards = nowrap| Prince of Asturias Award (1989) Copley Medal (2006)
Stephen William Hawking CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. and a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity. especially in the context of black holes. and his popular works in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. These include the runaway popular science bestseller " A Brief History of Time ", which stayed on the British "Sunday Times" bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. cite book | author=Hawking, Stephen | title= A Brief History of Time | publisher= Bantam Books | date=1988 | isbn=0-553-38016-8 ]
His key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose. theorem s regarding singularities in the framework of general relativity. and the theoretical prediction that black hole s should emit radiation. which is today known as Hawking radiation. or sometimes as Bekenstein -Hawking radiation. [cite web|url=http://projecteuclid.org/Dienst/UI/1.0/Summarize/euclid.cmp/1103899181|title=Particle creation by black holes|publisher=Project Euclid|accessdate=2008-05-19 ] His scientific career spans over 40 years and his books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity and world-renowned theoretical physicist. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts Cite web|url=http://www.rsa.org.uk/acrobat/honorary_fellows.pdf|title=Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts|publisher= Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce |accessdate=2007-03-25 ]. a member of the Mensa society and a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Science. [cite journal | last =Mason | first =Michael | authorlink =Michael Mason | title =Alliance, Many of the greatest minds of science meet regularly in Vatican City to counsel the pope on the hot topics of the day' | journal =Discover Magazine | volume = | issue =September 2008 | pages =43 | publisher =Discover Magazine | date = | url = | doi = | id = | accessdate =2008-08-19 ] Hawking is physically challenged by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The illness has progressed over the years and he is now almost completely paralysed.
Stephen William Hawking was born to Dr. Frank Hawking, a research biologist. and Isobel Hawking, a political activist. He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary and an adopted brother, Edward. cite book | title = Current Biography, 1984 | publisher = H. W. Wilson Company | location = New York City | date = 1984 ] Though Hawking’s parents were living in North London, they moved to Oxford while Isobel was pregnant with Stephen, desiring a safer location for the birth of their first child (London was under attack at the time by the Luftwaffe ). [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/
history/Biographies/Hawking.html|title=Stephen William Hawking|publisher= University of St Andrews ] After Hawking was born, the family moved back to London, where his father headed the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research.
In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans in Hertfordshire where he attended St Albans High School for Girls from 1950 to 1953. (At that time, boys could attend the Girls school until the age of 10. cite book | title = Stephen Hawking A Biography| publisher = Greenwood Press | date = 1995 ] ) From the age of 11, he attended St Albans School. where he was a good, but not an exceptional, student. cite book | title = Current Biography, 1984 | publisher = H. W. Wilson Company | location = New York City | date = 1984 ] When asked later to name a teacher who had inspired him, Hawking named his Mathematics teacher, "Mr Tahta ". [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,,1983173,00.html|title=Dick Tahta|work= The Guardian ] He maintains his connection with the school, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an extracurricular science lecture series. He has visited to deliver one of the lectures and has also granted a lengthy interview to pupils working on the school magazine, "The Albanian".
Hawking was always interested in science. He enrolled at University College, Oxford with the intent of studying mathematics. although his father preferred he go into medicine. It was here that he met his life-long friend Joshua Adamson. Since mathematics was not offered at University College, Hawking instead chose physics. His interests during this time were in thermodynamics. relativity. and quantum mechanics. His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in the "New York Times Magazine": It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it. He didn’t have very many books, and he didn’t take notes. Of course, his mind was completely different from all of his contemporaries.
Hawking was passing with his fellow students, but his unimpressive study habits gave him a final examination score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary. Berman said of the oral examination: And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves.
After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford University in 1962, he stayed to study astronomy. He decided to leave when he found that studying sunspot s, which was all the observatory was equipped for, did not appeal to him and that he was more interested in theory than in observation. He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge. where he engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology.
Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge. he started developing symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (colloquially known as Lou Gehrig’s disease), a type of motor neuron disease which would cost him almost all neuromuscular control. During his first two years at Cambridge, he did not distinguish himself, but, after the disease had stabilized and with the help of his doctoral tutor, Dennis William Sciama. he returned to working on his Ph.D. He revealed that he did not see much point in obtaining a doctorate if he were to die soon. Hawking later said that the real turning point was his 1965 marriage to Jane Wilde, a language student. After gaining his Ph.D. Stephen became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College .
Hawking was elected as one of the youngest Fellows of the Royal Society in 1974, was created a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1982, and became a Companion of Honour in 1989. Hawking is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists .
Jane Hawking ( née Wilde), Hawking’s first wife, with whom he had three children, cared for him until 1991 when the couple separated, reportedly due to the pressures of fame and his increasing disability. Hawking married his nurse, Elaine Mason (who was also the previous wife of David Mason, designer of the first version of Hawking’s talking computer), in 1995. In October 2006, Hawking filed for divorce from his second wife. [cite news | title = Hawking and second wife agree to divorce | work = Telegraph.co.uk | date = 2007-01-09 | url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/10/20/nhawking20.xml | accessdate = 2007-03-18 ]
In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, "Music to Move the Stars", detailing her own long-term relationship with a family friend whom she later married. Hawking’s daughter Lucy Hawking is a novelist. Their son Robert Hawking emigrated to the United States, married, and has one child, George Edward Hawking. Reportedly, Hawking and his first family were reconciled in 2007. [cite news|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1751518.ece|title=Welcome back to the family, Stephen| work = The Times | date = 2007-05-06|accessdate = 2007-05-06 ]
At the celebration of his 65th birthday on 8 January 2007, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight in 2007 to prepare for a sub-orbital spaceflight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic ’s space service. Billionaire Richard Branson pledged to pay all expenses for the latter, costing an estimated £100,000. [cite news|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/01/08/nhawking08.xml|title=Stephen Hawking plans to see space| work = Telegraph.co.uk | date = 2007-01-09 |accessdate = 2007-03-18 ] Stephen Hawking’s zero-gravity flight in a " Vomit Comet " of Zero Gravity Corporation. during which he experienced weightlessness eight times, took place on 26 April 2007. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6594821.stm|title=Hawking takes zero-gravity flight| work = news.bbc.co.uk | date = 2007-04-26 |accessdate = 2007-04-26 ]
He became the first quadriplegic to float free in a weightless state. This was the first time in 40 years that he moved freely beyond the confines of his wheelchair. The fee is normally US$3,750 for 10-15 plunges. but Hawking was not required to pay the fee. A bit of a futurist. [cite news | title = Move To New Planet, says Hawking | publisher = BBC | date = 2006-11-06 | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6158855.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-21 ] Hawking was quoted before the flight saying::Many people have asked me why I am taking this flight. I am doing it for many reasons. First of all, I believe that life on Earth is at an ever increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers. I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space. I therefore want to encourage public interest in space. [cite news|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070504171857/http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/space/04/26/hawking.flight.ap/index.html|title=Physicist Hawking experiences zero gravity| publisher = CNN | date = 2007-04-26 |accessdate = 2007-05-04 ]
Hawking’s principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.
In the late 1960s, he and his Cambridge friend and colleague, Roger Penrose. applied a new, complex mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein ’s general theory of relativity. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/03/16_hawking_text.shtml/|title= Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture |publisher= University of California, Berkeley ] This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the first of many singularity theorems ; such theorems provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a singularity in space-time. This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general relativity. [cite journal|last = Hawking|first = SW|title = The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology|publisher= Royal Society |journal=Mathematical and Physical Sciences|volume = 314|issue = 1519|date = 1970-01-27 |pages = 529–548|doi = 10.1098/rspa.1970.0021 ]
He supplied a mathematical proof. along with Brandon Carter. Werner Israel and D. Robinson, of John Wheeler ’s “No-Hair Theorem ” – namely, that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of mass. angular momentum. and electric charge .
Hawking also suggested that, upon analysis of gamma ray emissions, after the Big Bang. primordial or mini black hole s were formed. With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics. In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles. known today as Hawking radiation. until they exhaust their energy and evaporate. [cite journal|last = Hawking|first = SW|title = Black Hole Explosions|journal = Nature |volume = 248|issue = 1|pages = 30–31|date = 1974|url = http://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/hawking/|accessdate = 2007-03-23|doi = 10.1038/248030a0 ]
In collaboration with Jim Hartle. Hawking developed a model in which the Universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models with a region akin to the North pole: One cannot travel North of the North pole, as there is no boundary there. While originally the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed Universe. discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a Universe which is not closed.
Among Hawking’s many other scientific investigations, included are the study of: quantum cosmology. cosmic inflation. helium production in anisotropic Big Bang universe s, large N cosmology, the density matrix of the universe, topology and structure of the universe, baby universes, Yang-Mills instanton s and the S matrix ; anti de Sitter space. quantum entanglement and entropy ; the nature of space and time. including the arrow of time ; spacetime foam. string theory. supergravity. Euclidean quantum gravity, the gravitation al Hamiltonian ; Brans-Dicke and Hoyle-Narlikar theories of gravitation ; gravitational radiation. and wormhole s.
At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA 's 50th anniversary, Prof. Hawking theorised on the existence of extraterrestrial life: "Primitive life is very common and intelligent life is fairly rare." [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://ukpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5hCeV4oH8O1BAn1Zw73cKAEAoirug|title=Primitive life 'likely elsewhere'|publisher= Press Association |date=2008-04-21 ]
= Losing an old bet = Hawking was in the news in July 2004 for presenting a new theory about black hole s which goes against his own long-held belief about their behavior, thus losing a bet he made with Kip Thorne and John Preskill of Caltech. Classically, it can be shown that information crossing the event horizon of a black hole is lost to our universe, and that thus all black holes are identical beyond their mass, electrical charge and angular velocity (the “ no hair theorem ”). The problem with this theorem is that it implies the black hole will emit the same radiation regardless of what goes into it, and as a consequence that if a pure quantum state is thrown into a black hole, an “ordinary” mixed state will be returned. This runs counter to the rules of quantum mechanics and is known as the black hole information paradox.
Hawking had earlier speculated that the singularity at the centre of a black hole could form a bridge to a “baby universe” into which the lost information could pass; such theories have been very popular in science fiction. But according to Hawking’s new idea, presented at the 17th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation. on 21 July 2004 in Dublin. Republic of Ireland. black holes eventually transmit, in a garbled form, information about all matter they swallow: Having concluded that information is conserved, Hawking conceded his bet in Preskill’s favour, awarding him "Total Baseball, The Ultimate Baseball Encyclopedia". Thorne, however, remained unconvinced of Hawking’s proof and declined to contribute to the award. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.theory.caltech.edu/
preskill/jp_24jul04.html|title=On Hawking’s Concession|publisher= California Institute of Technology |date= 2004-07-24 |author=Preskill, John ] Another older bet – about the existence of black holes – was described by Hawking as an “insurance policy” of sorts. To quote from his book, "A Brief History of Time": cquote|This was a form of insurance policy for me. I have done a lot of work on black holes, and it would all be wasted if it turned out that black holes do not exist. But in that case, I would have the consolation of winning my bet, which would win me four years of the magazine "Private Eye". If black holes do exist, Kip will get one year of "Penthouse ". When we made the bet in 1975, we were 80 % certain that Cygnus was a black hole. By now, I would say that we are about 95 % certain, but the bet has yet to be settled.|20px|20px|Stephen Hawking|"A Brief History of Time (1988)" cite book | author=Hawking, Stephen | title= A Brief History of Time | publisher= Bantam Books | year=1988 | isbn=0-553-38016-8 ]
According to the updated 10th anniversary edition of "A Brief History of Time", Hawking has conceded the bet “to the outrage of Kip’s liberated wife” due to subsequent observational data in favour of black holes.
Hawking is severely disabled by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. or ALS (a type of motor neurone disease ); this condition is commonly known in the United States as Lou Gehrig’s Disease .
When he was young, he enjoyed riding horses and playing with other children. At Oxford, he coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, helped relieve his immense boredom at the university. Symptoms of the disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at Cambridge ; he lost his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head. Worried that he would lose his genius, he took the Mensa test to verify that his intellectual abilities were intact. The diagnosis of motor neurone disease came when Hawking was 21, shortly before his first marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two or three years. Hawking gradually lost the use of his arms, legs, and voice, and is now almost completely paralysed. During a visit to the research centre CERN in Geneva in 1985, Hawking contracted pneumonia. which in his condition was life-threatening as it further restricted his already limited respiratory capacity. He had an emergency tracheotomy. and as a result lost what remained of his ability to speak. He has since used an electronic voice synthesizer to communicate. The DECtalk DTC01 voice synthesizer he uses, which has an American accent, is no longer being produced. Asked why he has still kept it after so many years, Hawking mentioned that he has not heard a voice he likes better and that he identifies with it. Hawking is said to be looking for a replacement since, aside from being obsolete, the synthesizer is both large and fragile by modern standards. However, as of present, finding a workable software alternative has been difficult. In Hawking's many media appearances, he appears to speak fluently through his synthesizer, but in reality, creating the text is a tedious drawn-out process. Hawking's setup uses a predictive text entry system, which only requires the first few characters in order to auto-complete the word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data entry, constructing complete sentences takes time. His speeches are prepared in advance, but having a live conversation with him provides insight as to the complexity and work involved in his responses. During a TED talk, a posed question took 7 minutes to answer. [cite web|url=http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/242|title=Stephen Hawking: Asking big questions about the universe (Video time index 8:25)|publisher=TED Conferences, LLC|accessdate=2008-05-28 ]
Despite his disease, he describes himself as “lucky" – not only has the slow progress of his disease provided time to make influential discoveries, it has also afforded time to have, in his own words, “a very attractive family”. [cite web|url=http://www.hawking.org.uk/disable/dindex.html|title=My experience with ALS|publisher=Hawking, Stephen|accessdate=2008-05-19 ] When Jane was asked why she decided to marry a man with a 3-year life expectancy, she responded: “Those were the days of atomic gloom and doom, so we all had a rather short life expectancy."
* On 19 December 2007, a unique statue of Professor Stephen Hawking by renowned late artist Ian Walters was unveiled at Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Cambridge University. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2007122111|title=Vice-Chancellor unveils Hawking statue|publisher= University of Cambridge |date=2007-12-21 ]
* In May 2008 the statue of Hawking was unveiled at the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cape Town .
* The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador. El Salvador is named in honor of Stephen Hawking, citing his scientific distinction and perseverance in dealing with adversity. [cite journal|accessdate=2008-09-28|last=Komar|first=Oliver|coauthors=Linda Buechner|title=The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador Central America Honors the Fortitude of a Great Living Scientist|journal=Journal of College Science Teaching|volume=XXX|issue=2|date=October 2000|url=http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/5046/article.html ]
Hawking’s belief that the lay person should have access to his work led him to write a series of popular science books in addition to his academic work. The first of these, " A Brief History of Time ", was published on 1 April 1988 by Hawking, his family and friends, and some leading physicists. It surprisingly became a best-seller and was followed by " The Universe in a Nutshell " (2001). Both books have remained highly popular all over the world. A collection of essays titled "Black Holes and Baby Universes " (1993) was also popular. His most recent book, "A Briefer History of Time " (2005), co-written by Leonard Mlodinow. aims to update his earlier works and make them accessible to an even wider audience. He and his daughter, Lucy Hawking, have recently published a children’s book focusing on science that has been described to be “like " Harry Potter ", but without the magic.” This book is called "George’s Secret Key to the Universe" and includes information on Hawking radiation .
Hawking is also known for his wit ; he is famous for his oft-made statement, “When I hear of Schrödinger's cat. I reach for my pistol.” This was a deliberately ironic paraphrase of “Whenever I hear the word culture. I release the safety-catch of my Browning”, from the play "Schlageter" (Act 1, Scene 1) by German playwright and Nazi Poet Laureate, Hanns Johst. His wit has both entertained the non-specialist public and helped them to understand complex questions. Asked in October 2005 on the British daytime chat show Richard & Judy. to explain his assertion that the question “What came before the Big Bang ?” was meaningless, he compared it to asking “What lies north of the North Pole?”
Hawking is an active supporter of various causes. He appeared on a political broadcast for the United Kingdom’s Labour Party. and actively supports the children’s charity SOS Children's Villages UK. [cite web|url=http://www.soschildrensvillages.org.uk/sos-children-charity/our-friends.htm|publisher=SOS Children’s Villages|title=Our Friends|accessdate=2006-05-06 ]
* "Singularities in Collapsing Stars and Expanding Universes" with Dennis William Sciama. 1969 Comments on Astrophysics and Space Physics Vol 1 #1
* "The Nature of Space and Time" with Roger Penrose. foreword by Michael Atiyah. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-691-05084-8
* " The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime " with George Ellis. 1973 ISBN 0521099064
* "The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind", (with Abner Shimony, Nancy Cartwright, and Roger Penrose), Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-56330-5 (hardback), ISBN 0-521-65538-2 (paperback), Canto edition: ISBN 0-521-78572-3
* " [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0507171 Information Loss in Black Holes ] ", Cambridge University Press, 2005
*. Running Press, 2005 ISBN 0762419229
* " A Brief History of Time ", (Bantam Press 1988) ISBN 055305340X
* " Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays ", (Bantam Books 1993) ISBN 0553374117
* " The Universe in a Nutshell ", (Bantam Press 2001) ISBN 055380202X
* "On The Shoulders of Giants. The Great Works of Physics and Astronomy", (Running Press 2002) ISBN 076241698X
* "A Briefer History of Time ", (Bantam Books 2005) ISBN 0553804367
Footnote: On [http://www.hawking.org.uk Hawking’s website ]. he denounces the unauthorised publication of " The Theory of Everything " and asks consumers to be aware that he was not involved in its creation.
* " George's Secret Key to the Universe ", (Random House, 2008) ISBN 9780552559584
* Unnamed sequel
* "A Brief History of Time" (film)
* " Stephen Hawking's Universe "
* "Horizon. The Hawking Paradox" [Citation
title=The Hawking Paradox
publisher=Internet Movie Database
* " Masters of Science Fiction "
* [http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/article/?objid=44768 "Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe" ] A list of Hawking’s publications through the year 2002 is available on his [http://www.hawking.org.uk/ website ] .
Awards and honours
* 1975 Eddington Medal
* 1976 Hughes Medal of the Royal Society
* 1979 Albert Einstein Medal
* 1982 Order of the British Empire (Commander)
* 1985 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society
* 1986 Member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences
* 1988 Wolf Prize in Physics
* 1989 Prince of Asturias Awards in Concord
* 1989 Companion of Honour
* 1999 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society [Citation
title=Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize
publisher=American Physical Society
* 2003 Michelson Morley Award of Case Western Reserve University
* 2006 Copley Medal of the Royal Society [Citation
title=Oldest, space-travelled, science prize awarded to Hawking
date=24 August 2006
publisher=The Royal Society
Hawking has appeared as himself on many television shows. For example, he has played himself on a " Red Dwarf " anniversary special, played a hologram of himself on the episode "" of "", appeared in a skit on " Late Night with Conan O'Brien ", and appeared on the Discovery Channel special "Alien Planet". [cite web|url=http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0370071/|title=Stephen Hawking|publisher= Internet Movie Database |accessdate=2008-05-19 ]
He has also played himself in several episodes of " The Simpsons " and " Futurama ". When he was portrayed on episodes of " Family Guy ", the voice was actually done by a speech synthesizer on a Macintosh computer, according to DVD Commentary. He has also appeared in an episode of the " Dilbert " cartoon. His name is mentioned in the song " White & Nerdy " by "Weird Al" Yankovic. His actual synthesiser voice was used on parts of the Pink Floyd song " Keep Talking " from the 1994 album " The Division Bell ", as well as on Turbonegro ’s "Intro: The Party Zone" on their 2005 album "Party Animals ", Wolfsheim ’s "Kein Zurück (Oliver Pinelli Mix)". As well as being fictionalised as nerdcore hip hop artist MC Hawking. he was impersonated in duet with Richard Cheese on a cover of " The Girl Is Mine ".
In 2008, Hawking was the subject of and featured in the documentary series "Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe" for Channel 4. He was also portrayed in the movie " Superhero Movie " by Robert Joy.
In September 2008, Hawking presided over the unveiling of the 'Chronophage' Corpus Clock (time eating) clock at Corpus Christi College Cambridge. [http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/article/default.aspx?objid=51566 ]
In 2008, Hawking was featured in a commercial for Discovery Channel.
* General-audience description
* George Ellis
* Gravitational singularity
* Kip S. Thorne
* Space colonization
*cite book | author = Boslough, John | title=Stephen Hawking’s Universe | location=New York | publisher=Avon Books | year=1985 | id=ISBN 0-380-70763-2 A layman’s guide to Stephen Hawking.
*Ferguson, Kitty (1991). "Stephen Hawking: Quest For A Theory of Everything". Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-553-29895-X.
*. Highly influential in the field.
*. A much cited centennial survey.
* Clifford A. Pickover. "Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them", Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0195336115
* [http://www.hawking.org.uk/ Stephen Hawking’s web site ]
** [http://www.hawking.org.uk/disable/computer.html An overview of Hawking’s communication system ]
** [http://www.hawking.org.uk/text/disable/disable.html An overview of Hawking’s physical disability ]
* [http://cambridge.academia.edu/StephenHawking/ Stephen Hawking’s page on Academia.edu ]
* [http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/242 TED Talks: Stephen Hawking: Asking big questions about the universe ]
* [http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/html/id.phtml?id=78459 Hawking’s Students at the Mathematical Genealogy Project ] .
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1746000/1746912.stm "Hawking celebrates own brief history" ]. 7 January 2002, BBC
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3913145.stm "Black holes turned “inside out", 22 July 2004, BBC ]
* [http://www.counterbalance.net/intro/cosmohaw-frame.html Stephen Hawking’s concept of God ]
* [http://www.counterbalance.net/intro/cosmotime-frame.html The role of God within the no boundary cosmology and Imaginary time ]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/story/0,3605,1579180,00.html "Return of the time lord" ]. Interview about “A Brief History of Time”, 27 September 2005, The Guardian .
* [http://reason.com/0204/fe.gb.leaping.shtml “Leaping the Abyss” ]. interview in "Reason " by Gregory Benford
* [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13340672/ Stephen Hawking touches on God and science – Physicist says Pope John Paul told scientists not to study universe’s origins ] msnbc. com 15 June 2006
** [http://web.archive.org/web/20060720200605/http://www.catholicleague.org/06press_releases/quarter+2/060616_Hawking.htm Press Release from the Catholic League on misquote of Pope by Hawking ]
* [http://www.asiaing.com/stephen-hawking-why-we-should-go-into-space.html Stephen Hawking: "Why We Should Go Into Space" ]
* [http://www.maniacworld.com/Stephen-Hawking.htm Stephen Hawking – discussion of two views of the universe ] Video
* [http://hayadan.org.il/english/2006/12/14/professor-stephen-hawking-in-israel/ Transcript of Stephen Hawking’s lecture “The Origin Of The Universe” in the Hebrew University In Jerusalem ]. 14 December 2006
* [http://www.hawking.org.uk/lectures/public.html Public Lectures ]. including debate with Roger Penrose
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Hawking, Stephen William
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Theoretical physicist
DATE OF BIRTH=8 January 1942
PLACE OF BIRTH= Oxford. England
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=