Essay About Foreign Who Invaded India During Medieval Period Dates - Essay for you

Essay for you

Essay About Foreign Who Invaded India During Medieval Period Dates

Rating: 4.5/5.0 (17 Votes)

Category: Essay

Description

Реферат - Medieval Europe Essay Research Paper Medieval EuropeMany - Иностранный язык

Medieval Europe Essay, Research Paper

Many great Historians of European history identify the years 500-1500 the Middle Ages or the Medieval Period. The word medieval came about when early scholars combined the two Latin words medium (middle) and aevum (age), which means the transition between ancient and modern times. The first 500 years of this period are known as the Early Middle Ages or the Dark Ages. They were called the Dark Ages because the level of learning and culture were not as great as they had been earlier, during Greek and Roman Times. After the year 1000, Western Europeans saw many changes in their social, economic, and political lives. The many small kingdoms of Western Europe began to develop political strength and size. This time period was known as the Later Middle Ages. However, this time period played a great roll in history because it laid the foundation for Europe’s future development.

Early Middle Ages (AD 500 – 1000)

The Early Middle Ages firstly began with the fall of Roman empire which lead to a decline in commerce and cities in Western Europe. This time period is known more for its plunge than anything else. Bridges, roads, and sewage systems were not maintained. Many people left cities for the countryside because city life became almost unbearable.

Many kingdoms were now developing, but they all remained small and weak. However, there was one exception to this, the Frankish Kingdom, which included most of present-day France and the western half of present-day Germany. The Franks were a Germanic group of people who had adopted the Christian Religion. One of the Franks greatest leaders was Charles Martel who organized an army to fight the Moors (a Muslim Group who invaded Spain).

These two powers met at the Battle of Tours, but the Franks came out on top. This battle stopped the Moors from advancing anymore into the heart of Europe. The next dominant leader of the Franks was Martel’s grandson, Charlemagne, who was the son of Pepin the Short. He ruled what are now present-day France, Germany, Austria, Northern Italy and most of Spain, from AD 768 to 814. This new enlarged conquered area was now known as The Frankish Empire. The Pope (head of the Christian Church in Rome) gave Charlemagne the title of “Emperor of the Romans” because his empire helped the spread of the Christian Religion. Charlemagne also made many new reforms, which brought back the ideas of learning and scholarship. After this, many people began to learn how to read and write. Also, he introduced the idea of feudalism. This great empire came to a decline when the great emperor, Charlemagne, kicked the bucket in AD 814.

Charlemagne’s three grandsons, Charles the Bald, Louis the German, and Lothair all wanted to rule this great empire in which their Grandfather built. They began to quarrel over this empire but they came to a mutual agreement called the Treaty of Verdun. This treaty stated that each brother got part of the vast empire. Charles the Bald received most of present-day France, Louis the German received what is now present-day Germany, and Lothair became the Holy Roman Emperor and got a strip of land in the middle of the empire. The division of the empire into three parts greatly weakened it to foreign invasions. The empire came to a devastating crash after being raided by Muslims, Slavs, Magyars, and the Vikings.

With the weakening of the central government, Charlemgne’s feudalism came to use as the new political system in Western Europe. Feudalism was highly a decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles of varying degrees of power. Feudalism in Medieval Europe was an economic, political, social system based on the concept of protection. The system was based on giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid. Here is an example of how feudalism works. A king would grant a large piece of land to an individual noble in return for political and military support. Those who received these large estates would, in turn, grant smaller pieces of land to lesser lords in return for loyalty and protection. Most of these people were vassals (knights).

Another system that played a large role in this economic scale was manorialism. Manorialism was a system linking nobles and peasants on their land. Basic to this system was the manor, a large piece of land on which the lord’s house or castle, church, and cottages for the peasants and artisans were located. These huge manors were self-sufficient and extremely large. The main part of a manor was the people who did all the labor, or the peasants. Some of the peasants were called serfs. Serfs were a group of people who lived on the manors there whole lives and weren’t permitted to leave it or work anywhere other then the manor.

Late Middle Ages (AD 1000 – 1500)

The beginning of the Late Middle Ages is marked by the increase in agriculture production. Now manors could easily supply their own needs, and they could now produce a surplus that could be sold to others. This was due to new farming techniques such as three-field farming, horse collars, and iron-tipped plows. Another mark of this time period is the increase of trade in Western Europe. Trade routes became safer for traders to travel on. Now more merchants and artisans settled in towns, which began to increase in size and population. With the growth of towns came the rise of a new social class in Western Europe, the middle class. This class was not made up of peasants or lords, but made up of merchants and artisans. An artisan is a person who is skilled in a craft. Some of the crafts that artisans mastered were making shoes, hats, jewelry, barrels, wine, baked good, etc. These large groups of artisans created guilds, or business associations of a certain craft. These guilds would train young workers, known as apprentices, in the skills of the craft. Guilds also set prices, wages, working conditions, and quality standards for the making of all the goods.

The Crusades were a series of wars by Western European Christians to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. They lasted from around AD 1096 to 1291. Armies of Christians marched and sailed from Europe to the Middle East in an effort to recover Jerusalem (the Holy Land) from the Seljuk Turks, a Muslim group. The Crusades began with the urging from Pope Urban II to take the Holy Land back from the Muslims. None of the Crusades were one hundred percent successful in freeing the Holy Land. One reason for this is was because the Crusaders lacked a strong military power. However, the Crusades were not a waste because they had some lasting effects, such as cultural diffusion, increased world trade, and persecution of Jews and Muslims.

Many of the cultural achievements of Western Europeans were associated with the Roman Catholic Church. One of the achievements was large cathedrals. Many people spent a lot of money and many devoted years of labor to building these cathedrals. Many churches that where constructed at this time, were decorated with stained-glass windows, sculptures, and paintings. The church played a large role in people lives.

Education started to become more and more essential. Most schools of this time period were associated with the Roman Catholic Church. Universities were founded that trained people for careers in medicine and law. At medieval universities, scholars studied Latin classics and Roman law in depth. Scholars of this time applied Aristotle’s philosophy to theological questions and developed a system of thought called scholasticism.

Many of today’s European nations, such as England and France, as well as many of the Western world’s legal procedures and forms of government can trace their origins to the political struggles in the medieval times. The medieval Catholic Church wove Christianity into the fabric of Western culture and laid the basis for modern scholarship by preserving and transmitting the learning of the ancient world. Many characteristics of modern Western civilization arose during the Middle Ages. The medieval history of Europe’s great cities can still be seen in great cathedrals. Modern labor unions and institutions of higher learning are related to medieval guilds and universities. The Middle Ages played a great role in making the world the way it is today.

Other articles

Medieval Europe Essay Research Paper Medieval EuropeMany

Medieval Europe Essay Research Paper Medieval EuropeMany

Medieval Europe Essay, Research Paper

Many great Historians of European history identify the years 500-1500 the Middle Ages or the Medieval Period. The word medieval came about when early scholars combined the two Latin words medium (middle) and aevum (age), which means the transition between ancient and modern times. The first 500 years of this period are known as the Early Middle Ages or the Dark Ages. They were called the Dark Ages because the level of learning and culture were not as great as they had been earlier, during Greek and Roman Times. After the year 1000, Western Europeans saw many changes in their social, economic, and political lives. The many small kingdoms of Western Europe began to develop political strength and size. This time period was known as the Later Middle Ages. However, this time period played a great roll in history because it laid the foundation for Europe’s future development.

Early Middle Ages (AD 500 – 1000)

The Early Middle Ages firstly began with the fall of Roman empire which lead to a decline in commerce and cities in Western Europe. This time period is known more for its plunge than anything else. Bridges, roads, and sewage systems were not maintained. Many people left cities for the countryside because city life became almost unbearable.

Many kingdoms were now developing, but they all remained small and weak. However, there was one exception to this, the Frankish Kingdom, which included most of present-day France and the western half of present-day Germany. The Franks were a Germanic group of people who had adopted the Christian Religion. One of the Franks greatest leaders was Charles Martel who organized an army to fight the Moors (a Muslim Group who invaded Spain).

These two powers met at the Battle of Tours, but the Franks came out on top. This battle stopped the Moors from advancing anymore into the heart of Europe. The next dominant leader of the Franks was Martel’s grandson, Charlemagne, who was the son of Pepin the Short. He ruled what are now present-day France, Germany, Austria, Northern Italy and most of Spain, from AD 768 to 814. This new enlarged conquered area was now known as The Frankish Empire. The Pope (head of the Christian Church in Rome) gave Charlemagne the title of “Emperor of the Romans” because his empire helped the spread of the Christian Religion. Charlemagne also made many new reforms, which brought back the ideas of learning and scholarship. After this, many people began to learn how to read and write. Also, he introduced the idea of feudalism. This great empire came to a decline when the great emperor, Charlemagne, kicked the bucket in AD 814.

Charlemagne’s three grandsons, Charles the Bald, Louis the German, and Lothair all wanted to rule this great empire in which their Grandfather built. They began to quarrel over this empire but they came to a mutual agreement called the Treaty of Verdun. This treaty stated that each brother got part of the vast empire. Charles the Bald received most of present-day France, Louis the German received what is now present-day Germany, and Lothair became the Holy Roman Emperor and got a strip of land in the middle of the empire. The division of the empire into three parts greatly weakened it to foreign invasions. The empire came to a devastating crash after being raided by Muslims, Slavs, Magyars, and the Vikings.

With the weakening of the central government, Charlemgne’s feudalism came to use as the new political system in Western Europe. Feudalism was highly a decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles of varying degrees of power. Feudalism in Medieval Europe was an economic, political, social system based on the concept of protection. The system was based on giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid. Here is an example of how feudalism works. A king would grant a large piece of land to an individual noble in return for political and military support. Those who received these large estates would, in turn, grant smaller pieces of land to lesser lords in return for loyalty and protection. Most of these people w

ere vassals (knights).

Another system that played a large role in this economic scale was manorialism. Manorialism was a system linking nobles and peasants on their land. Basic to this system was the manor, a large piece of land on which the lord’s house or castle, church, and cottages for the peasants and artisans were located. These huge manors were self-sufficient and extremely large. The main part of a manor was the people who did all the labor, or the peasants. Some of the peasants were called serfs. Serfs were a group of people who lived on the manors there whole lives and weren’t permitted to leave it or work anywhere other then the manor.

Late Middle Ages (AD 1000 – 1500)

The beginning of the Late Middle Ages is marked by the increase in agriculture production. Now manors could easily supply their own needs, and they could now produce a surplus that could be sold to others. This was due to new farming techniques such as three-field farming, horse collars, and iron-tipped plows. Another mark of this time period is the increase of trade in Western Europe. Trade routes became safer for traders to travel on. Now more merchants and artisans settled in towns, which began to increase in size and population. With the growth of towns came the rise of a new social class in Western Europe, the middle class. This class was not made up of peasants or lords, but made up of merchants and artisans. An artisan is a person who is skilled in a craft. Some of the crafts that artisans mastered were making shoes, hats, jewelry, barrels, wine, baked good, etc. These large groups of artisans created guilds, or business associations of a certain craft. These guilds would train young workers, known as apprentices, in the skills of the craft. Guilds also set prices, wages, working conditions, and quality standards for the making of all the goods.

The Crusades were a series of wars by Western European Christians to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. They lasted from around AD 1096 to 1291. Armies of Christians marched and sailed from Europe to the Middle East in an effort to recover Jerusalem (the Holy Land) from the Seljuk Turks, a Muslim group. The Crusades began with the urging from Pope Urban II to take the Holy Land back from the Muslims. None of the Crusades were one hundred percent successful in freeing the Holy Land. One reason for this is was because the Crusaders lacked a strong military power. However, the Crusades were not a waste because they had some lasting effects, such as cultural diffusion, increased world trade, and persecution of Jews and Muslims.

Many of the cultural achievements of Western Europeans were associated with the Roman Catholic Church. One of the achievements was large cathedrals. Many people spent a lot of money and many devoted years of labor to building these cathedrals. Many churches that where constructed at this time, were decorated with stained-glass windows, sculptures, and paintings. The church played a large role in people lives.

Education started to become more and more essential. Most schools of this time period were associated with the Roman Catholic Church. Universities were founded that trained people for careers in medicine and law. At medieval universities, scholars studied Latin classics and Roman law in depth. Scholars of this time applied Aristotle’s philosophy to theological questions and developed a system of thought called scholasticism.

Many of today’s European nations, such as England and France, as well as many of the Western world’s legal procedures and forms of government can trace their origins to the political struggles in the medieval times. The medieval Catholic Church wove Christianity into the fabric of Western culture and laid the basis for modern scholarship by preserving and transmitting the learning of the ancient world. Many characteristics of modern Western civilization arose during the Middle Ages. The medieval history of Europe’s great cities can still be seen in great cathedrals. Modern labor unions and institutions of higher learning are related to medieval guilds and universities. The Middle Ages played a great role in making the world the way it is today.

Timeline of Indian history

Timeline of Indian history

History of India is varied and rich. It has its share of joys and sorrows and yet has marched proudly with the times and has come up a winner in the modern times. Indian history is made up of many cultures of the rulers who invaded India and expanded their empire here.

Timeline Ancient India

The Indian subcontinent in the ancient times comprised of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Tibet and Myanmar. It was home to complex civilization and has been into existence for more than 5,000 years. The timeline of ancient India spans from 3300 to 500 BCE.

The beginning of the Indus valley civilization can be dated back to 3000BC. Harappa cities were established 2500 BC. Around 2000 BC began the decline of the Indus valley civilization. In the 1600 BC, the Aryans drove away the Dravidians and lived here hence after. They started the use of iron tools around 1100 BC. Rig Veda is supposed to be the important holy scripture of ancient India and was composed during the 1000 BC. The Indo-Aryans conquered the whole of north India from Indus and Ganges and ruled over 16 states. Later in the 700 BC the caste system started taking shape and declared Brahmans as the highest class. During the 527BC Prince Siddhartha Gautama attains enlightenment and becomes Buddha, which then becomes one of the major religions in India and abroad and after a few years, Prince Mahavira founded Jainism in 500 BC. In the same period we can see the rise of Maurya dynasty. The Gupta era sees a downfall in the period of 528 AD.

Timeline Medieval India

1290 AD, Jalal ud-din Firuz establishes his sultanate at Delhi and here begins the rule of the Mughul Empire in India. Thereafter many Mughal rulers ruled India. 1343 AD saw the southern kingdom build the capital at Vijaynagar. They took over the Mughal sultanate of Madura. Babur invades India in 1497 and establishes in India. His son takes over the kingdom after his death in 1530. Later Akbar becomes the king and is supposed to have had a very prosperous kingdom till his death and is considered as one of the greatest rulers of medieval India. His son Jahangir takes over in 1605. It has been stated, during the 1611 AD, many foreign rulers came to India including the East India Company to trade and established their empire here. In 1627 a Hindu King Shivaji of the Maratha Kingdom establishes in the Northern and western part of India. 1631 AD is famous for the building of Taj Mahal that was built during the period of Shah Jahan. But in 1658 AD Aurangzeb seizes power and takes over from his father and sends him to exile. Aurangzeb died in 1701 thus ending the Mughul era.

Timeline modern India

In 1751 AD, Britain becomes the most powerful colonial power in India and defeats Siraj-ud-daulah and seizes power of the northern parts of India. Marathas had control over most parts of northern and central parts of India during the 1761 AD. By this time the British had become very powerful and control over most of the southern parts as well. 1769 AD saw a worst famine that killed around 10 million people in Bengal and the British did nothing to help. In 1799AD the British defeated Tipu Sultan in the south and took over the administration of Mysore. In 1848 Lord Dalhousie becomes the first Governor General of India. It is also known that the railway, telegraph and the postal services were introduced in India in 1853 AD. This saw India become a modern country and started developing at a faster speed. 1858 AD is an important year that says the British officially takes over the Indian government and proclaimed the Queen of England as the Empress of India.

By then the freedom struggle was spread all over the country and people were now against the British rule. It was in 1885 AD that saw the first meeting of the Indian National Congress. In 1912 AD the capital was shifted to Delhi from Calcutta. 1934 AD the civil disobedience was called off and Quit India movement was launched in 1942 AD. India got its independence in 1947 AD from the British and is now known as the Republic of India.

Last Updated on. May 23, 2015

Ancient Indian History Period of Foreign Invaders

Period of Foreign Invaders

The invasion of Yavanas from the west was the important event in the history of ancient Indis. It started during the reign of Pushyamitra Sunga.

Kalidasa also mentions about Vasumitra's conflict with Yavanas in his book Malavikagnimitram .

Patanjali had also mentioned this invasion.

Originally, the word ‘Yavana ’ used for Ionian Greeks, but later it came to denote, all people of Greek nationality.

The Yavanas were the first ones to establish foreign supremacy on Indian soil.

The Yavanas came after several central Asian tribes who invaded India and established their political authority.

Indo-Greeks

The arrival of the Yavanas in India marked by their invasion on the western border of India.

  • After Alexander’s death, a large part of his empire came under the rule of his Generals.

    Bactria and Parthia, the adjoining areas of Iran were two main areas under the rule of Alexander’s Generals.

    Diodotus, the governor of Bactria, revolted in about 250 B.C. against the Greeks and proclaimed his independence.

    Euthydemus, Demetrius, Eucratides, and Menander were some important Indo-Greek kings.

    Menander, during the 165-145 B.C. was most illustrious among all the Indo-Greek rulers. His capital was Sakala (modern Sialkot) in Pakistan and he ruled for almost twenty years.

    Greek writers mentioned that Menander was a great ruler and his territory extended from Afghanistan to Uttar Pradesh in east and Gujarat in the west.

    Menander was converted to Buddhism by Buddhist monk Nagasena.

    Menander asked many questions related to philosophy and Buddhism to Nagasena. They were recorded together with Nagasena's answers in Milindapanho or the Questions of Milinda.

    The Indo-Greek rulers were the first one in the history of India, whose coins carried the portraits of kings and their names.

    Before the Indo-Greek rulers, the coins in India did not carry names or portraits of the kings and also Indo Greeks were the first rulers who issued gold coins.

    Their coins are known for the depiction of realistic and artistic portraits.

    Parthians

    The Parthians were also known as Pahlavas. They were Iranian people. Few facts may be gathered from the coins and inscriptions. However, their history is not clear.

    Vonones was the earliest king of the Parthian dynasty. He captured power in Arachosia and Seistan and adopted the title of "great king of kings".

    Vonones was succeeded by Spalirises.

    Gondophernes was the greatest of the Parthian rulers. He ruled from A.D. 19 to AD 45.

    Gondophernes became master of the Saka-Pahalva area both in eastern Iran and north-western India for a short period.

    After Gondophernes, the Pahlava rule in India ended. They were replaced by the Kushanas.

    This fact is established by the excavations at Begram in Afghanistan where a large number of coins of Gondophernes was found.

    Sakas

    The Indo-Greek rule in north-western India was destroyed by the Sakas.

    The Sakas are also known as the Scythians.

    Sakas or Scythians were nomadic tribes originally from central Asia.

    In about 165 B.C. Sakas were turned out of their original home by the Yueh-chi.

    Yueh-chi later came to be known as Kushanas.

    Sakas were also pushed out of their land and came to India.

    The departure made by the central Asian tribes was the result of the prevailing situations in central Asia and adjoining northwestern China.

    The construction of the Great Wall of China in the 3 rd century B.C. left these tribes like Hiung-nu, Wu -sun and Yueh–chi, no option but to move towards south and west.

    The first migrants were Yueh-chi, they displaced Sakas.

    The Sakas invaded Bactria and Parthia and thereafter entered India through the Bolan Pass.

    The Sakas were divided into five branches and established themselves in various parts of north-western and northern India.

    The first branch settled in Afghanistan.

    The second branch settled in Punjab with Taxila as its capital.

    The third branch settled in Mathura.

    The fourth in Maharashtra and Saurashtra.

    The fifth in central India with Ujjain as its capital.

    The Sakas ruled in different areas from the 1 st century B.C. to about 4 th century A.D.

    Therefore, Sakas ruled in different parts of the country. However, the branch of Sakas who ruled in central and western India rose to prominence.

    Nahapana was the most prominent ruler of western India. His reference had been found in various inscriptions in Maharashtra and in the records of the Satavahanas.

    Rudradaman the most illustrious ruler of the central Indian branch. He ruled from (about) A.D. 130 to 150.

    Junagarh rock inscription was erected by Rudradaman.

    Junagarh inscription mentioned that his rule extended over a vast territory including the areas of Gujarat, Sindh, Saurashtra, north Konkan, Malwa, and some parts of Rajasthan.

    Rudradaman undertook the repairs of the Sudarsan lake dam. However, Sudarsan lake dam had been built by the provincial governer of Chandragupta Maurya in Kathiawad when it was damaged by heavy rains.

    Ujjayini was the capital of Rudradaman. It became a centre of culture and education.

    The Saka’s dynasty came to an end with the defeat of the last king in the hands of Chandragupta II of the Gupta dynasty, in about A.D. 390.

    Kushanas

    Yueh-chi were a nomadic tribe settled on the north-western border of China as per accounts of the Chinese historians.

    Yueh-chi came in conflict with a neighbouring tribe known as Hiung-nu in the year 165 B.C. In this conflict, Yueh-chi were defeated and forced to move out of their land.

    They could not move towards china in the east because of the China Wall; therefore, they moved toward the west and south.

    In westwards movement, Yueh-chi came in conflict with another tribe called Wu-sun whom Yueh-chi defeated easily. Thereafter, Yueh-chi were divided into two groups as −

    Little Yueh-chi migrated to Tibet.

    Great Yueh-chi came to India.

    Yueh-chi met with the Sakas who occupied the territory of Bactria after defeating Wu–sun.

    The Saka's were defeated and forced to leave their land.

    Saka's came to India and the Yueh-chi settled down in the land of the Sakas.

    Yueh-chi people, lastly, gave up their nomadic life and adopted an agricultural and a settled way of life.

    The great Yueh-chi branch was divided into five branches.

    Chinese sources explained that the first great Yueh-chi king was Kujula Kadphises. He was also known as Kadphises I. He united all the five groups and established his authority over Afghanistan. He called himself 'great king'.

    Kujula Kadphises was also known as ‘Dharmathida’ and ‘Sachadharmathida’ (meaning one who believs in true faith). It is suggested that he was a Buddhist.

    Kadphises I was succeeded by his son Kadphises II. He extended Kushana’s territory upto Punjab, or perhaps even up to the Ganga Yamuna doab.

    Kadphises II issued gold and copper coins. He is referred as the great king and a devotee of Siva.

    On some of Kadphises II’s coins, Siva holding a trident and bull are shown.

    Kanishk

    Kadphises II was succeeded by Kanishka. He was most known and greatest of all the Kushana kings.

    Kanishka ascended to throne in A.D. 78 and he founded the Saka era.

    Kaniskha ruled from A.D. 78-101.

    Kanishka's empire extended from Khotan in the northwest to Benaras in the east and Kashmir in the north to Saurashtra and Malwa in the south.

    Purushapur i.e. modern Peshawar was the capital of the vast empire of Kanishka.

    The Coins of Kanishka had been found from almost all over the above mentioned area.

    Kanishka was a follower of Buddhism. The 4 th Buddhist council was held during Kanishka's reign.

    Kanishka's court was adorned by the presence of scholars such as Parsva, Vasumitra, Ashvaghosha, Charaka, and Nagarjuna.

    Taxila and Mathura emerged as the great centres of art and culture during the reign of Kanishka.

  • His successors were Vasishka, Huvishka, Vasudeva, and some others.

    Vasudeva is a purely Indian name and it suggests the complete Indianisation of Kushana. Vasudeva was a Saiva, though his name is after the Vaishnava deity.

    The decline of Kushana power begins after Vasishka. However, Kushanas continued to rule up to the 4 th century A.D. over small kingdom, independently under some sovereign rulers.

Реферат: Medieval Europe Essay Research Paper Medieval EuropeMany

Medieval Europe Essay, Research Paper

Many great Historians of European history identify the years 500-1500 the Middle Ages or the Medieval Period. The word medieval came about when early scholars combined the two Latin words medium (middle) and aevum (age), which means the transition between ancient and modern times. The first 500 years of this period are known as the Early Middle Ages or the Dark Ages. They were called the Dark Ages because the level of learning and culture were not as great as they had been earlier, during Greek and Roman Times. After the year 1000, Western Europeans saw many changes in their social, economic, and political lives. The many small kingdoms of Western Europe began to develop political strength and size. This time period was known as the Later Middle Ages. However, this time period played a great roll in history because it laid the foundation for Europe’s future development.

Early Middle Ages (AD 500 – 1000)

The Early Middle Ages firstly began with the fall of Roman empire which lead to a decline in commerce and cities in Western Europe. This time period is known more for its plunge than anything else. Bridges, roads, and sewage systems were not maintained. Many people left cities for the countryside because city life became almost unbearable.

Many kingdoms were now developing, but they all remained small and weak. However, there was one exception to this, the Frankish Kingdom, which included most of present-day France and the western half of present-day Germany. The Franks were a Germanic group of people who had adopted the Christian Religion. One of the Franks greatest leaders was Charles Martel who organized an army to fight the Moors (a Muslim Group who invaded Spain).

These two powers met at the Battle of Tours, but the Franks came out on top. This battle stopped the Moors from advancing anymore into the heart of Europe. The next dominant leader of the Franks was Martel’s grandson, Charlemagne, who was the son of Pepin the Short. He ruled what are now present-day France, Germany, Austria, Northern Italy and most of Spain, from AD 768 to 814. This new enlarged conquered area was now known as The Frankish Empire. The Pope (head of the Christian Church in Rome) gave Charlemagne the title of “Emperor of the Romans” because his empire helped the spread of the Christian Religion. Charlemagne also made many new reforms, which brought back the ideas of learning and scholarship. After this, many people began to learn how to read and write. Also, he introduced the idea of feudalism. This great empire came to a decline when the great emperor, Charlemagne, kicked the bucket in AD 814.

Charlemagne’s three grandsons, Charles the Bald, Louis the German, and Lothair all wanted to rule this great empire in which their Grandfather built. They began to quarrel over this empire but they came to a mutual agreement called the Treaty of Verdun. This treaty stated that each brother got part of the vast empire. Charles the Bald received most of present-day France, Louis the German received what is now present-day Germany, and Lothair became the Holy Roman Emperor and got a strip of land in the middle of the empire. The division of the empire into three parts greatly weakened it to foreign invasions. The empire came to a devastating crash after being raided by Muslims, Slavs, Magyars, and the Vikings.

With the weakening of the central government, Charlemgne’s feudalism came to use as the new political system in Western Europe. Feudalism was highly a decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles of varying degrees of power. Feudalism in Medieval Europe was an economic, political, social system based on the concept of protection. The system was based on giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid. Here is an example of how feudalism works. A king would grant a large piece of land to an individual noble in return for political and military support. Those who received these large estates would, in turn, grant smaller pieces of land to lesser lords in return for loyalty and protection. Most of these people were vassals (knights).

Another system that played a large role in this economic scale was manorialism. Manorialism was a system linking nobles and peasants on their land. Basic to this system was the manor, a large piece of land on which the lord’s house or castle, church, and cottages for the peasants and artisans were located. These huge manors were self-sufficient and extremely large. The main part of a manor was the people who did all the labor, or the peasants. Some of the peasants were called serfs. Serfs were a group of people who lived on the manors there whole lives and weren’t permitted to leave it or work anywhere other then the manor.

Late Middle Ages (AD 1000 – 1500)

The beginning of the Late Middle Ages is marked by the increase in agriculture production. Now manors could easily supply their own needs, and they could now produce a surplus that could be sold to others. This was due to new farming techniques such as three-field farming, horse collars, and iron-tipped plows. Another mark of this time period is the increase of trade in Western Europe. Trade routes became safer for traders to travel on. Now more merchants and artisans settled in towns, which began to increase in size and population. With the growth of towns came the rise of a new social class in Western Europe, the middle class. This class was not made up of peasants or lords, but made up of merchants and artisans. An artisan is a person who is skilled in a craft. Some of the crafts that artisans mastered were making shoes, hats, jewelry, barrels, wine, baked good, etc. These large groups of artisans created guilds, or business associations of a certain craft. These guilds would train young workers, known as apprentices, in the skills of the craft. Guilds also set prices, wages, working conditions, and quality standards for the making of all the goods.

The Crusades were a series of wars by Western European Christians to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims. They lasted from around AD 1096 to 1291. Armies of Christians marched and sailed from Europe to the Middle East in an effort to recover Jerusalem (the Holy Land) from the Seljuk Turks, a Muslim group. The Crusades began with the urging from Pope Urban II to take the Holy Land back from the Muslims. None of the Crusades were one hundred percent successful in freeing the Holy Land. One reason for this is was because the Crusaders lacked a strong military power. However, the Crusades were not a waste because they had some lasting effects, such as cultural diffusion, increased world trade, and persecution of Jews and Muslims.

Many of the cultural achievements of Western Europeans were associated with the Roman Catholic Church. One of the achievements was large cathedrals. Many people spent a lot of money and many devoted years of labor to building these cathedrals. Many churches that where constructed at this time, were decorated with stained-glass windows, sculptures, and paintings. The church played a large role in people lives.

Education started to become more and more essential. Most schools of this time period were associated with the Roman Catholic Church. Universities were founded that trained people for careers in medicine and law. At medieval universities, scholars studied Latin classics and Roman law in depth. Scholars of this time applied Aristotle’s philosophy to theological questions and developed a system of thought called scholasticism.

Many of today’s European nations, such as England and France, as well as many of the Western world’s legal procedures and forms of government can trace their origins to the political struggles in the medieval times. The medieval Catholic Church wove Christianity into the fabric of Western culture and laid the basis for modern scholarship by preserving and transmitting the learning of the ancient world. Many characteristics of modern Western civilization arose during the Middle Ages. The medieval history of Europe’s great cities can still be seen in great cathedrals. Modern labor unions and institutions of higher learning are related to medieval guilds and universities. The Middle Ages played a great role in making the world the way it is today.

485 words short essay on the Political Unity of India

485 words short essay on the Political Unity of India

The name Bharatavarsha or the land of Bharata continues to apply to the whole of India since the hoary past. This name has applied to the entire country in the epics and puranas. The term Bharatavarsha symbolizes a fundamental unity. The name together with the sense of unity that is implied "was ever present before the minds of theologians, political philosophers and those who spoke of the thousand Yojanas (leagues) of land that stretches from the Himalayas to the sea as the proper domain of a single universal empire."

The glorious one nation theory is contained in the expressions like Bharatmata (Mother India), Janani Janmabhumischa Swargadapi Goriyasi (Mother and motherland are greater than heaven), Vande Mataram (Hail mother) etc. all of which apply to the whole of India.

Though political unity was rarely achieved, the ambitious rulers of ancient, medieval and modern India always longed for it. The frequent use of the royal titles like Chakravarti, Sarbabhauma Samrat, Ekrat, Rajadhiraj and the performance of Vedic sacrifices like Rajasuya, Vajapeya and Aswamedha indicate the concept of unity under one ruler. Rulers like Chandragupta Maurya, Asoka, Samudragupta during the ancient period and Alaud-in Khiliji, Mohammad Bin Tughlaq and Aurangzeb during the medieval period and the British during the modern period have made successful attempts to rule over the north and the south together under one administration though for brief periods. However, the Mughals and the British almost achieved the political unity of India by a centralized administrative system, uniform laws and uniform official language.

The popular view concerning the lack of political unity in India ignores its vastness and the natural barriers that tend to separate its different regions. When we deplore political unity it is normally compared with the smaller kingdoms like Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria. Not only that they were very small in size compared to India; there was also not a single kingdom in Europe and Asia during ancient period as large as Magadha.

A considerable part of Indian history is a chronicle of attempts to set up stable empires over the whole of the country, the impulse to which rose partly from political ambition but its most important feature was the common consciousness of the cultural and geographical unity of India.

No doubt, kingdoms and empires rose and fell like waves in the ocean. Intermittent foreign invasions did take place but foreign invaders who held temporary sway over smaller regions and were soon absorbed within the body politic never permanently impaired the political integrity of the nation. The political vitality of India was as much due to external circumstances as to internal strength. The Greeks, the Scythians, the Huns were mere oceanic waves breaking on the Indian shore, not tides that had the internal momentum to flood the entire country. Such a tide had come only once in ancient India i.e. the Aryan immigration when India was completely conquered and transformed.