Category: Research Paper
January 20th, 2010
Opinion research papers are different from all other research papers in its nature and objective. It is very important to understand the difference before you start writing your research paper as the specifications of this type of research papers are to be applied to all parts of your research paper. Each section of your research paper structure should be framed keeping in mind the unique nature of this type if research papers. The opinion research paper conclusion is also quite different from that of other research papers.
The main difference in the objective of an opinion research paper is that it does not ask to state any fact. What you state is purely your opinion of the topic. And facts can’t be placed as opinions. So it is absolutely necessary that you don’t present an established fact as your opinion. This is the point you should remember throughout, while preparing your opinion research paper.
If you are used to research paper writing . you will be aware that a conclusion states the thesis authoritatively with reference to the evidence presented in the research paper . But in an opinion research paper, you will not have any authority to impose on your thesis . Your thesis will be based only on an opinion and there is no need to prove it.
In your opinion research paper conclusion. instead of proving your theory, you will reason your opinion. You will restate your opinion with the support of the proof you presented to justify it. Your objective is only to prove that your opinion was formed as a result of an in-depth study of the topic. You will prove your authority to opine on the topic but do not make the mistake of asserting this authority on the opinion. Your conclusion should tell the audience precisely why your opinion is worth considering. It should stress on the chances of your opinion leading way to a big possibility. It will be good to accept, in your conclusion, that you still have no power to prove your theory as it is still in the stage of an opinion. Then you should continue to state why, even on being only an opinion, it should be considered as a possibility.
Try to use words skillfully to project your knowledge of the topic. Your opinion research paper conclusion should successfully plant your opinion in the minds of the audience. State your opinion confidently in your conclusion as you have already given enough evidence to justify it. A confident declaration of your opinion in the conclusion will help in leaving a good and strong impression of your opinion on the audience. Your conclusion should project the fact that you have no doubt on whether your opinion is a worthy one or not. Only someone who is sure of their knowledge of the subject will be confident about their opinions. So you should use good points to lay a strong foundation for your conclusion.
Without excellent writing skills, you will not be able to prepare an impressive research paper conclusion. If you are not sure of your skills with words, you should take help from knowledgeable people to complete your opinion research paper conclusion .Related Posts
Summary: This handout provides detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and �.A conclusion is the last paragraph in your research paper, or the last part in any other type of presentation Why do it? A conclusion is As you write your conclusion, keep your introduction in front of you.Sample research paper: Chicago style; Following is a sample research paper by Ned Bishop, a student in a history class Bishop was asked to document his paper using Chicago-style endnotes and bibliography In preparing.
A good outline can make conducting research and then writing the paper very efficient Remember that a good outline makes writing easier and more efficient Conclusion a Thesis b.How to Write a History Paper Write a conclusion You've written most of your paper - did you come to the same conclusion as the one you wrote in the first paragraph? Though many students think them superfluous, they really are an important research tool.By the time you get to your research paper conclusion you probably feel as if there is nothing more to be said But knowing how to write a conclusion for a research paper is important for anyone doing research and writing research papers.How to Write Research Paper September 4, 2012, The research paper conclusion demands as much attention as the introduction How To Write 5 Page Research Papers A 5 page research paper provides a good practice for future term papers or a junior rese.
100% Plagiarism free USA custom writing service Our PROFESSIONAL writers will write custom essays, research papers, term papers or written essays High quality.Conclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay to write, and many writers feel that they have nothing left to say after having written the paper Conclusion I thought I would spend a few hours at Disneyland.An example of a research paper based on the experiment of Stanley Milgram Research; Foundations; Academic; Write Paper; For Kids; Your Code; Login; Sign Up; Home; Overview; Research; Foundations; The conclusion is that when it comes to people harming others.How to Write a Research Paper in History/Writing the paper From Wikibooks, Paragraphs in a history paper come in several types The three most general types are Thesis, or opening paragraphs, Body paragraphs, and Conclusion paragraphs The following is not a comprehensive list
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How to Write an Opinion Research Paper Conclusion In your opinion research paper conclusion, instead of proving your theory, you will reason your opinion.You should expect in the course of your research to consider many such In a history paper, you must state your conclusion This means that often you cannot write a good thesis statement before you have undertaken the arduous work of understanding your sources. Advice on how to write an art history paper, Writing Your Essay: Introduction, Body and Conclusion 1 The Introduction Compose a thesis statement Start your research after midterms Start to write at least one week before the paper is due Take the time to EDIT.A Guide to Writing Good History Essays for Students of History 213, Warlords and Holy Men Skip Links The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the results of your test cases: you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research.
How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper Sample Conclusion for History Paper Sample concluding paragraph for an essay Part 1 of 3: Writing a Basic Conclusion 1 Restate the topic.You should briefly restate the topic as well as explaining why it is important.UK Essays Take a look at our full list of services below UK Essays offers a wide range of custom writing services to students and anyone studying in higher education.Exclusivepapers.com offers essays and research papers written.footnotes for any research paper in history Parenthetical citations are question is the common logical fallacy of assuming your conclusion as part of your argument (In the late nineteenth century, you've neglected to write your history paper Tenet/tenant confusion Your religion.
QualityEssay.com provides custom term paper writing/rewriting services including research materials for assistance purposes only The term papers should be used �.This handout provides detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources Welcome to the Purdue OWL Purdue OWL; Writing Lab; OWL News; The research paper.Much has been cited about how to write the perfect conclusion as it was known back in history before the condition was understood), strikes more and more people every year A research paper conclusion is the final part of your paper.Research Paper An art history research paper can take a variety it is important to balance background research with analysis that ties these facts back to the citing specific iconographical details in order to support the writer's conclusion Research papers are usually thesis.
How to write a research paper? The conclusion of the research paper is the most valuable single part of it It manifests the value of your research as well as your understanding of the material that you have presented.On this page you can download free Art history research paper sample write introduction, body and conclusion, it is impossible to write a research paper on art history without having reliable and informative art history resources.Research Paper Structure-Conclusion-Mr Roberts Home Explore Search You slideshare Upload; Login How to Write a Research Paper Jamjam Olazo 3,794 views HOW TO WRITE RESEARCH PAPERS EssayOnTime.What structure should I follow to finish off my history essay on Nazi Education? How do I write a conclusion for a history essay? What structure should I follow to finish off my history essay on Nazi Education? Thanks Add your.
Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down Your conclusion is People write this kind of conclusion when You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research.Sample Conclusion for History Paper Abraham Lincoln was a man of character, a prominent activist in civil rights, Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper Download as Adobe PDF Download as MS Word Download as Text File Open in Google Drive Related Articles.We you can buy essay papers, argumentative essays.Traditional architectural history has tended to see the city less as a Having finished the main parts of a research paper you can write an Writing a Research Paper Starting a Research Paper; Writing a Research Proposal; Writing a Research Plan; Doing Research; Taking Notes; Writing.
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In this monthly series, Dr. Angel Borja draws on his extensive background as an author, reviewer and editor to give advice on preparing the manuscript (author's view), the evaluation process (reviewer's view) and what there is to hate or love in a paper (editor's view).
This article is the second in the series. The first article was: "Six things to do before writing your manuscript ."[divider]The Author
Dr. Angel Borja is Head of Projects at AZTI-Tecnalia. a research center in the Basque Country in Spain specializing in marine research and food technologies. Formerly he was also Head of the Department of Oceanography and Head of the Marine Management Area. His main topic of investigation is marine ecology, and has published more than 270 contributions, from which 150 are in over 40 peer-reviewed journals, through his long career of 32 years of research. During this time he has investigated in multiple topics and ecosystem components, having an ample and multidisciplinary view of marine research.
Dr. Borja is the Editor of several journals, including Frontiers in Marine Ecosystem Ecology . Revista de Investigación Marina . Elsevier's Journal of Sea Research and Continental Shelf Research . In addition, he is a member of the editorial boards of Elsevier's Marine Pollution Bulletin . Ecological Indicators and Ocean & Coastal Management .
When you organize your manuscript, the first thing to consider is that the order of sections will be very different than the order of items on you checklist.
An article begins with the Title, Abstract and Keywords.
The article text follows the IMRAD format. which responds to the questions below:
The main text is followed by the Conclusion, Acknowledgements, References and Supporting Materials.
While this is the published structure, however, we often use a different order when writing.Steps to organizing your manuscript
Next, I'll review each step in more detail. But before you set out to write a paper, there are two important things you should do that will set the groundwork for the entire process.
Finally, keep in mind that each publisher has its own style guidelines and preferences, so always consult the publisher's Guide for Authors.[divider]Step 1: Prepare the figures and tables
Remember that "a figure is worth a thousand words." Hence, illustrations, including figures and tables, are the most efficient way to present your results. Your data are the driving force of the paper, so your illustrations are critical!
How do you decide between presenting your data as tables or figures? Generally, tables give the actual experimental results, while figures are often used for comparisons of experimental results with those of previous works, or with calculated/theoretical values (Figure 1).
Whatever your choice is, no illustrations should duplicate the information described elsewhere in the manuscript.
Another important factor: figure and table legends must be self-explanatory (Figure 2).
When presenting your tables and figures, appearances count! To this end:
If you are using photographs, each must have a scale marker, or scale bar, of professional quality in one corner.
In photographs and figures, use color only when necessary when submitting to a print publication. If different line styles can clarify the meaning, never use colors or other thrilling effects or you will be charged with expensive fees. Of course, this does not apply to online journals. For many journals, you can submit duplicate figures: one in color for the online version of the journal and pdfs, and another in black and white for the hardcopy journal (Figure 4).
Another common problem is the misuse of lines and histograms. Lines joining data only can be used when presenting time series or consecutive samples data (e.g. in a transect from coast to offshore in Figure 5). However, when there is no connection between samples or there is not a gradient, you must use histograms (Figure 5).
Sometimes, fonts are too small for the journal. You must take this into account, or they may be illegible to readers (Figure 6).
Finally, you must pay attention to the use of decimals, lines, etc. (Figure 7)
Step 2: Write the Methods
This section responds to the question of how the problem was studied. If your paper is proposing a new method, you need to include detailed information so a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment.
However, do not repeat the details of established methods; use References and Supporting Materials to indicate the previously published procedures. Broad summaries or key references are sufficient.Length of the manuscript
Again, look at the journal's Guide for Authors, but an ideal length for a manuscript is 25 to 40 pages, double spaced, including essential data only. Here are some general guidelines:
Reviewers will criticize incomplete or incorrect methods descriptions and may recommend rejection, because this section is critical in the process of reproducing your investigation. In this way, all chemicals must be identified. Do not use proprietary, unidentifiable compounds.
To this end, it's important to use standard systems for numbers and nomenclature. For example:
Present proper control experiments and statistics used, again to make the experiment of investigation repeatable.
List the methods in the same order they will appear in the Results section, in the logical order in which you did the research:
In this section, avoid adding comments, results, and discussion, which is a common error.[divider]Step 3: Write up the Results
This section responds to the question "What have you found?" Hence, only representative results from your research should be presented. The results should be essential for discussion.Statistical rules
However, remember that most journals offer the possibility of adding Supporting Materials, so use them freely for data of secondary importance. In this way, do not attempt to "hide" data in the hope of saving it for a later paper. You may lose evidence to reinforce your conclusion. If data are too abundant, you can use those supplementary materials.
Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read. Number these sub-sections for the convenience of internal cross-referencing, but always taking into account the publisher's Guide for Authors.
For the data, decide on a logical order that tells a clear story and makes it and easy to understand. Generally, this will be in the same order as presented in the methods section.
An important issue is that you must not include references in this section; you are presenting your results, so you cannot refer to others here. If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the Discussion section.[divider]Step 4: Write the Discussion
Here you must respond to what the results mean. Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right. This is because it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Take into account that a huge numbers of manuscripts are rejected because the Discussion is weak.
You need to make the Discussion corresponding to the Results, but do not reiterate the results. Here you need to compare the published results by your colleagues with yours (using some of the references included in the Introduction). Never ignore work in disagreement with yours, in turn, you must confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better.
Take into account the following tips:
1. Avoid statements that go beyond what the results can support.
2. Avoid unspecific expressions such as "higher temperature", "at a lower rate", "highly significant". Quantitative descriptions are always preferred (35ºC, 0.5%, p<0.001, respectively).
3. Avoid sudden introduction of new terms or ideas; you must present everything in the introduction, to be confronted with your results here.
4. Speculations on possible interpretations are allowed, but these should be rooted in fact, rather than imagination. To achieve good interpretations think about:
5. Revision of Results and Discussion is not just paper work. You may do further experiments, derivations, or simulations. Sometimes you cannot clarify your idea in words because some critical items have not been studied substantially.[divider]Step 5: Write a clear Conclusion
This section shows how the work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. In some journals, it's a separate section; in others, it's the last paragraph of the Discussion section. Whatever the case, without a clear conclusion section, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge your work and whether it merits publication in the journal.
A common error in this section is repeating the abstract, or just listing experimental results. Trivial statements of your results are unacceptable in this section.
You should provide a clear scientific justification for your work in this section, and indicate uses and extensions if appropriate. Moreover, you can suggest future experiments and point out those that are underway.
You can propose present global and specific conclusions, in relation to the objectives included in the introduction.[divider]Step 6: Write a compelling Introduction
This is your opportunity to convince readers that you clearly know why your work is useful.
A good introduction should answer the following questions:
Editors like to see that you have provided a perspective consistent with the nature of the journal. You need to introduce the main scientific publications on which your work is based, citing a couple of original and important works, including recent review articles.
However, editors hate improper citations of too many references irrelevant to the work, or inappropriate judgments on your own achievements. They will think you have no sense of purpose.
Here are some additional tips for the introduction:
The abstract tells prospective readers what you did and what the important findings in your research were. Together with the title, it's the advertisement of your article. Make it interesting and easily understood without reading the whole article. Avoid using jargon, uncommon abbreviations and references.
You must be accurate, using the words that convey the precise meaning of your research. The abstract provides a short description of the perspective and purpose of your paper. It gives key results but minimizes experimental details. It is very important to remind that the abstract offers a short description of the interpretation/conclusion in the last sentence.
A clear abstract will strongly influence whether or not your work is further considered.
However, the abstracts must be keep as brief as possible. Just check the 'Guide for authors' of the journal, but normally they have less than 250 words. Here's a good example on a short abstract .
In an abstract, the two whats are essential. Here's an example from an article I co-authored in Ecological Indicators :
The title must explain what the paper is broadly about. It is your first (and probably only) opportunity to attract the reader's attention. In this way, remember that the first readers are the Editor and the referees. Also, readers are the potential authors who will cite your article, so the first impression is powerful!
We are all flooded by publications, and readers don't have time to read all scientific production. They must be selective, and this selection often comes from the title.
Reviewers will check whether the title is specific and whether it reflects the content of the manuscript. Editors hate titles that make no sense or fail to represent the subject matter adequately. Hence, keep the title informative and concise (clear, descriptive, and not too long). You must avoid technical jargon and abbreviations, if possible. This is because you need to attract a readership as large as possible. Dedicate some time to think about the title and discuss it with your co-authors.
Here you can see some examples of original titles, and how they were changed after reviews and comments to them:
Try to avoid this kind of response! [divider]Step 9: Select keywords for indexing
Keywords are used for indexing your paper. They are the label of your manuscript. It is true that now they are less used by journals because you can search the whole text. However, when looking for keywords, avoid words with a broad meaning and words already included in the title.
Some journals require that the keywords are not those from the journal name, because it is implicit that the topic is that. For example, the journal Soil Biology & Biochemistry requires that the word "soil" not be selected as a keyword.
Only abbreviations firmly established in the field are eligible (e.g. TOC, CTD), avoiding those which are not broadly used (e.g. EBA, MMI).
Again, check the Guide for Authors and look at the number of keywords admitted, label, definitions, thesaurus, range, and other special requests. [divider]Step 10: Write the Acknowledgements
Here, you can thank people who have contributed to the manuscript but not to the extent where that would justify authorship. For example, here you can include technical help and assistance with writing and proofreading. Probably, the most important thing is to thank your funding agency or the agency giving you a grant or fellowship.
In the case of European projects, do not forget to include the grant number or reference. Also, some institutes include the number of publications of the organization, e.g. "This is publication number 657 from AZTI-Tecnalia."[divider]Step 11: Write up the References
Typically, there are more mistakes in the references than in any other part of the manuscript. It is one of the most annoying problems, and causes great headaches among editors. Now, it is easier since to avoid these problem, because there are many available tools.
In the text, you must cite all the scientific publications on which your work is based. But do not over-inflate the manuscript with too many references – it doesn't make a better manuscript! Avoid excessive self-citations and excessive citations of publications from the same region.
Minimize personal communications, do not include unpublished observations, manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted for publication, publications that are not peer reviewed, grey literature, or articles not published in English.
You can use any software, such as EndNote or Mendeley. to format and include your references in the paper. Most journals have now the possibility to download small files with the format of the references, allowing you to change it automatically. Also, Elsevier's Your Paper Your Way program waves strict formatting requirements for the initial submission of a manuscript as long as it contains all the essential elements being presented here.
Make the reference list and the in-text citation conform strictly to the style given in the Guide for Authors. Remember that presentation of the references in the correct format is the responsibility of the author, not the editor. Checking the format is normally a large job for the editors. Make their work easier and they will appreciate the effort.
Finally, check the following:
In my next article, I will give tips for writing the manuscript, authorship, and how to write a compelling cover letter. Stay tuned![divider]References and Acknowledgements
I have based this paper on the materials distributed to the attendees of many courses. It is inspired by many Guides for Authors of Elsevier journals. Some of this information is also featured in Elsevier's Publishing Connect tutorials. In addition, I have consulted several web pages: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/. www.physics.ohio-state.edu/
I want to acknowledge Dr. Christiane Barranguet. Executive Publisher of Aquatic Sciences at Elsevier, for her continuous support. And I would like to thank Dr. Alison Bert. Editor-in-Chief of Elsevier Connect; without her assistance, this series would have been impossible to complete.
As such, it is important that your. The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations The Writing of a Historical Discovery homework help Essay or Research Paper. com is a leading custom essay and dissertation writing company providing its services to UK, US, Canadian and Australian customers In the research paper conclusion CONCLUSION to your report, you research paper conclusion do a number of important things: Summarize the main points you made in your introduction and review of the literature. For a much more detailed discussion about writing scientific papers,
Research paper conclusion
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