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Essay On The Federalist Party Splits

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Federalist Party Essay, Research Paper

“Seldom in the nation’s history has there been a period so extraordinary in accomplishment as the first decade under the Constitution….”

This paper is going to be a step by step evaluation of arguably the most important decade in American History. The time period covered in this paper is 1789-1801. These are the years in which the Federalists had the most influence in the new government. They accomplished an amazing amount in these 12 years.

The Federalist Party was one of the first political organizations in the United States. The members of this party supported a strong central government, a large peacetime army and navy, and a stable financial system.

Although the first president, George Washington, was not a Federalist, his Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, was the developer and leader of the Federalist party. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution so that the central government could become more powerful. Also Hamilton, along with the other party members, believed that commerce and manufacturing were more important than agriculture.

During the first two years of the new federal government the biggest problem was that of raising money. At first the Congress adopted a small tariff on imports. This was a start but not nearly enough. The government needed this money to maintain its own existence and to be able to pay of the debt. The existence of the government was a necessity, but there was a lot of discussion as to whether the debt should be payed off.

The mare magnitude of the debt seemed to compel some measure of avoidance. In 1789, the national debt totaled more than $50 million, $11,700,000 of which was owed to France and Spain and the private bankers of Netherlands, while $40 million was in the form of securities held by citizens of the United States. The interests owed to the bankers were being payed off by loans from the bankers themselves. The government didn’t even have enough money to pay the Barbary corsairs for release of captive sailors!

When Congress couldn’t come up with a solution that was satisfactory, they turned to Alexander Hamilton with the dilemma. He soon proceeded to draw up a full report entitled “Report on Public Credit.” In this paper Hamilton proceeded to show that the only way for a new government to establish credit was to deal honestly with its creditors -for in many cases they would be the people to whom the government must look to for future loans.

This policy received strong opposition from Madison and other soon to become Republicans (second political party in America). The federalists held strongly, but only with the passing of the Assumption Bill (movement of capital more toward the South) where they able to pass the bill.

This achievement was significant, but lacked two things which would be necessary to carry it out. For one it lacked a circulating medium, and two it lacked a central bank. Hamilton then proposed a remedy. He wanted to establish a corporation that was to be called the Bank of the United States. This bank was to serve as the principle depository for government funds. It was also to serve as the issuer of bank notes.

This was a loose interpretation of the constitution. Again Madison led the opposition to no avail. But Hamilton held strongly to his belief that even the most uncompromising opponent of the bank “would, in one month’s experience as head of that department of the treasury, be compelled to acknowledge that it is an absolutely indispensable engine in the management of the finances, and would quickly become a convert to its perfect constitutionality.” This plan favored the central government.

The bank made little banks, who couldn’t compete, go out of business. The rich ended up being able to buy a part in the bank and so got richer, and the poor and middle class didn’t get the benefits. The central government was becoming self sufficient, and less dependent on the states.

What Hamilton did is make the nation stronger in the eyes of other nations. This is a great accomplishment. If the Federalists (they didn’t call themselves that until 1792) weren’t in power the nation would have been weaker and more decentralized.

There were three views on the French Revolution and the French-British war in 1793. Jefferson’s followers favored France. They wanted to abide by the treaty America signed with France in 1788. They thought it was the right thing to do.

Hamilton’s followers favored Great Britain. They wanted to develop better relations with great Britain for economic reasons. They sought to break all the relations with the new French government and to ally America with England.

The third view was the one taken by George Washington. He realized that a war with England on the side of the French would be suicidal, but at the same time he didn’t want America to be known as the nation that breaks treaties. George Washington proclaimed that America will be neutral. He forbade any American citizen from helping any warring nation.

Without the Federalists there to oppose a war with England America might have been wiped out. The Federalists were looking out for the best interest of the country at the expense of another nation. George Washington who didn’t belong to any party decided not to follow either view.

Downfall of the Federalists

During John Adams’ tenure as president the Federalists passed several laws which made them unpopular in the eyes of the American public. These laws made the people upset enough not to reelect most of the Federalists that were in Congress. This was the last term in which the federalists were influential. It is important to state these laws and why they passed them.

The Federalists had become more favorable toward France and the Republicans started despising France, especially after the insulting X Y Z affair. Adams was favoring France as he tried to keep the nation out of war with France. He secured peace once Napoleon came into power in 1799.

The resentment of the population toward France jeopardized this treaty. The Federalist majority in Congress decided to pass the Alien and sedition acts in order to weaken the supporters of war with France (mainly the Republicans). Adams himself was against these laws. These measures were hated. Some of the extreme measures taken to combat them were the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. These measures tried to say that the laws were unconstitutional.

When the time of the next election came the people of the nation had a choice of either maintaining the ways of the Federalists or vote for Jefferson and the republicans. The people, who were mostly farmers at the time, saw the threat to the common man’s rights and so they voted Jefferson and other Republicans into office.

This was probably the only thing that the federalist ever really messed up. They made the country strong but then went too far and people took them out of the national picture. The federalist party would never see such strong days again. Its power dwindled down slowly until the party vanished from the national picture in 1816.

Federalists after 1801

Although no longer influential in Congress the federalist remained in control in several states. Some states had federalists in office as far down as 1820. This wasn’t though what kept the federalist ideals in America.

John Marshall, chief justice of supreme court, began his tenure in 1801. Justice Marshall was a steadfast Federalist. He maintained the Federalist ways long after the party seized to exist. Decision after decision chief Marshall declared the central government supreme to the state. He stretched the constitution far in seeing that the states yield rights to the federal government. He maintained this for 34 years, shaping the loose collection of states into a solid National Union.

Another way that the Federalist ideals were maintained comes from their opponents. Upon gaining control of the Congress and Presidency the Democratic-Republicans maintained most of the programs set up by the Federalists. The alien and sedition laws were repealed and everyone arrested under them was let go, but other than that the central government maintained the control gained under the federalists, relinquishing little. The Republicans even strengthened the federal government on occasion. By buying Louisiana Jefferson extended the abilities of the central government.

The years under George Washington and John Adams constitute a record of accomplishments not met since. The Federalists followed Hamilton’s counsel to ‘think continentally.” A federal judiciary was established, the taxing power was used, the national debt was handled, American credit was fixed, and territory was cleared of the British and Spanish populations.

In foreign affairs America gained respect. Neutrality was maintained, at the price of the French alliance and concessions with Britain. The objective of the foreign policy was survival. The objective was met.

The Federalist did a great job starting up the country. After all, many of the leaders including John Adams and George Washington thought that the Union would not last past their lifetimes. The “experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people”, as said President Washington, turned out very well. Just look at the power America has today.

Other articles

Federalist Party

Federalist Party

“Seldom in the nation’s history has there been a period so extraordinary in accomplishment as the first decade under the Constitution….”

This paper is going to be a step by step evaluation of arguably the most important decade in American History. The time period covered in this paper is 1789-1801. These are the years in which the Federalists had the most influence in the new government. They accomplished an amazing amount in these 12 years.

The Federalist Party was one of the first political organizations in the United States. The members of this party supported a strong central government, a large peacetime army and navy, and a stable financial system.

Although the first president. George Washington. was not a Federalist. his Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton. was the developer and leader of the Federalist party. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution so that the central government could become more powerful. Also Hamilton, along with the other party members, believed that commerce and manufacturing were more important than agriculture.

During the first two years of the new federal government the biggest problem was that of raising money. At first the Congress adopted a small tariff on imports. This was a start but not nearly enough. The government needed this money to maintain its own existence and to be able to pay of the debt. The existence of the government was a necessity, but there was a lot of discussion as to whether the debt should be payed off.

The mare magnitude of the debt seemed to compel some measure of avoidance. In 1789, the national debt totaled more than $50 million. $11,700,000 of which was owed to France and Spain and the private bankers of Netherlands, while $40 million was in the form of securities held by citizens of the United States. The interests owed to the bankers were being payed off by loans from the bankers themselves. The government didn’t even have enough money to pay the Barbary corsairs for release of captive sailors!

When Congress couldn’t come up with a solution that was satisfactory, they turned to Alexander Hamilton with the dilemma. He soon proceeded to draw up a full report entitled “Report on Public Credit.” In this paper Hamilton proceeded to show that the only way for a new government to establish credit was to deal honestly with its creditors -for in many cases they would be the people to whom the government must look to for future loans.

This policy received strong opposition from Madison and other soon to become Republicans (second political party in America ). The federalists held strongly, but only with the passing of the Assumption Bill (movement of capital more toward the South ) where they able to pass the bill.

This achievement was significant, but lacked two things which would be necessary to carry it out. For one it lacked a circulating medium, and two it lacked a central bank. Hamilton then proposed a remedy. He wanted to establish a corporation that was to be called the Bank of the United States. This bank was to serve as the principle depository for government funds. It was also to serve as the issuer of bank notes.

This was a loose interpretation of the constitution. Again Madison led the opposition to no avail. But Hamilton held strongly to his belief that even the most uncompromising opponent of the bank “would, in one month’s experience as head of that department of the treasury, be compelled to acknowledge that it is an absolutely indispensable engine in the management of the finances. and would quickly become a convert to its perfect constitutionality.” This plan favored the central government.

The bank made little banks, who couldn’t compete, go out of business. The rich ended up being able to buy a part in the bank and so got richer, and the poor and middle class didn’t get the benefits. The central government was becoming self sufficient, and less dependent on the states.

What Hamilton did is make the nation stronger in the eyes of other nations. This is a great accomplishment. If the Federalists (they didn’t call themselves that until 1792) weren’t in power the nation would have been weaker and more decentralized.

There were three views on the French Revolution and the French-British war in 1793. Jefferson’s followers favored France. They wanted to abide by the treaty America signed with France in 1788. They thought it was the right thing to do.

Hamilton’s followers favored Great Britain. They wanted to develop better relations with great Britain for economic reasons. They sought to break all the relations with the new French government and to ally America with England.

The third view was the one taken by George Washington. He realized that a war with England on the side of the French would be suicidal. but at the same time he didn’t want America to be known as the nation that breaks treaties. George Washington proclaimed that America will be neutral. He forbade any American citizen from helping any warring nation.

Without the Federalists there to oppose a war with England America might have been wiped out. The Federalists were looking out for the best interest of the country at the expense of another nation. George Washington who didn’t belong to any party decided not to follow either view.

Downfall of the Federalists

During John Adams’ tenure as president the Federalists passed several laws which made them unpopular in the eyes of the American public. These laws made the people upset enough not to reelect most of the Federalists that were in Congress. This was the last term in which the federalists were influential. It is important to state these laws and why they passed them.

The Federalists had become more favorable toward France and the Republicans started despising France, especially after the insulting X Y Z affair. Adams was favoring France as he tried to keep the nation out of war with France. He secured peace once Napoleon came into power in 1799.

The resentment of the population toward France jeopardized this treaty. The Federalist majority in Congress decided to pass the Alien and sedition acts in order to weaken the supporters of war with France (mainly the Republicans ). Adams himself was against these laws. These measures were hated. Some of the extreme measures taken to combat them were the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. These measures tried to say that the laws were unconstitutional.

When the time of the next election came the people of the nation had a choice of either maintaining the ways of the Federalists or vote for Jefferson and the republicans. The people, who were mostly farmers at the time, saw the threat to the common man’s rights and so they voted Jefferson and other Republicans into office.

This was probably the only thing that the federalist ever really messed up. They made the country strong but then went too far and people took them out of the national picture. The federalist party would never see such strong days again. Its power dwindled down slowly until the party vanished from the national picture in 1816.

Federalists after 1801

Although no longer influential in Congress the federalist remained in control in several states. Some states had federalists in office as far down as 1820. This wasn’t though what kept the federalist ideals in America.

John Marshall, chief justice of supreme court. began his tenure in 1801. Justice Marshall was a steadfast Federalist. He maintained the Federalist ways long after the party seized to exist. Decision after decision chief Marshall declared the central government supreme to the state. He stretched the constitution far in seeing that the states yield rights to the federal government. He maintained this for 34 years, shaping the loose collection of states into a solid National Union.

Another way that the Federalist ideals were maintained comes from their opponents. Upon gaining control of the Congress and Presidency the Democratic-Republicans maintained most of the programs set up by the Federalists. The alien and sedition laws were repealed and everyone arrested under them was let go, but other than that the central government maintained the control gained under the federalists, relinquishing little. The Republicans even strengthened the federal government on occasion. By buying Louisiana Jefferson extended the abilities of the central government.

The years under George Washington and John Adams constitute a record of accomplishments not met since. The Federalists followed Hamilton’s counsel to ‘think continentally.” A federal judiciary was established, the taxing power was used, the national debt was handled, American credit was fixed, and territory was cleared of the British and Spanish populations.

In foreign affairs America gained respect. Neutrality was maintained, at the price of the French alliance and concessions with Britain. The objective of the foreign policy was survival. The objective was met.

The Federalist did a great job starting up the country. After all, many of the leaders including John Adams and George Washington thought that the Union would not last past their lifetimes. The “experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people”, as said President Washington, turned out very well. Just look at the power America has today.

American Parties From The Civil War Essay

This essay conains American party systems

from the end of George Washington?s first term as president through the

Civil War. Included are the creations, the building up of, and sometimes

the break down of the various parties. As well as the belief in which the

parties stood for.

The Origins of the Democratic Party

In colonial politics tended to organize

and electioneer in opposition to the policies of royal, mercantile, banking,

manufacturing, and shipping interests. Agrarian interests later become

a principal source of support for the Democratic Party. Many of the colonies

had so-called Country parties opposing the Court parties in the 18th century.

Before the end of the first administration

of George Washington in 1793, party alignments of national consequence

began to form. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton was the master

politician of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson,

with help from his fellow Virginian, Representative James Madison, began

the first respectable opposition in national affairs. They were called

the Democratic-Republican Party, also known as the Jeffersonians. Jefferson

spoke about the interests of farmers, veterans, and urban immigrants and

was in favor of minimum government, maximum liberty, alliance with France,

and easy credit for debtors. In 1792 he and Madison allied with New York’s

Governor George Clinton, creating the first political coalition between

Northern and Southern politicians.

After Jefferson?s reelection of

1804, Federalist strength tended to decline everywhere except in New England.

The majority of practicing politicians, mostly those in the new states

of the West, called themselves Jeffersonians. New issues associated with

the economic development of the West and the growing number of urban workers

in the East demanded attention. The administrations (1817-25) of James

Monroe were referred to as the Era of Good Feelings, meaning that there

were no real party divisions; in fact, the Jeffersonians dominated the

This situation ended with a split

among the Democratic- Republicans in 1824.

This American political party was founded

around Thomas Jefferson and opposed to Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists.

The party emphasized personal liberty and the limitation of federal government.

Originally called Democratic Republicans, they were called Democrats by

1828. Backed by a coalition of Southern agrarians and Northern city dwellers.

Jefferson was elected president in 1800, and the Democrats held the presidency

until 1825. A radical group of Democrats led by Andrew Jackson won the

elections of 1828 and 1832, but arguments over slavery created and deepened

splits within the party, and the Civil War destroyed it. The party revived

after the disputed election of 1876. With the nomination in 1896 of W.

J. Bryan on a Free Silver platform, the radicals again gained control,

but Bryan’s defeat pointed out the difficulty of reconciling the party’s

The Federalist Party is a name that was

originally applied to the advocates of ratification of the Constitution

of the United States of 1787. Later, however, it came to designate supporters

of the presidential administrations of George Washington and John Adams

and especially supporters of the financial policies of Treasury Secretary

Until 1795, the Federalists were not a

political organization in any modern sense. Federalism was a frame of mind,

a set of attitudes that included belief in a strong and activist central

government, public credit, the promotion of commerce and industry, and

strict neutrality in the French Revolutionary Wars. Opposition arose on

all these points and became largely organized around James Madison and

Thomas Jefferson. Federalists began to adopt the tactics of the opposition

Democratic-Republicans in response to attacks

on Jay’s Treaty with Britain (1794). Although parties were widely regarded

as inimical to free government, and although Washington, Hamilton, and

Adams deplored their rise (together with the tendency toward a North versus

South and pro-British versus pro-French polarization of political opinion),

parties were an established fact by the presidential election of 1796.

While Adams was president, the Federalists

attempted to stifle dissent by the Alien and Sedition Act (1798). These,

however, had the effect of stiffening the opposition at the time when the

Federalists themselves were splitting into “High” and “Low” wings over

the issue of the XYZ Affair and the ensuing Quasi-War with France. By the

election of 1800, therefore, the Democratic-Republicans gained control

of the federal government. The death of Washington in 1799 and of Hamilton

in 1804 left the Federalists without a powerful leader, and they seemed

unfit at the highly organized and popular politics of the Democratic-Republicans.

Although the party continued to have strength in New England, expressing

the opposition of commercial interests to the Embargo Act of 1807 and the

War of 1812. it never made a comeback on the national level. After the

Hartford Convention of 1815, the Federalists were a dying anachronism.

The Republican Party

Many believe that the origins of this

party grew out of the conflicts about the expansion of slavery into the

new Western territories. The passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

provided the motive for political realignment. That law repealed earlier

compromises that did not allowed slavery in the territories. The passing

of this act served as the unifying factor for abolitionists and split the

Democrats and the Whig party. “Anti-Nebraska” protest meetings spread rapidly

through the country. Two such meetings were held in Ripon, Wis. on Feb.

28 and Mar. 20, 1854. These meetings were attended by a group of abolitionist

Free Soilers, Democrats, and Whigs. They decided to call themselves Republicans–because

they declared to be political descendants of Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-

The new party was a success from the beginning.

In the 1854 congressional elections, 44 Republicans were elected as a part

of the anti-Nebraskan majority in the House of Representatives. Plus, several

Republicans were elected to the Senate and to various state houses. In

1856, at the first Republican national convention, Sen. John C. Fremont

was nominated for the presidency but was defeated by Democrat James Buchanan.

During the campaign the northern branch of the

NOW-NOTHING PARTY split off and endorsed

the Republican ticket, making the Republicans the chief antislavery party.

Two days after the inauguration of James

Buchanan, the Supreme Court handed down the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision,

which increased sectional dissension and was exposed by the Republicans.

At this time the nation was also gripped by economic chaos. Business blamed

tariff reductions, and Republican leaders called for greater tariff protection.

The split in the Democratic party over the issue of slavery continued,

and in 1858 the Republicans won control of the House of Representatives

for the first time.

National Republican Party

A short-lived U.S. political party formed

to oppose Andrew Jackson in the 1832 presidential election. Favoring high

tariffs and a national bank, the party nominated Henry Clay. Clay was badly

defeated, and by 1836 the National Republicans had joined with other anti-Jackson

forces to form the Whig party.

This party was one of the two dominant

political parties in the U.S. during the second quarter of the 19th century.

It grew out of the National Republican Party and several smaller groups.

Created primarily to oppose Andrew Jackson’s Democratic Party, it was troubled

by disagreement from the beginning and was never able to be a unified,

positive party position. Daniel Webster and Henry Clay were its great leaders,

representing the Northern Whigs and the Southern Cotton Whigs. In 1840

they were able to unify behind a popular military hero, W. H. Harrison,

as a presidential candidate. He was elected but died after only a month

in office. His successor, John Tyler, quickly alienated the Whig leaders

in Congress and was read out of the party. In 1848, the Whigs elected another

military hero, Zachary Taylor. He too died in office but his successor,

Millard Fillmore, remained a loyal party man. The party was already disintegrating

chiefly over the issue of slavery. The Free-Soil Party and its inheritor,

the Republican Party, gained most of the Northern Whigs. The Cotton Whigs

went into the Democratic party. In 1852 Gen. Winfield Scott was the last

Whig presidential candidate.

The party was a U.S. political party in

the mid-19th century. The increased immigration of the 1840s had resulted

in focus of Roman Catholic immigrants in the Eastern cities. The Democrats

welcomed them, but local nativist societies were formed to attack foreign

influences and maintain the American view. The American Republican Party,

formed in 1843 in New York, spread to neighboring states as the Native

American party and became a national party in 1845. Many secret orders

sprang up, and when outsiders made interrogations of supposed members,

they were answered with a statement that the person knew nothing, which

is why members were called Know-Nothings. The Know-Nothings sought to elect

only native Americans to office and to require 25 years of residence for

citizenship. In 1855, they adopted the name American party and dropped

much of their secrecy. The issue of slavery, however, split the party,

and many antislavery members joined the new Republican Party.

This party, an American political party

expressing the agrarian protest of the late 19th century, formed when farmers

suffered from declining agricultural prices. Many believed that the federal

government’s currency policy favored Eastern banks and industrialists at

the expense of farmers and workers. Members from farm and labor groups

met at Omaha in 1892 and formed the Populist Party. Its platform called

for the free coinage of silver and plenty of paper money. The Populist

presidential candidate, James B. Weaver, won more than 1 million votes

in the 1892 election. But after the Democrats adopted free coinage of silver

and ran William J. Bryan for president in 1896, and agrarian attack had

declined, more or less as the result of rising farm prices, the Populist

party dissolved. In some states the party was known as the People’s party.

This party was a U.S. political party

born in 1847-48 to oppose the extension of slavery into territories newly

gained from Mexico. In 1848, the Free-Soil party ran Martin Van Buren and

C.F. Adams for president and vice president. After the Compromise of 1850

seemed to settle, the slavery-extension issue, the group known as the BARNBURNERS

left the Free-Soilers to return to the Democratic Party. But radicals kept

the Free-Soil party alive until 1854, when the new Republican Party absorbed

Concluded is knowledgable information about

what the several politcal parties belived in, who created them, even why

they might not have lasted. These different and sometimes similiar parties

range from the end of George Washington?s first term through the Civil

Реферат: American Parties From The Civil War Essay - Сайт рефератов, докладов, сочинений, дипломных и

American Parties From The Civil War Essay

This essay conains American party systems

from the end of George Washington?s first term as president through the

Civil War. Included are the creations the building up of and sometimes

the break down of the various parties. As well as the belief in which the

parties stood for.

The Origins of the Democratic Party

In colonial politics tended to organize

and electioneer in opposition to the policies of royal mercantile banking

manufacturing and shipping interests. Agrarian interests later become

a principal source of support for the Democratic Party. Many of the colonies

had so-called Country parties opposing the Court parties in the 18th century.

Before the end of the first administration

of George Washington in 1793 party alignments of national consequence

began to form. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton was the master

politician of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson

with help from his fellow Virginian Representative James Madison began

the first respectable opposition in national affairs. They were called

the Democratic-Republican Party also known as the Jeffersonians. Jefferson

spoke about the interests of farmers veterans and urban immigrants and

was in favor of minimum government maximum liberty alliance with France

and easy credit for debtors. In 1792 he and Madison allied with New York’s

Governor George Clinton creating the first political coalition between

Northern and Southern politicians.

After Jefferson?s reelection of

1804 Federalist strength tended to decline everywhere except in New England.

The majority of practicing politicians mostly those in the new states

of the West called themselves Jeffersonians. New issues associated with

the economic development of the West and the growing number of urban workers

in the East demanded attention. The administrations (1817-25) of James

Monroe were referred to as the Era of Good Feelings meaning that there

were no real party divisions; in fact the Jeffersonians dominated the

This situation ended with a split

among the Democratic- Republicans in 1824.

This American political party was founded

around Thomas Jefferson and opposed to Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists.

The party emphasized personal liberty and the limitation of federal government.

Originally called Democratic Republicans they were called Democrats by

1828. Backed by a coalition of Southern agrarians and Northern city dwellers.

Jefferson was elected president in 1800 and the Democrats held the presidency

until 1825. A radical group of Democrats led by Andrew Jackson won the

elections of 1828 and 1832 but arguments over slavery created and deepened

splits within the party and the Civil War destroyed it. The party revived

after the disputed election of 1876. With the nomination in 1896 of W.

J. Bryan on a Free Silver platform the radicals again gained control

but Bryan’s defeat pointed out the difficulty of reconciling the party’s

The Federalist Party is a name that was

originally applied to the advocates of ratification of the Constitution

of the United States of 1787. Later however it came to designate supporters

of the presidential administrations of George Washington and John Adams

and especially supporters of the financial policies of Treasury Secretary

Until 1795 the Federalists were not a

political organization in any modern sense. Federalism was a frame of mind

a set of attitudes that included belief in a strong and activist central

government public credit the promotion of commerce and industry and

strict neutrality in the French Revolutionary Wars. Opposition arose on

all these points and became largely organized around James Madison and

Thomas Jefferson. Federalists began to adopt the tactics of the opposition

Democratic-Republicans in response to attacks

on Jay’s Treaty with Britain (1794). Although parties were widely regarded

as inimical to free government and although Washington Hamilton and

Adams deplored their rise (together with the tendency toward a North versus

South and pro-British versus pro-French polarization of political opinion)

parties were an established fact by the presidential election of 1796.

While Adams was president the Federalists

attempted to stifle dissent by the Alien and Sedition Act (1798). These

however had the effect of stiffening the opposition at the time when the

Federalists themselves were splitting into “High” and “Low” wings over

the issue of the XYZ Affair and the ensuing Quasi-War with France. By the

election of 1800 therefore the Democratic-Republicans gained control

of the federal government. The death of Washington in 1799 and of Hamilton

in 1804 left the Federalists without a powerful leader and they seemed

unfit at the highly organized and popular politics of the Democratic-Republicans.

Although the party continued to have strength in New England expressing

the opposition of commercial interests to the Embargo Act of 1807 and the

War of 1812 it never made a comeback on the national level. After the

Hartford Convention of 1815 the Federalists were a dying anachronism.

The Republican Party

Many believe that the origins of this

party grew out of the conflicts about the expansion of slavery into the

new Western territories. The passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

provided the motive for political realignment. That law repealed earlier

compromises that did not allowed slavery in the territories. The passing

of this act served as the unifying factor for abolitionists and split the

Democrats and the Whig party. “Anti-Nebraska” protest meetings spread rapidly

through the country. Two such meetings were held in Ripon Wis. on Feb.

28 and Mar. 20 1854. These meetings were attended by a group of abolitionist

Free Soilers Democrats and Whigs. They decided to call themselves Republicans–because

they declared to be political descendants of Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-

The new party was a success from the beginning.

In the 1854 congressional elections 44 Republicans were elected as a part

of the anti-Nebraskan majority in the House of Representatives. Plus several

Republicans were elected to the Senate and to various state houses. In

1856 at the first Republican national convention Sen. John C. Fremont

was nominated for the presidency but was defeated by Democrat James Buchanan.

During the campaign the northern branch of the

NOW-NOTHING PARTY split off and endorsed

the Republican ticket making the Republicans the chief antislavery party.

Two days after the inauguration of James

Buchanan the Supreme Court handed down the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision

which increased sectional dissension and was exposed by the Republicans.

At this time the nation was also gripped by economic chaos. Business blamed

tariff reductions and Republican leaders called for greater tariff protection.

The split in the Democratic party over the issue of slavery continued

and in 1858 the Republicans won control of the House of Representatives

for the first time.

National Republican Party

A short-lived U.S. political party formed

to oppose Andrew Jackson in the 1832 presidential election. Favoring high

tariffs and a national bank the party nominated Henry Clay. Clay was badly

defeated and by 1836 the National Republicans had joined with other anti-Jackson

forces to form the Whig party.

This party was one of the two dominant

political parties in the U.S. during the second quarter of the 19th century.

It grew out of the National Republican Party and several smaller groups.

Created primarily to oppose Andrew Jackson’s Democratic Party it was troubled

by disagreement from the beginning and was never able to be a unified

positive party position. Daniel Webster and Henry Clay were its great leaders

representing the Northern Whigs and the Southern Cotton Whigs. In 1840

they were able to unify behind a popular military hero W. H. Harrison

as a presidential candidate. He was elected but died after only a month

in office. His successor John Tyler quickly alienated the Whig leaders

in Congress and was read out of the party. In 1848 the Whigs elected another

military hero Zachary Taylor. He too died in office but his successor

Millard Fillmore remained a loyal party man. The party was already disintegrating

chiefly over the issue of slavery. The Free-Soil Party and its inheritor

the Republican Party gained most of the Northern Whigs. The Cotton Whigs

went into the Democratic party. In 1852 Gen. Winfield Scott was the last

Whig presidential candidate.

The party was a U.S. political party in

the mid-19th century. The increased immigration of the 1840s had resulted

in focus of Roman Catholic immigrants in the Eastern cities. The Democrats

welcomed them but local nativist societies were formed to attack foreign

influences and maintain the American view. The American Republican Party

formed in 1843 in New York spread to neighboring states as the Native

American party and became a national party in 1845. Many secret orders

sprang up and when outsiders made interrogations of supposed members

they were answered with a statement that the person knew nothing which

is why members were called Know-Nothings. The Know-Nothings sought to elect

only native Americans to office and to require 25 years of residence for

citizenship. In 1855 they adopted the name American party and dropped

much of their secrecy. The issue of slavery however split the party

and many antislavery members joined the new Republican Party.

This party an American political party

expressing the agrarian protest of the late 19th century formed when farmers

suffered from declining agricultural prices. Many believed that the federal

government’s currency policy favored Eastern banks and industrialists at

the expense of farmers and workers. Members from farm and labor groups

met at Omaha in 1892 and formed the Populist Party. Its platform called

for the free coinage of silver and plenty of paper money. The Populist

presidential candidate James B. Weaver won more than 1 million votes

in the 1892 election. But after the Democrats adopted free coinage of silver

and ran William J. Bryan for president in 1896 and agrarian attack had

declined more or less as the result of rising farm prices the Populist

party dissolved. In some states the party was known as the People’s party.

This party was a U.S. political party

born in 1847-48 to oppose the extension of slavery into territories newly

gained from Mexico. In 1848 the Free-Soil party ran Martin Van Buren and

C.F. Adams for president and vice president. After the Compromise of 1850

seemed to settle the slavery-extension issue the group known as the BARNBURNERS

left the Free-Soilers to return to the Democratic Party. But radicals kept

the Free-Soil party alive until 1854 when the new Republican Party absorbed

Concluded is knowledgable information about

what the several politcal parties belived in who created them even why

they might not have lasted. These different and sometimes similiar parties

range from the end of George Washington?s first term through the Civil

Civil Liberties Essay, Research Paper Civil Liberties The term civil liberties refers to the “freedoms that individuals enjoy and that governments cannot invade”. These rights include a persons freedom of speech and religion.

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In many lands across the world political parties has often taken a drastic and violent turn. Groups defected at the polls have resorted to violent terms of action to advane their cause. The stroy of political parties in the United States is both brief and peaceful.

Essay, Research Paper I believe that the Whigs and Federalists, although historically represented as distinct parties, in fact shared common political ideology, represented many of the same interest groups and proposed similar programs and policies. Although there were some differences.

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Paper American Civil Religion and Politics My major area of study is Political Science, and even if you haven’t majored in political studies you know that there are few things left untouched by politics. Religion, of course, is no exception. Issues concerning religion are some of the most hotly contested topics in politics today.

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Resolved: Independent third parties are vital in the American political system. Independent third parties are political parties that are not aligned with

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Research Paper The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Where do you go if someone is threatening your personal rights? Do you go to the police, or maybe to the government? What if the police and government

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