How Did Pop Art Challenge Beleifs In Consumerism Essay, Research Paper
How did Pop Art challenge beliefs about consumerism? Discuss with reference to two artists.
In order to discuss pop art I have chosen to examine the work and to some extent lives of Roy Lichtenstein and Andy Warhol who were two of the main forces behind the American movement. I intend to reflect the attitudes of the public and artists in America at this time, while examining the growing popularity of pop art from its rocky, abstract expressionist start in the 1950s through the height of consumer culture in the 60s and 70s to the present day.
Roy Liechtenstein, (fig 1) was born in 1923 into to a middle class Hungarian family living in New York, there was no artists on either side of his family and throughout Liechtenstein’s schooling there were no art classes. He used to paint in oils and draw, sometimes sketching musicians he saw playing in Harlem and the Apollo Theatre as a hobby. It was not until ‘1939’ the summer of his last year at high school that he enrolled in art classes in the Art Students League run by a man called Reginald Marsh. Liechtenstein’s influences regarding his painting style at this time had been the European avant-garde artists such as Picasso. These cubist and expressionist styles were rejected buy by Marsh who favoured painting the masses of New York life such as carnival scenes, boxing matches and the subways catching the detail in fleeting brush strokes, in a non-academic easily recognisable way. This style of recognisable American art that used everyday scenes are directly related to the consumer orientated Pop Art that Liechtenstein was to develop later in his life.
Andy Warhol, (fig2) no one, including Warhol him self knows his exact birthday but its thought to be around 1928-1931. Born in Forest city Pennsylvania and christened Andrew Warhola (which he changed in 1949 while living in New York). There are several contradicting stories about his life although he left two autobiographies the factual authenticates are not known, however his parents emigrated to the States from Czechoslovakia in 1909, his father came first to avoid national service and his mother nine years later. His father who worked as a coal minor in West Virginia didn’t play a big role in brining up Warhol, as he was away form home allot. After his death Andrew his mother and his brothers had a very poor existence, during school holidays Andrew sold fruit and helped as a window dresser. He had three nervous breakdowns while at school one at eight, nine and ten years old. He was first introduced to consumer advertising through a summer job in a department store, where he had to look for ‘ideas’ in fashion magazines. He continued his education at the Carnegie Institute in Pennsylvania graduating with a BA in Fine Art. Warhol moved to New York in 1948-49 where he started work as a graphic designer, creating adverts for fashion magazines such as Glamour, Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar. Andy Warhol shot to fame and soon became highly respected as a commercial artist. ”Tina Fredrick, then art director of Glamour” says “She was thrilled by Andy’s drawings but could not find a commercial use for them. She told him his drawings were good, but Glamour could only use drawings of shoes at the moment. The next day Warhol came back with 50 drawings of shoes” footwear being an important part of his advertising career until the mid 1960s.
In 1949 Harvey J Earl of General Motors pioneered ‘Planned Obsolescence’. He realised that by adding fashionable products when new trends come in older products would be discarded in favour of the latest fashion.
This realisation changed consumerism forever and was the start of a consumer culture, which was to spread rapidly. In the 50s it was for the most part an American phenomenon due to the fact that they had the money and manufacturing productivity to make it possible, for example, “the affluence of America meant that almost every family owned a car” and food rationing was unthinkable while in Briton the opposite was true. Other countries experienced the boom in designed consumerism through the media especially television. Audiences were directly targeted through adverts and sponsored programs that were sold to Europe were to a certain extent selling the American way of life (the American dream). However it was not only American influences that affected Europe. Following the unifying political and social changes taking place after the second world war various aesthetics from other cultures like Japanese art and the chic of Italian design began for the first time to be accessible to the general public, these ideals were sold back across the Atlantic to the American public.
With the constant threat of the cold war between America and the Soviet Union the American public had a fear of the unknown, in this case communism and the atom bomb. This fear can be seen for example in countless alien attack and end of civilisation B movies. Another weapon used against communism was consumerism, to be able have more choice and the newest and best of everything. Even if the product was of poor quality. The culture of the time was a form of rebellion, flamboyant and wasteful, cars with racing car engines that do 10 miles to the gallon, fast food and rock and roll. Pop Art fitted in to these categories well and was accepted because it was a non-elitist non-threatening and easily recognisable form of art.
In 1957 the artist Richard Hamilton listed Pop Arts characteristics as:
Popular (designed for mass audience)
Transient (short term solution)
Expendable (easily forgotten)
Young (aimed at the youth)
Both Warhol and Lichtenstine were unknown to each other while creating similar techniques it was however lichtenstein’s Ben Day dots that set him apart and what Warhol envied most. In 1961 Lichtenstein’s paintings were accepted in Leo Castelli’s gallery in New York while Warhol’s paintings that were submitted a few weeks later were not, was partly due to the expressionist style of his painting. Warhol later said “the territory had been pre-empted” “Right then I decided since Roy was doing comics so well, that I would just stop comics altogether and go in other directions where I could come out first –like quantity and repetition”.
Lichtenstien’s first one-man show at Castelli’s gallery in February 1962 was bought out by influential collectors before opening and his success was assured.
Both artists were intermingled with the consumer philosophy not only with their work but both also strove for commercial and personal success. Lichtenstien, who worked from comic books, adverts and bubble gum wrappers depicted self-contained scenes or a short set of paintings ‘Fig3’ these examples of his work at this time demonstrate man and machine as an indecipherable form. ‘Fig4’ shows the product blending with the user in effortless efficiency, allowing the viewer to admire this without being aware of being sold a product, reflecting the mass produced consumer society where man and machine are working together. The same can be said for Warhol’s soup cans, Brillo boxes and Coke bottles as they show mass produced articles for the American consumer only disconnected from there origins ‘Fig5’. Warhol’s idolisation of the super stars of that era is what set him apart from his contemporaries and immortalised him in popular culture the most famous or these being Marilyn Monroe ‘Fig6’. And this was no accident as his personal goal was to become a star in his own right and he consciously generated a cloak of mystery which made it almost impossible to distinguish the man from the legend “you can only become famous if everybody is talking about you”(Warhol).
All dressed up (the sixties and the counter culture), Jonathon Green, Pimlico 1999.
The 50s, Peter Lewis, Book Club Associates, 1978.
Fifties source book, Christopher Pearce, virgin imprint W.H Allen & co, 1990
Warhol, Klaus Honnef, Benedikt Taschen Verlag Gmbh, 2000
Lichtenstein, Janis Hendrickson, Benedikt Taschen Verlag Gmbh, 2000
Pop Art, Michael Compton, Feltham-Hamlyn, 1970
Pop as art: a study of the new super realism, Amaya-Mario, London: studio vista, 1965
Pop Art U S A – UK, Japan catalogue committee (isbny8226086), 1987
Cross overs: art into pop/pop into art, Walker John A, London Methuen, 1987
Do you agree that Pop art is a critique of the values of post-War urban culture in the United States or is there some validity in the arguments that suggest that Pop art is another representation of profit-based propaganda? Select works from two or three artists to examine this question.
Pop art was born out of the needs of Post-war America and its capitalist driven economy, where consumption was key and everything was a commodity that had to be readily available. The diversity within the movement arose from how the Pop artists approached this culture of post-war America, whether it was through parody, fetishization, or just pure replication; as well as what aspects of the culture they chose to reflect on. The sheer diversity of themes and styles covered by the various pop artists means that one cannot be too reductive when analysing this art movement. It is therefore with this in mind that this essay will examine just two Pop artists, Andy Warhol and Tom Wesselmann, to examine both artists’ use of commercial methods teamed with images borrowed from popular culture and how they established their own unique technique and style to reflect on the capitalist culture rising in America.
Post-war America was a time of great growth and development, as America moved into a position of political and economic leadership, newfound pride in the American way of life and American culture flourished. The economic boom meant newfound freedom for Americans, as having money and freely spending it became a primary aspect of the American identity. However, with this prosperity came great pressure by the government on the people of America to continue their high consumption patterns to maintain the economic growth in the country. Thus it was to be that consumerism, commercialism and the celebrity were to define the general post-war climate within America, and it was these values.
Pop Art Essay, Research Paper
Throughout the period that covered the last half of the nineteenth century, Western Europe enjoyed the gatherings of a great wealth that was accumulated by the industrial-colonial economy. The revolutionary changes in the stratification of the society and the functioning of the production system brought new perspectives to view the individual and the world that surrounded him. The bourgeoisie reached the summit of its rise since the French Revolution, and industrial European cities became the centers of world economy and politics.
The immense change that Europe went through was not reflected in any part of life as dramatically as it was in the arts. The struggle between the avant-garde and the conservative artists represented (politically, economically and culturally) the fear of the society against the unpredictable and the new. The depiction of the contradictions in the society visualized the undesired realities, and therefore, the more realist a painting was, the more it was attacked. The non-bourgeois activities were seen as degenerate and morally corrupt.
In Paris, by the last decade of the nineteenth century, a popular form of entertainment, ‘quadrille naturaliste’ (the street dances), became the object of attraction for the Parisians. However, their popularity in the streets did not find expressions among the intellectuals and the politicians. Andr? Chadourne expressed in a treatise, in 1889 that such forms of popular entertainment were degraded and base; and in 1891, senator Ren? B?renger as the president of ‘The League against Licence in the Streets’, campaigned against the quadrilles.
Though the quadrilles were considered as anti-establishment by the upper classes, their popularity continued, and they found expressions in the popular press. Ferdinand Lunel drew the dance of La Goulue (with Valentin le D?soss. they were the most popular couple among the quadrille dancers) for the cover of ‘Le Courrier Fran?ais’ on 12 May 1889. In December, a two page engraving followed, but this time Lunel also included Valentin as her companion.
However, the most well-known, and probably one of the most successful quadrille depiction was completed in 1890, by Toulouse-Lautrec. At the age of 25, Lautrec was one of the most innovative artists of his time, and his move into the avant-garde circles dated back to 1888. As Maurice Denis points out in his article ‘From Gauguin and van Gogh to Neo-Classicism’ that was published in L’Occident, in May 1909, with Emile Bernard, van Gogh and Anquetin, Lautrec was the rebel of the Cormon studio, sympathetic to everything new and subversive.
‘Au Moulin Rouge, la danse’ was one of the first works of Lautrec’s maturity, and reflected his distinctive style. The painting depicts Valentin performing the quadrille with a new girl. Around them is a crowd that varies from uninterested passersby to careful viewers. While the dancing takes place in the middle ground, at the front, a woman, explicitly dressed in pink watches the incident. The dressing and her make up probably signifies that she is a prostitute.
Lautrec’s extensive use of lines makes his work resemble a drawing rather than painting. His free treatment of figures gives the expression of a quick sketch. However, the most striking and distinctive characteristic of his work is the use of color. In terms of quantity he may be considered as a minimalist, but the quality and the representative power of his colors is incomparable to most of his contemporaries. The whole setting of the painting is based on a contrast between natural/soft colors and bright ones. A mixture of green and brown is dominant in the work. However, we see a line of three figures which contrast with the general color balance. In the foreground, there is the probable prostitute with the pink dress. In the middle, there is the female dancer who wears a light brown dress and bright red socks. Finally, at the very back there is another woman. She is dressed in red and with her lipsticks of the same color and the light colored hair she is the prominent figure of the background. She, too is probably a part of the Parisian night-life, but it is hard to tell her position. Nevertheless, the three figures make up a line of brightness within a setting which is very much homogenized in a boringly stereo-typical way. Therefore, the popular perception of the night-life (that Lautrec also shared) that takes it as a middle/lower class entertainment which can bring color to the highly ordered and bourgeois dominated social life, and which can ‘carnivalize’ it, is visually represented in Lautrec’s painting.
In 1891, Lautrec made a color lithograph called ‘La Goulue au Moulin Rouge’. This poster announcing the new season in Moulin Rouge, was his most innovate product up to that period. As the spectators, there is a line of black silhouettes in the background. In the foreground, there is the profile of Valentin, again as a silhouette, but of a lighter color of brown. In the middle La Goulue performs her dance in a red and white dress. The three levels of depth composed by different colors and the yellow-red dominance of the poster allude to the passionate night-life of Paris, and moreover it is a direct invitation to this life. When the two works that I have mentioned are combined, the outcome is the mixture of popular culture, life of the common people, the street and a work of art intended for mediatic consumption.
In 1901, Toulouse-Lautrec died of alcohol abuse, a year before 15 year old Marcel Duchamp painted his first oil on canvas landscape. Taking steps into maturity, by 1911 this young artist became interested in motion and the operation of the machine. The same year, he painted the ‘Coffee Mill’ for the decoration of his brother’s kitchen; and in 1912 he finished the ‘Nude Descending a Staircase’, a cubist work with a futuristic prominence given to movement.
In 1915, when Marcel Duchamp arrived in New York harbor, he not only changed the course of his carrier, but also the course of the twentieth century art. In an interview, he explained that he had not come to New York because he could not paint, but because he had no one to talk with. The account summarizes the fact that the cultural center of the Western world was moving from Europe, and mainly Paris, to New York. This move was not only a geographical one, it also signaled a total change in the European perception of art, and a rendering of avant-garde ideas within the unique culture of America. Duchamp made the following account in another interview: ‘…And I believe that your idea of demolishing old buildings and souvenirs, is fine…The dead should not be permitted to be so much stronger than the living.’ For him European art was surely dead, and even ‘Nude Descending a Staircase’ was not worth of further discussion, since it was what to do that Duchamp cared and not what he had done.
Here, my main concern will be Duchamp’s ‘ready-mades’, and his understanding of art, very much in relation with a new notion of movement. This new motion is not of a single machine or a man, but of the society itself. It is the temporality of daily life, consumption and the visible change that the individual experiences everyday. On the other hand, Duchamp’s treatment of this movement, was very much like that of a comedian. He represented it in the most explicit and marginal way, breaking all existing understandings about art. In 1917 edition of ‘The Blind Man’, Duchamp wrote an article on the ‘The Richard Mutt Case’, the urinal that was rejected by the Independents exhibition of 1917. He said: ‘Mr. Mutt took an ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under the new title and point of view- created anew thought for that object. For Duchamp, the significance of a work of art did not reside in the object itself. Urinals and bottle dryers are equally devoid of artistic richness, but when presented as works of art, they can serve as stimuli to the widest possible range of speculations.
Duchamp took the canons of modern society and of art; and then he ‘carnivalized’ them like his predecessor Lautrec. The tie between art and mass produced consumer goods were broken. A mustache on Mona Lisa not only questioned the idea of artistic value, but also the validity of the bases upon which such an idea was constructed. How and by whom the boundaries of artistic contribution could be drawn? Was the norm for art, the material used (oil on canvas versus the bicycle wheel), or the totality of the work? And could permanency be a criteria in such a rapidly changing society? These questions that were raised by the works of Duchamp would soon become even more controversial, with the arrival of a young man from Pittsburgh into the New York scene of art.
The New York career of Andrew Warhola began in the ‘Glamour’, in 1949, as an illustrator of foot wear. The road that finally made him Andy Warhol, the pop-artist went through years of work in fashion magazines and unsuccessful exhibitions. However, by the year 1960 he started producing paintings of popular comic strip characters like Superman, Dick Tracy and Popeye. The idea that any subject is fit for art, and the fact that for his paintings he could choose from the existing images instead of creating new ones was an influence of his contemporary artist Rauschenberg. For years, Warhol had produced commercial art from photographs, therefore this was not a brand new practice for him. The only thing new was using his talent purely for his own artistic ambitions.
Warhol started to paint his Campbell Soup can portraits by the end of 1961. Long before they were exhibited, they had created controversy and scandal. The identical reproduction of a consumer good was not even practiced by the so called Neo-Dadaists; Johns and Rauschenberg. However, made the following account on the issue: ‘If you take a Campbell Soup can and repeat it fifty times, you are not interested in the retinal image. What interests you is the concept that wants to put fifty Campbell’s Soup cans on a canvas .’
The manifestation of an artistic view that defined itself as ‘fad’, the mass production of mass consumed goods which were seen as the representatives of life, and an artist who declared to be a machine signify the inseparable integration of art and popular culture idols, and the commercialization of life. As Warhol himself once said; ‘if you are not promoted right, you will not be one of those remembered names .’ Such an integration had different effects on Warhol’s works. First of all he worked in his ‘silver Factory’, and produced his paintings within a stereo-typical discipline. Secondly what he painted was not the object itself, but rather the popular image that was created in the minds of the people. In other words, the depiction of Elvis, or a car accident did not intend to represent the realities that accompanied those themes; but it rather represented the iconic imagery that these ‘objects’ had gained through the manipulation of the popular media. Therefore, his paintings were the representations of the everyday life which could no longer be considered without its idols, from the Campbell Soup to Superman and Marilyn Monroe.
The three artists that I tried to examine represent an important evolution in the history of art. This gradual transition can well be considered in relation with the terms avant-garde and popular culture. The interest in the ‘common’ and the anti-bourgeois activities of the popular culture that was evident in Toulouse-Lautrec moved towards a formal interest in the common with Macel Duchamp. While the content of art was very much debated in the late nineteenth century, Duchamp broadened the discussion to a level that covered also the nature of the object and the meaning of art, and he deconstructed the machine of modernity into its individual pieces. Andy Warhol followed the tradition of ready-mades that Duchamp had introduced. However, his contribution was in terms of an involvement in the ‘machine’ as one of its parts, or becoming the machine itself. To conclude, what Warhol manufactured in his factory were the continuations of Lautrec’s popular posters which were rendered in the Dadaist perception of Marcel Duchamp.
Bourdon, David. Warhol. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989.
D’Harnoncourt, Anne and Kynaston McShine, eds. Marcel Duchamp. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1989.
Harrison, Charles and Paul Wood, eds. Art in Theory 1900-1990 An Anthology of Changing Ideas. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1993.
Mamiya, Christian J. Popular Culture and Consumer Culture American Super Market. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992.
Murray, Gale B. Toulouse-Lautrec, The Formative Years 1878-1891. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
Naumann, Francis M. The New York Dada 1915-23. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994.
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