The Science And Art Of Nursing Essay, Research Paper
My paper discusses the goals of nursing by taking a look at two important aspects which make up the nursing profession, science and art. It talks about the importance of nursing science and knowledge, and the significant role they have for the future development of the nursing profession. This paper also takes a look at the art aspect of nursing. The art of nursing is a holistic view, which looks at caring for all facets of that individual whether they are mental, physical or spiritual. On top of this, the art of nursing also takes into account the nurses ability to remaining open minded towards patients and the important relationships nurses’ hold with clients.
The goal of nursing is to ” assist persons to achieve their optimum level of health in situations of normal health, illness, injury, or in the process of dying” (Canadian Nurses Association, 1998, pp.8). This goal can only be achieved in the nursing profession by the coming together of the two segments of health care; science and art. Nursing as a science involves the technological and research aspect of patient care. The art of nursing is a more holistic view and takes into account all the patients mental, physical and spiritual needs. This includes things like caring, being open-minded and having a strong relationship with the client no matter what differences in perspective or point of view lay between the nurse and the client.
Nursing as a Science
Knowledge is fundamental in the growth of any discipline. Talbot’s work (as cited in Potter, Perry, 1997) states that knowledge is information, and discovery is the creative process of obtaining new knowledge. A body of knowledge is the collaboration of ideas, which included in the knowledge base, is research and experience. Research is used to scientifically prove theories as well as to discredit others. Personal experience may bring upon research and increase the body of knowledge. An example of this can be seen with common dish soap and a catheter. Through personal experience and research, it has been found that using dish detergent to clean the apparatus can be equally as effective as using a much more costly disinfectant. Since nurses have started to do research, they have begun to build their own body of knowledge, instead of borrowing that knowledge from others (Leddy, 1998). Research and experience in the nursing field has allowed for the evolution of the profession. The more knowledge base an idea has, the more support it will receive.
According to Meleis (1997), nurses use knowledge of human responses to health and illness in the healing process. Meleis (1997) states that the nurses uses this knowledge in the promoting or health, to help in caring for the patient, to help the patient learn to care for themselves, and to help empower the client, teaching them to use available resources.
Research in any profession is important in the development of future ideas and techniques. According to Phillips (2000) interpretation of Rogers, nurse researchers need to look into the unknown aspects of nursing to create unifies principles and theories, which are essential in education as well as in practice. Philips (2000) also discusses Rogers idea that “nursing science is the prerequisite to the process of nursing” (Philips, 2000, pp198). This statement shows the importance of scientific research and the necessity for it before nursing science, knowledge, or practice can benefit.
Nursing as an art
The art of nursing and holistic health are very closely related. They both consider what is best for all aspects of the patients’ health, and are directed at specifically helping to solve those problems. According to Potter and Perry (1997) holistic health is becoming so popular because of the belief that comfort affects personal physical and mental functionality, and are considered to be an important part in an individuals wellness. Holistic health looks at all aspects of a person’s wellness, and the nurse is responsible to assess the need of the individual and to make sure that all these needs are met. Doing this requires caring, being able to remain open minded towards the patient, and being able to have a relationship with the client.
“Caring is a mutual exchange in which both parties relate on the level of their shared humanness, and both learn from each other.” (Montgomery, 1993, p.33) This caring as Montgomery has described it is essential for all individuals in feeling loved. Love has a substantial impact on the way in which we interpret our health, and how we view our wellness. A person who feels loves, and has someone to share that love with is going to heal quicker than a person whom is left to themselves and forced to take on the entire battle placed in from of them with no additional help. It is for this reason that caring requires two things, compassion and competence.
According to Roach (1998), compassion is the ability of the nurse to listen and feel what the patient is saying without using judgment. It is a way for which the nurse can become closer with the patient without invading the patients’ privacy. Compassion is a skill, which can not be taught or learned, only known. The nurse must have this quality from the beginning or he/she will never posses it (Roach, 1998). Compassion is important in caring because people are able to recognize this quality, and usually respond to the gentleness. The second quality required in caring is competence. According to Roach (1998) competence is the ability to show the patient your understanding of the skills involved in nursing. This skill is so important because it is very difficult for a patient to open up to a nurse which they do not have confidence in. A patient may have a hard time connecting with a nurse who is incapable of simple tasks such as changing dressings or giving a bed bath.
Being able to have a relationship with a client is extremely important in the healing process. Simple communication can make a world of difference to someone possibly going through the most challenging aspect of his or her life. For a strong relationship to develop between the nurse and the patient, commitment is essential. Commitment is the meeting between “one’s desires and one’s obligations ‘(Roach, 1998, pp.65). Commitment is so important in the relationship because without it, the patient will feel uncared for, and will thus have a hard time relating to the nurse. Things as simple as a back rub before a patient goes to bed can show the nurses commitment towards the patient and help develop the relationship from both sides. Something further required in having a healthy relationship with a client is the ability to remain open minded towards the client. To not make harsh or rash judgements based on a single piece of information known. It is important to keep asking questions about the patient and to remain curious towards them so that you are able to maintain open minded.
The goal of nursing is to help individuals attain their highest possible health for a given situation (Canadian Nurses Association, 1998). The nursing profession does this through the two aspects or nursing science and nursing art. Nursing science hold incredible significance in the future development of the profession. Nursing science aids in the building of nursing knowledge, and therefor aids in helping a patient to attain their highest possible health status. The art of nursing takes a holistic view of client care and deals with healing every aspect of their mental, physical and spiritual well being. The art of nursing also takes into account things such as Roach’s (1998) 5 C’s in relation to the nurses interaction with the client and the relationship he/she builds with them.
Canadian Nurses Association. (1997). Code of ethics for registered nurses.
Leddy, S.K. (1998). Patterns of knowing and nursing science. Chapter 6, in
Conceptual bases of professional nursing (4th ed.) Lippincott. (pp.19)
Meleis, A. (1997). Nursing Perspective. In A. Meleis (Ed.), Theoretical nursing:
Development & progress, (pp. 93-101). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.
Montgomery, C. L. (1993) Theoretical foundations of caring. In T. S. Mead,
Healing through communication: The practice of caring (pp.33). Newbury Park,
California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Perry, A. G. & Potter, P. A. (1997). Canadian fundamentals of nursing. St. Louis
Missouri: Mosby-Year Book Inc.
Philips, J. R. (2000). Rogerian nursing science and research: a healing process for
Nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, Vol 13, 196-203
Roach, M. S. (1992). The human act of caring: A blueprint for the health
professions. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Hospital Association Press.
Physician and Patient Relationship is something that you should have with your physician because it will give you that trust and confidence that you to talk to him and explain what’s going on. Something that is very recommendable is that if your first language is not English you should probably go to a bilingual physician that would understand you and you can understand him. There are some patients that don’t understand to let the physician do what they think is right for them, for example like if one of your family members is a doctor and you go to a different doctor he’s going to tell you that he should of done this and that. Physicians should always when speaking to a patient make eye contact, introduce anyone who’s in the room if there is someone in the room, don’t be distracted by anything focus on what the patient has to say, and speak in a way that the patient would understand. Now days our culture encourages us or patients to find a doctor who understands our needs best and to seek out treatment.
Physician and Patient Relationship
Physician and Patient Relationship is something that you should have with your physician because it will give you that trust and confidence that you to talk to him and explain what’s going on. That’s not just only with your physician that should be everybody friends and family, but most important with your physician because is concerning your health. But before anything any patient has the right to accept the treatment or reject it, no physician should force to do anything or tell if you don’t do it you’re going to die. That’s the patient’s ability of responsibility to take charge of their own lives. The physician should always put his patient’s needs on top of the priority list because the patient’s health comes first before anything else. Most of the patients with illnesses need united effort from the specialists.
1. Articulate the value of positive relationships. Understand the power of intimate relationships.
2. Identify relationships and relationship factors that are important to him/her.
3. Understand the health
benefits of meaningful relationships.
4. Recognize the difference between scientific and and interpersonal ways of knowing. Recognize how social structures and social practices influence relationships.
5. Analyze the role of culture and power in mediating relationship quality, including that of the
health care professional and patient .
6. Understand how language provides the framework for the acquisition of new knowledge.
7. Recognize how scientific language objectifies relationships.
8. Apply the concept of �witnessing' to the healer's role reflect on the difference between engagement and detachment .
9. Recognize the infrastructural nature of hierarchy.
10. Define transference/ countertransference define the limits of self-disclosure in professional behavior.
11. Articulate differences between the nurse's and physician's role.
12. Encounter examples of functional and dysfunctional relationships between health care professionals and patients.
13. Articulate fundamental components of a successful doctor-patient (or nurse-patient) relationship.
The English Patient Essay
Love can sometimes be a destructive or a healing force to one’s relationship. In the novel, The English Patient, written by Michael Ondaatje, love is appeared to be the truest element in many forms of relationships during the wartime. The traditional marriage of Geoffrey and Katherine Clifton, the affair between Almasy and Katharine, and the temporary love between the Canadian nurse, Hana, and the sapper, Kip, have all developed both a destructive and healing force in various ways.
The newly married couple, Katharine and Geoffrey Clifton, is first introduced in the Society in Cairo. Clifton is boyish and young; his wife is too eager for his taste. Due to the beauty and aspects of his new wife, Clifton cannot stop publicly praise for her. This overabundance causes a destructive force on their relationship, which lead to a betrayal.
Additionally, Ondaatje uses the affair between Katharine and Almasy to emphasize the unifying theme, love. Their love begins with purely physical attraction, yet it quickly progresses to a deeper level of love. When Katharine recites a poem to the Society at the campfire one night, Almasy falls in love with her voice. Katharine is eager to seek a better change in life since the embarrassment made by his husband. Though, Almasy is fifteen years older than Katharine, she is charmed by his nuance. The affair rapidly develops with their attraction of each other. Ultimately, their affair ends in a sudden due to the reason that Almasy rejects to ownership and naming: “ You slide past everything with your fear and hate of ownership, of owning, of being owned, of being named. You think this is virtue. I think you are inhuman”(P.238) In the quote said by Almasy to Katharine, it clearly shows that Almasy strongly dissatisfies with Katharine’s point of view, thus, leads to a diversification in their relationship. Furthermore, due to Geoffrey strong web of relation, Katharine.
Love in English Patient. (1969, December 31). In MegaEssays.com. Retrieved 04:49, August 07, 2016, from http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/15748.html
MegaEssays. "Love in English Patient." MegaEssays.com. MegaEssays.com, (December 31, 1969). Web. 07 Aug. 2016.
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The aims of my assignment are to discuss current legislation, ethical theories and principles; patient rights and responsibilities, confidentiality and professional regulation. A case study will be presented pertaining to healthcare professional dilemma, patient rights and confidentiality whether to disclose patient HIV status to his wife. In order to safeguard and protect the right and confidentiality of the healthcare professionals, patient and his family members’ real name are not used (NMC, 2008).
Tom, 40 years old, and his wife Jane, 35 years old, both Chinese were married for 10 years. They did not have any child and had been trying to conceive for 6 years. They live with their parent-in-law in Malaysia. The couple, whom are not well educated, are working as hawker in the market. Tom’s family is a very traditional family. And his parent had been blaming Jane for unable to bear them an offspring. Tom, a male chauvinist with a big ego thinks that the problem lies with his wife and refuses to seek fertility treatment. Jane was under a lot of pressure and she had been trying to convince Tom to seek fertility treatment together with her for many years. Finally, Tom agreed. According to Directives for private healthcare institutions providing assisted reproduction services, CAP 248, REG 1 (MOH, 2006) couples whom are undergoing assisted reproduction procedures have to undergo a series of blood test including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Consent was signed for agreeing to be screen for HIV, but HIV pre-counseling was not done as it is not a protocol in the clinic.
Tom was diagnosed with HIV, while Jane was found to be negative. Jane was unaware of his HIV status. He was in shock, not knowing what to do when the medical practitioner told him that he was HIV positive. After he came out from the consultation room, he requested Nurse A, who is on duty not to disclose his diagnosis to a third party including his wife, even the medical practitioner did not know about his decision. He even threatened with suicidal intention and denial of treatment. Nurse A was in dilemma as to whether to disclose Tom diagnosis to his wife or not and whether to inform the medical practitioner regarding his decision.
Sim (1997a) defined law as a standard conduct which one must not fall into. While Susan & Katherina (2009) defined it as the formalization of a body of rules of action or conduct that is enforced by binding legal authority. Once law are broken, one will be punished by an authority figure. Beauchamp & Childress (2001) stated that ethics are moral ethical principles. Ethical principles act as a guide to moral decision making and action. It also acts as formation of moral judgment in a professional practice. Moral and ethic are often drawn together, both words derived from the same root. Moral is often used to describe the standard of behaviour while ethic is referred as the study of moral (Hendrick, 2000). The important of applying ethical principles in health care is increasingly recognised worldwide, as the public is more concern with the morality of medicine and health (Sim, 1997a). Healthcare professionals are often in ethical dilemma due to the given situation and specific culture belief. E.g. euthanasia and abortion
Four ethical principles include respect for autonomy; beneficence; non-maleficence and justice were developed by Beauchamp & Childress (2001). Ethical rules such as honesty, confidentiality and professional behaviour are derived from the four ethical principles (Vevaina et al, 1993). Law and ethics are basically not from the same discipline, they may sometimes conflict each others. Ethical responsibilities are frequently more stringent than legal responsibilities. Respect for autonomy is respecting the decision made by informed and competent patients. It has many prima facie implications as it requires the healthcare professionals to obtain informed consent before carrying out the treatment to help the individual (Gillon, 1995). Beneficence refers to balancing the benefits of treatment against the risks and cost, before the healthcare professionals will put into action the treatments that benefit the patients. While non-maleficence proscribes healthcare professional from doing any action that will result harm to the patient. Justice refer to the moral obligation to distribute benefits, risk and cost in a fairly manner (Beauchamp & Childress, 2001).
According to the principle of respect for autonomy, individuals should have control over their own lives which include control over personal information without unjustified interference from others (Thongkrajai, 2000). Relating to my case study, under the Infectious Disease Act (Cap 137) Section 25, concealing one’s HIV status while maintain sexual intercourse with his spouse can be seen as a deliberate action by the husband as it put his spouse at risk of early death. Johnstone (1999) stated that individual has the right to consent or deny any medical treatment without affecting the rights of others. The state law and the healthcare professionals have an obligation to protect the well-being of the community. The seriousness of the threatened grave injury to another outweighs the harm to the patient by breaching the confidentiality. In order to prevent harm to others, the obligation of confidentiality has to give way (Kipnis, 2006). Therefore, Nurse A has the right to inform the medical practitioner about Tom’s decision and the medical practitioner have the right to disclose Tom’s HIV status to his wife as the medical practitioner believes that Tom will pass HIV infection to his wife and their unborn child. In this case, patient’s respect of autonomy was override and confidentiality was breach as there was no voluntary consent by the patient to disclose his HIV status to third party. It also breach the principles of non- maleficence by disclosing Tom’s HIV status to Jane that may lead to embarrassment, hostility, stigmatization or discrimination. It may jeopardize Tom’s treatment and he may commit suicide. However Bianco & Pagani (2000) argued that privacy and confidentiality are the main human right for people living with HIV. In order to respect these rights, the healthcare professionals are not supposed to disclose Tom HIV status to Jane without Tom consent.
In Jane’s point of view, the principles of beneficence and justice actually benefit her whereby she is informed of Tom’s HIV status, hence reducing her risk of being infected with HIV by Tom. But for Tom, there are no benefits as he threatened with suicidal intention and denial of treatment. Ethically, is this right for Tom? His human right and confidentiality had been evoked! A person infected with HIV is also a human being and has his own individuality. Tom has the right to keep his HIV status a secret however this right is potentially in conflict with the rights of Jane of not being infected and the right of her unborn child. But on the other hand, is it fair for Jane and her unborn child, who is innocent? Jane also has the right to be informed of the risk so that she can protect herself. By not telling her the truth will entail potential harm to her and her unborn child. By knowing the truth, she can use contraceptive measure or seek treatment at the earliest opportunity to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the unborn child. If the unborn child happens to be HIV positive, who will take the responsibility to support and look after the poor child and the HIV positive mother? The ethical challenge emerges between medical confidentiality and the duty to protect imperiled third party. Both Tom and Jane were patients to the healthcare professionals, therefore the healthcare professionals also have the obligation to look after Tom’s health as well as Jane’s health. Before making any decisions, healthcare professionals should look into the reason why Tom refuses to disclose his diagnosis to his wife. Study done by Warner (2003) shown that more than 1 in 10 people don’t inform their sexual partners about their HIV status. Another exploratory study done by Ssali et al (2010) looks at reason for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV status; who they disclose to. The semi structured interview shown that only 54% of the participants disclose their HIV status to their spouse, while 46% discloses it either to the other family members, friends or colleagues. The most common reason for disclosure was to gain psychosocial and physical support therefore fulfilling the responsibility to someone they love. The most common reason for non-disclosure was fear of abandonment; stigmatized and the individual maybe concerned about how their spouse will cope the aftermath of disclosure.
Confidentiality means the keeping of promises. It also establishes the trust between the healthcare professional and the patient (Gates and Fink, 2008). Common law of confidentiality states that any information pertaining to the patient is not to be divulged without his/her consent unless there are legitimate reasons supporting it (Sim, 1997b). According to the Code of Ethics and Professional Conducts for Nurses and Midwifery mentioned, to safeguard the confidentiality of all client-related information, disclosure of confidential information only when consent is given by the client, unless there is risk of harm to the patient or other persons, or when there is a legal obligation to disclose the information (SNB, 2006). It is also nurses’ responsibility to maintain the anonymity of clients upon disclosing confidential information to other healthcare professional in circumstances such as emergency or due to legal obligation (SNB, 2006 and NMC, 2008). However confidentiality does not mean hiding relevant information from those who are likely to be harm of that information (Kishore, 2000). In the principle of beneficence, nurses are obligated to protect, prevent harm and maintain the best interest to patients. The challenge of bioethics occur when ethical principles and rules conflict, which made the nurse in the ethical dilemma not knowing who shall she protect. Whether it should be Tom or Jane? Under the code of conduct, Nurse A should inform the medical practitioner who is on duty regarding Tom’s decision within clinic premises. In this case, she did not breach the confidentiality of the patient as the medical practitioner who is on duty on that day already knew about Tom HIV status, but she is not in a position to disclose Tom HIV positive status to Jane. Tom told Nurse A about his decision because he trusted her. She will breach the trust established, confidentiality and the duty of care, if Nurse A did disclose Tom HIV positive status to Jane. The duty of care would be breached. The duty of care by the nurse was established when there was a patient- nurse relationship that creates that duty and she owe the duty of care to prevent any harm to the patient (Pozgar, 2007). Professionalism is important in nursing as it safeguard the interest of the public and serve as a beacon of ethics. In order to maintain the high standard of quality care, nurses are not allow to discuss issues pertaining to patients outside the clinic setting or public area; leaving patient medical files unattended and disclose patient information to third party without patient’s consent are prohibited (Roberta, 2007). Nurses are responsible and accountable for their own judgement and action made in the course of nursing practice, irrespective of the organisation policies.
Paternalism refers to the doctor, who believes that he or she is making the best decision in regard to patient’s care. It occurs when the principal of beneficence and respect of autonomy are in conflict (Gates and Fink, 2008). In the principal of beneficence, paternalism had been argued that the critique of paternalism had swept away the rhetoric of autonomy. Paternalism derives from the relationship of father and child. E.g. Children are not trusted in making important decisions due to not being mature enough and the lack of experience as to knowing what is good and bad for them. Therefore their parent will make the decision for them. Paternalism is commonly used in the past where the healthcare professionals believed that the patients are incompetent of making important decisions. Hence healthcare professionals thought that they are doing good for the patients by deciding which treatment options are the best for them. Not knowing that it diminishes the principle of autonomy as they did not consult the patients’ opinion (Yeo and Moorhouse, 1996).
In the modern society, this is no longer acceptable as individual placed on liberty and individual right. They demand to be more involved in decision making process pertaining to their healthcare. They have more knowledge about human rights, medical and legal issues. Therefore paternalism had become a history in the field of the health care. The recent changes, liberating the NHS, encourages individual to take part in decision making and get involve in their treatment (DOH, 2010). Patient’s right are widely discussed. In modern paternalism, patients’ values and interest are taken into account in determining what is best for the patient (Weiss, 1985).
If the case scenario happened in olden days, the healthcare professional would have disclosed Tom’s HIV status to Jane despite his decision not to. They would think that Tom is incompetent as he was not well educated and believed that by disclosing Tom HIV status was considered being beneficence to both Tom and Jane. But under the code of conduct (NMC, 2008), Nurse A did not have the right to disclose Tom’s HIV status to his wife although it helps prevent Jane from being infected with HIV by Tom. This is where critical thinking and decision making skills are required. Nurse A should reflect on the reason behind Tom’s reluctance to disclose his HIV status. Nurse A should assess Tom’s knowledge of HIV since Tom was newly diagnosis with the disease, he may not know what HIV is and the impact of it may have to his wife, his family and the public in general.
According to Fry and Veatch (2006) nurses have the obligation to protect the rights of an individual with regards to HIV testing, treatment and counseling. At this moment, counseling and educating Tom would be important for him rather that forcing him to disclose his HIV status to his wife. The Code of Ethics and Professional Conducts for Nurses and Midwifery value statement 2(SNB, 2006) states that providing necessary information from appropriate sources required by the patient enables individual to make informed decisions concerning their own care therefore counselling involved the legal implications and the ethical obligations of the healthcare professionals in the event of his reluctance to disclosure his diagnosis. Nurses’ skill and knowledge must be updated in order to give competent and valued quality nursing standard of care. When the needs of the patients are beyond the qualifications and competency, nurses have the responsibility to continue learning and to upgrade themselves (Mahlmeister, 1999). According to Thompson et al (2006), in order to preventing any harm to the patients, nurses is legally accountable for the patients in their care. They have to be competent to perform the task that is assigned to them. Pertaining to my case study, Tom might not know the ethical and legal issues faced by the healthcare professional and his knowledge deficit about HIV as he was not well educated. He might feel betrayed and angry when the healthcare professional breaches the confidentiality. He would probably not received treatment and selfishly and purposely put others into danger or attempt suicide. In the duty of care, nurses should provide counselling for Tom on HIV. Inform him the importance of disclosing his HIV status to his spouse, how is HIV being transmitted and the preventive measures to reduce HIV transmission. Support should be provided upon making the disclosure. Nurse A should also consider about the stigma and discrimination faced by Tom after he had made the disclosure about his HIV status. Both Jane’s and Tom’s family should also be counselled. Letting them know how to cope with the disease and the stigma they are going to faced by the public. What is the duty of care here? It is the obligation of a nurse to perform and maintain the standard of care to a patient (Staunton and Chiarella, 2004). Even thought the respect for autonomy and confidentiality are breached, the duty of care is in place for Tom. After gaining the knowledge of HIV, Tom may disclose his HIV status to his wife and agree to receive treatment without having the suicidal thoughts.
Consent is essential for all treatment and procedure, it must be given freely as it imposes obligation on healthcare professionals to respect individual’s autonomy (Ahronheim et al). An adult decision will be respected if he/she has the mental capacity and makes a voluntary and informed decision to refuse treatment. Under the children act (1989), children who are under 16 years old are consider legally competent if they have sufficient knowledge and maturity to enable them to fully understand what is being proposed. For example Gillick competency, she foresees that she might get pregnant if she did not take the contraceptive pills. The doctor perceived by giving the contraceptive pills was at the patient best interest even without parental consent. Pertaining to my case study, consent were not obtainable as the patient and his wife had gone back to Malaysia for treatment and the healthcare professionals that were involved either resigned or were transferred to other hospitals.
Due to the growing importance in nursing law and ethics, critical, efficient and ethical decision making skills are essential in the current practice of nursing. It does not only require nurses to improve and maintain the standard of nursing care, nurses must also be responsible and accountable for their own action. Therefore having a wide knowledge and well-verse of the code of ethic, policies and law are important. The moral and values of the nurses are equally important in ethical decision making. Nurses are often in ethical dilemma, thinking which principles to fulfil whether it should be the respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice or all the four principles. While making decision, nurses should weigh the pros and cons of the situation then reflect on it.
To conclude, although the healthcare professionals have the right to disclose Tom’s HIV status under the infectious disease act, it would be good for the healthcare professionals to find out the reason why Tom was reluctant to disclose his HIV status. From my point of view, healthcare professionals should weigh the pro and cons of the situation. Provide counselling sessions for Tom to let him understand the situation, and discussion sessions to help to work out possible solutions that will benefit both Tom and Jane. Rather than forcing him to disclose his HIV status to Jane when he was newly diagnoses. By doing this, confidentiality and the four ethical principles of Beauchamp and Childress will not be breached. Tom would agree to seek treatment after the disclosure of his HIV status to his spouse, without having suicidal intentions.Request Removal
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A prison nurse smuggled a copy of Fifty Shades of Grey to her inmate lover while they were having a secret relationship behind bars.
Mum-of-two Kimberly Hinde fell for felon Lee Stephenson when working as a substance misuse nurse at HMP Wealstun in West Yorkshire.
Lag Stephenson had a tattoo on his arm that read 11.09.13, a code for KIM with each letter represented as a number, the Nursing and Midwifery Council heard as they suspended her for a year.
She spent an extended period of time in “consultation” with Stephenson in a room and reappeared looking “flustered”.Read More
It was reported at the time that staff said Hinde behaved “like a love sick teenager”, became “giddy” around Stephenson and would put on make-up for him.
A search of Stephenson's cell revealed a letter detailing the relationship and referring to Fifty Shades of Grey, plus the book itself.
Hinde was then overheard warning him she was searched and to be careful.
After she was suspended from the prison she kept in contact with Stephenson by using aliases to hide phone calls, letters and emails.
Hinde, of Castleford, stood trial on November 4 2014 at Leeds Crown Court and pleaded guilty on the basis that the relationship was not sexual but one of “over familiarity”.
She was given a nine-month prison sentence, suspended for two years, and was ordered to do 200 hours unpaid work after pleading guilty to misconduct in a public office.
She smuggled in a copy of naughty novel 50 Shades of Grey
Hinde admitted that her fitness to practice as a nurse was impaired by reason of her conviction.
Having initially denied the relationship during a police interview and to the NMC in February 2014 Hinde now accepts that she should not have entered the relationship and should have broken off communication earlier.
She assured the NMC that she “would never be in this position again”.
Hinde, who had over 20 years experience as a nurse and midwife, has been working at Well's Pharmacy since August 2014.
Samantha Forsyth, for the NMC, and Hinde's representative Briony Molyneux, from the Royal Collage of Nursing pre-agreed on a 12-month suspension.
NMC chair Robert Barnwell said: “The Registrant was convicted of a serious offence of misconduct in a public office.
“A conviction of this nature strikes at the heart of the nurse and patient relationship, undermines the trust and confidence the public place in nurses and brings the profession into disrepute.
“The Registrant continued with the relationship with Patient A, even after she had been suspended, and communicated with Patient A by using an alias in order to avoid detection.Read More
“By doing so there was a deliberate attempt to continue an unprofessional relationship which breached fundamental tenets of the profession of acting with honesty and integrity and of maintaining clear professional boundaries.'
“The Registrant's conviction is not fundamentally incompatible with ongoing registration.
“There is no evidence that, apart from this incident, she has ever brought the profession into disrepute.
“She has demonstrated remorse, a realisation that the conduct was unacceptable and has undertaken that there will be no repetition.
“The parties agree that the Registrant's conviction is so serious that it necessitates a period of suspension from the register.”
In this task I will be analyzing, evaluating and explaining a few methods of interpersonal communication- the way in which these methods work in a nursing setting. Communication is very important in care work as it goes hand-in-hand with the development of excellent relationships with service users (Michie 2004). To some degree it is how we involve with others through unhindered relationships formed in society or due to culture (Bach 2009).2. Dependent Variables Test - Suicidal Ideation
Hypothesis TestedExamining whether or not measures of interpersonal relations and self-perceived burdens are unique and independent predictors of suicidal ideation. At the outset of the study, all subjects completed a questionnaire which presented questions such as pain severity, functional limitations, catastrophizing, depression, interpersonal relations and self-perceived burdens. Pain severity was measured using a scale from 0-10 (1=no pain, 10=unbearable pain) Functional limitations were rated on a scale of 1-5 (1=no limitations, 5-completely non-functioning) Catastrophizing was rated.3. Interpersonal communications
The coming together stages describe the slow growth of interpersonal relationships, which involves five stages: initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating and bonding. The coming apart stage in relationships is known to determine how a relationship proceeds to an end. The Avoiding stage refers to the giving up in the relationship as well as physical and emotional separation in order to minimize pain. In other words, Alex is minimizing pain in relationship by making sure that he doesn"t see Sam when he picks up his belongings. Love should be the cornerstone in every.4. Beginning And Transistional Stages Of A Group
In Dynamics of Interpersonal Relationships I, I have experienced the initial stage and transition stage in our handful of classes. It can bring up uncomfortable feelings of fears or pain and a person may even have a physical and mental blocking response as a defense mechanism. People who have "unrecognized and unexpressed pain (. block themselves) from living a truly joyous lifeaE (150).When resistance isn"t identified or dealt with right away it can sometimes escalate to conflict.5. nures patient rtelation
"Understanding the nature of the relationship between nurse and patient is akin to understanding the nature of nursing itselfaEThis essay describes Stein Parbury"s (2000) research on the relationship between nurses and patients and the factors affecting their relationships in different situations. This essay focuses on four main topics starting with the nature of the nurse patient relationship, nursing as caring, the characteristics of the relationship between patient and nurse, and finally the types of relationships.The nurse patient relationship describes how understandin.6. The Health Benefits of Music
Palliative Cancer Care: PainUses for music therapy extend beyond social hang-ups and immune response in patients, as it is being incorporated into cancer care as a form of pain and anxiety relief for the terminally ill. Palliative care is a form of care used to improve the quality of life for the terminally ill, easing their pain, mental, social and spiritual states, as well as treating the side effects of their disease early on (Archie, 2013). Music-based interventions used in cancer care have been effective in lessening the pain which is prevalent in cancer patients. Analgesic drugs prescrib.7. Ordinary People - Adapting to Life
Adapting To LifeThe American Heritage Dictionary defines life as being: human existence, relationships, or activity in general: real life; everyday life. These difficulties may include, but are not limited to, such things as defunct relationships with others, poor interpersonal communication, bereavement, and depression. These extenuating circumstances can be seen specifically in the novel by means of the poor relationship between Cal and Beth, the uncompromising stubbornness of Beth in regards to her son, and also the recovery of Conrad after his attempted suicide, all of which are.8. Mid Term
"YouaE language affect my interpersonal communication because this may be, and in my case has been the start of many fights. When someone uses this type of language, it brings nothing positive to the relationship. I believe his feelings are shown in many lines of this songs, but to be specific, "The hurt doesn"t show: But the pain still growsaE. It is letting the person (Andrea or the counselor) know that he still feels pain and suffering from that particular incident. Feeling statements affect my interpersonal relationships because a feeling statement carries a lot mor.9. Borderline Personality Disorder
In this sense, Freud's model considers relationships to be secondary. Object Relations, In contrast to Freud"s understanding, is a set of theories that are based on the foundation that relationships, beginning with the mother-infant dyad, are primary, and that intrapsychic, interpersonal, and group experiences offer the basis for the development of individual identity. These patients may then behave in such a way that interpersonal pressures are exerted on the therapist to begin to feel and behave like the abusive introject. As the individual experienced pain and hostility.10. The Methods of Totalitarianism in George Orwell
"Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two makes four. If that is granted, all else follows" (Orwell, 1984, 69) Following the end of World War II, when the world discovered the Nazi concentration camps in Eastern Europe, their exposure brought the revelation that the Nazis had merciless.11. The Methods of Totalitarianism in George Orwell's 1984
Following the end of World War II, when the world discovered the Nazi concentration camps in Eastern Europe, their exposure brought the revelation that the Nazis had mercilessly slaughtered millions upon millions of innocents. This tragedy transformed human history, for never before had such a civi.12. Into the Wild
He fled the confines of his family and the pain of deception. To protect his agitated soul from any additional pain and suffering, he developed an overstated sense of his independence. The extreme distancing in his relationships prevented him from accepting assistance. If we transfer this concept to adult life, we can see that an avoidant infant might very well develop into a person whose principal need was to find some kind of meaning and order in life which was not entirely or even chiefly dependent upon interpersonal relationships" (60).Chris fostered this concept and felt he could.13. Quinn
I saw myself as a good manager yet only in certain aspects, especially interpersonal relationships. Like I said before, I have always had a good interpersonal relationship with people, especially once talking to them one on one. I don"t think one person should take in all of the pain or all the glory for the actions done by a group.Along with working with others, I need change within the company, or in other words, I will not work very well by having the same routine job every day.14. Van Gogh
The only sibling he had any sort of close relationship with was his brother, Theo. His paintings during his troubled romances and the ensuing heartbreaks are filled with darkness and pain, reflecting his inner sorrow. Secondly, while Vincent"s paintings were indisputably brilliant, he simply didn"t have the interpersonal skills to make any sales. The feelings were not reciprocated, and the relationship was doomed to failure. Once again, though, Vincent"s personal problems and inability to forge normal, lasting interpersonal relationships led to a massive fight with Gaugin.15. Effects of Childhood Abuse and Neglect
Problems such attachment and interpersonal problems, aggressive behavior, and social conflicts can all be a result of childhood abuse. This is especially true in romantic relationships, because sharing feelings with a loved one requires a great deal of trust and intimacy. Children exposed to abuse and neglect are more likely to inflict pain on others, developing aggressive behaviors in adolescence (Hunter 2014). Criminal activity is highly due to parental abuse, and forming relationships with others is difficult due. This avoidant behavior was spotted when he tried to push awa.16. Jim Morrison
On March 1, 1969, Jim Morrison exposed himself to 13,000 people during a concert in Miami. The band left the country the next day on a planned vacation, but Morrison turned himself in to the FBI in Los Angeles upon his return. The press had a field day prior to his arrest while he was out of the cou.17. Child Abuse
A child that is abused will most likely be abused until they are a teenager and will usually find themselves in an abusive relationship later in life, if they"re not being abused they will usually be the abuser. The child will also have behavior problems with peers and adults; Because of the lack of observable appropriate interpersonal relationships, he has not learned appropriate ways to interact with others. Life offers little, other than physical and/or emotional pain; joy in the child"s life is lost. This is another way he escapes from their problems or self-medication for the.18. Causes and Treatments of Depression
Endorphins bind to the same receptors as pain medicines, only the activation of these receptors does not lead to addiction. Common Types of Therapy Interpersonal Therapy, this approach can help someone identify and resolve problems that contributing to the depression, more commonly in relationships.19. Decision Making and Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality disorder is a psychological condition characterized by interpersonal dysfunctions, unstable relationships, emotional dysregulation, suicidal behavior, impulsive aggression, and rapid switched between idealizing and devaluing relationships. Severe psychiatric conditions are characterized by a pervasive pattern of marked impulsivity and instability in affects of oneself image and interpersonal relationships. Borderline Personality Disorder is formed from impoverished self-image, internal emptiness, stress related to dissociation, instability of goals and plans, hypersensi.