Amaranthus Retroflexus Descriptive Essay - Essay for you

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Amaranthus Retroflexus Descriptive Essay

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Amaranthus retroflexus - The Full Wiki

Amaranthus retroflexus: Wikis Contents Description

True to its name, it forms a tumbleweed. [ 1 ] It is native to the tropical Americas but it is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. This is an erect annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 meters. The leaves are nearly 15 centimeters long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. The plant is monoecious. with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 millimeters long with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed.

Culinary use

This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. No species of genus Amaranthus are known to be poisonous [ 2 ]. but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be tossed after boiling.

Amaranthus retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. [ 3 ]

Use as fodder

When fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days, this plant might be harmful by causing nephrotoxicity. [ 4 ]

External links

The plant can produce up to one million seeds.

References

Other articles

Inhibitory effects of leachate from Eupatorium adenophorum on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium glaucum

Inhibitory effects of leachate from Eupatorium adenophorum on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium glaucum Abstract

Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium glaucum L. are two widely distributed destructive weeds. Their strong adaptability and massive seed production make them the hardest weeds to deal with. This present study intended to investigate the effect of leachate from Eupatorium adenophorum on the growth of these weeds and explore the potential to develop an environmental friendly strategy to use the leachate to control the weeds.

Seeds of A. retroflexus L. and C. glaucum L. were soaked in solutions containing 0%, 0.6%, 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5% leachate from E. adenophorum leaves. A. retroflexus and C. glaucum seedlings grown in pots were sprayed with leachate solutions in the same concentration range. The effects of these leachate solutions on membrane permeability and germination of seeds, and growth and physiological characteristics of the seedlings were investigated. The highest concentration of leachate (5%) caused significant damage to the cell membrane of seeds of both weed species, whereas lower concentrations (0.6%) promoted repair of the membrane system, as reflected by higher and lower than control in relative conductivity (RC), respectively. Different concentrations of leachate showed distinct allelopathic inhibitory effects on the two weed species; lower concentrations showed weak inhibitory or even positive effects, whereas higher concentrations showed stronger inhibitory effects. Higher concentrations of leachate (2.5% and 5%) delayed germination and significantly decreased the emergence rate of the seeds, survival rate, and dry matter accumulation of the seedlings. When treated by 5% leachate, the emergence date of A. retroflexus was delayed by 3.6 d, emergence rate of the seeds and survival rate was 69.1% and 70.6% of the control, respectively, seedling dry matter was 48.6% less than the control; In the case of C. glaucum. the emergence date was delayed by 2.7 d, emergence rate of the seeds and survival rate was 45.1% and 58.6% of the control, respectively, seedling dry matter was 44.7% less than the control. There were significant interactions among the different concentrations of leachate and the length of treatment period with respect to activities of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and chlorophyll contents. Seedlings treated with 0.6%, 1.25%, or 2.5% leachate solution for 24–72 h showed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities. When seedlings were treated with leachate solutions for 96 h, antioxidant enzyme activities and chlorophyll content decreased in A. retroflexus. but only CAT activity decreased in C. glaucum. When seedlings of the two weed species were treated with 5% leachate solution, CAT activity and chlorophyll content decreased and MDA content gradually increased with longer treatment times (from 24 to 96 h). The two weed species showed different allelopathic responses to E. adenophorum ; A. retroflexus was more sensitive than C. glaucum .

Based on the investigation, it could be speculated that the delayed germination and low germination rate of the weeds after treatment by leachate could be due to the fact that leachate damaged the membrane system of the seeds. By delaying germination, lowering the germination rate of the weeds and inhibiting seedling growth, leachate from E. adenophorum could provide an effective way of controlling the weeds.

Keywords
  • Eupatorium adenophorum ;
  • Amaranthus retroflexus ;
  • Chenopodium glaucum ;
  • Allelopathy ;
  • Inhibitory effect

Corresponding authors. Tel. +86 0354 6286399. 1

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Copyright © 2011 Ecological Society of China. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Amaranthus retroflexus

Amaranthus retroflexus

Common Names . Red-root Amaranth. Redroot Pigweed, Red Rooted Pigweed, Common Amaranth, and common tumble weed

Habitat :Amaranthus retroflexus is native to the tropical Americas but it is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats.

Description:
True to its name, it forms a tumbleweed. This is an erect annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 meters. The leaves are nearly 15 centimeters long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 millimeters long with a “lid” which opens to reveal a tiny black seed.

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Edible Uses:
This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. No species of genus Amaranthus are known to be poisonous, but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling.

Amaranthus retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups .

Amaranthus retroflexus is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut, chilies, garlic, turmeric and other ingredients.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves have been used to stop internal hemorrhaging, diarrhea, and excessive menstrual flow. An infusion has been used to treat hoarseness. The stems have treated ulcers and profuse menstrual flows. In a wash, the flowers, leaves, and roots have been used as an astringent for wounds and sores, and used as a mouthwash for canker sores and sore gums.

Other Uses:
Use as fodder…When fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days, this plant might be harmful by causing nephrotoxicity

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus_retroflexus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Related articles

Amaranthus retroflexus

Amaranthus retroflexus Description

True to its name, it forms a tumbleweed. [ 1 ] It is native to the tropical Americas but it is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. This is an erect annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 meters. The leaves are nearly 15 centimeters long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. The plant is monoecious. with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 millimeters long with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed.

Culinary use

Southern Kerala-style traditional Thoran made with Cheera (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves.

This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. No species of genus Amaranthus are known to be poisonous [ 2 ]. but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling.

Amaranthus retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. [ 3 ]

Amaranthus retroflexus is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut. chilies, garlic. turmeric and other ingredients.

Use as fodder

When fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days, this plant might be harmful by causing nephrotoxicity. [ 4 ]

External links References

Plants Profile for Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot amaranth)

Robert H. Mohlenbrock. USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. Midwest National Technical Center, Lincoln. Provided by USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute (WSI). Usage Requirements .

Britton, N.L. and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 2: 2. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society. Scanned by Omnitek Inc. Usage Requirements .

USDA NRCS. Wetland flora: Field office illustrated guide to plant species. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Provided by NRCS National Wetland Team. Usage Requirements .

AgroAtlas - Weeds - Amaranthus retroflexus L

Weeds

Object map

Classification.

Family Amaranthaceae Juss. genus Amaranthus L.

Biological group.

Annual seed-propagated aestival-autumnal weed, segetal-ruderal.

Morphology and biology.

Stem is erect, up to 100 cm high, single or ramified, light green to reddish, sparse at the bottom, densely leaved at the top, with short, rough hairs. Foliage leaves are ovate, long-petiolate, bluish green, alternating, with pointed end, also usually reddish underneath. Taproot penetrates to 100 cm depth. Flowers are small, inconspicuous, massed in glomerules to greenish, dense fascicles at the stalk end or twig ends. Hypsophylls are lanceolate, almost two times longer than perianths. Perianth is pentamerous, prickle-like. Inflorescence is prickly. Boll is shorter than perianth, opens across with a cover, contains one seed. Seed is 1 mm, black or black-brownish, glossy, sharp at the edges. Shoots emerge in April-May and later, flowering period begins in June, and fruiting period lasts until late autumn. Seed dormancy is 9 months. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.4-0.5 g. One plant can produce 5000 seeds under optimal conditions. Seeds remain viable in soil for 40 years.

Distribution.

North and South America; middle and southern Europe; Mediterranean area; Asia Minor; Iran; China; Japan; Mongolia; northern Africa. In the former USSR, European part, except the Far North; and in Central Asia, Caucasus, Siberia, and Far East.

Ecology.

Grows primarily on humus-rich, nutrient rich and especially nitrogen rich, permeable soils. Shoots emerge at a minimal temperature of 6 to8°C and optimum temperature of 26-36°C, with sufficient soil moisture.

Economic value.

Frequently infests tilled crops, less frequently grain crops. annual fodder grasses; occurs in kitchen gardens, vineyards, orchards, field edges, irrigation systems; and near habitation. Persistent noxious weed. Control measures: stubbling, deep plowing, inter-row cultivation during germination period, chemical weeding.

Reference citations:

Anon. 1996. Weeds in sugar beet. Berlin: Hoehst Schering AgrEvo GmbH. 114 pp.
Nikitin V.V. 1983. Weed plants in the flora of the USSR. Leningrad: Nauka. 168-170 pp. (in Russian)
Shishkin, B.K. 1936. Flora of the USSR. Moscow-Leningrad: Ac. Sc. USSR. V.6: 362 (In Russian)
Veselovskiy I.V. Lysenko A.K. Man'ko Yu.P. 1988. The atlas identification book on weeds. Kiev: Urozhay. 32 pp.(In Russian)

© Sokolova T. D.

Amaranthus retroflexus

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE
  • Amaranthus bulgaricusKov.
  • Amaranthus bullatusBesser ex Spreng.
  • Amaranthus chlorostachysWillk.
  • Amaranthus curvifoliusSpreng.
  • Amaranthus delileiRicht. & Loret
  • Amaranthus johnstoniiKov.
  • Amaranthus recurvatusDesf.
  • Amaranthus retroflexus var. delilei (Richt. & Loret) Thell.
  • Amaranthus retroflexus subsp. delilei(Richt. & Loret) Tzvelev
  • Amaranthus retroflexus var. genuinus(L.) Thell. ex Probst
  • Amaranthus retroflexus var. rubricaulisThell.
  • Amaranthus retroflexus f. rubricaulisThell. ex Probst
  • Amaranthus retroflexus var. salicifolius <smal>lI.M.Johnst.
  • Amaranthus rigidusSchult. ex Steud.
  • Amaranthus spicatusLam.
  • Amaranthus strictusTen.
  • Amaranthus tricolorL.
  • Galliaria retroflexa(L.) Nieuwl.
  • Galliaria scabraBubani

Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the Amaranthaceae family with several common names. including red-root amaranth,redroot pigweed,red-rooted pigweed,common amaranth,pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. [3]

Contents Description [ edit ]

Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. [3] It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. The plant is monoecious. with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed. Another of A. retroflexus's common names is pigweed because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed.

Culinary use [ edit ]

Southern Kerala-style traditional thoran made with cheera (A. retroflexus ) leaves

This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. No species of genus Amaranthus is known to be poisonous, [4] but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling.

A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. [5] It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil .

It is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut. chili peppers. garlic. turmeric and other ingredients.

The seeds are edible raw or toasted, and can be ground into flour and used for bread, hot cereal, or as a thickener. [6]

Use as fodder [ edit ]

Like many other species of Amaranthus. this plant may be harmful and even deadly when fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days. Such forage may cause fatal nephrotoxicity. [7] presumably because of its high oxalate content. Other symptoms, such as bloat, might reflect its high nitrate content. [8] However, when supplied in moderation, it is regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder. [9]

External links [ edit ]

Amaranthus retroflexus L. from Flora von Deutschland Österreich und der Schweiz by Otto Wilhelm Thomé (1885)

Amaranthus retroflexus - Wikimedia Commons

Amaranthus retroflexus

Amaranthus bulgaricus Kov.
Amaranthus bullatus Besser ex Spreng.
Amaranthus chlorostachys Willk.
Amaranthus curvifolius Spreng.
Amaranthus delilei Richt. & Loret
Amaranthus johnstonii Kov.
Amaranthus recurvatus Desf.
Amaranthus retroflexus var. delilei (Richt. & Loret) Thell.
Amaranthus retroflexus subsp. delilei (Richt. & Loret) Tzvelev
Amaranthus retroflexus var. genuinus (L.) Thell. ex Probst
Amaranthus retroflexus var. rubricaulis Thell.
Amaranthus retroflexus f. rubricaulis Thell. ex Probst
Amaranthus retroflexus var. salicifolius I.M.Johnst.
Amaranthus rigidus Schult. ex Steud.
Amaranthus spicatus Lam.
Amaranthus strictus Ten.
Galliaria retroflexa (L.) Nieuwl.
Galliaria scabra Bubani

Habitus Edit

Plant with untypical habitus and spotted leaves

Stems and leaves Edit

Plant with untypical habitus and spotted leaves

Leaves, bottom side

Leaf, bottom side

Inflorescence and flowers Edit

Opened fruit with seed and bracteole

Fruits and seeds Edit

fruits and seeds

Habitat Edit

Use Edit

Southern Kerala-style traditional Thoran made with Cheera (Amaranthus retroflexus) leaves, grated coconut, chilies and other ingredients