Alzheimers Disease Essay, Research Paper
Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disease that destroys mental and physical functioning in human beings, and invariably leads to death. It is the fourth leading cause of adult death in the United States. Alzheimer’s creates emotional and financial catastrophe for many American families every year. Fortunately, a large amount of progress is being made to combat Alzheimer’s disease every year. To fully be able to comprehend and combat Alzheimer’s disease, one must know what it does to the brain, the part of the human body it most greatly affects. Many Alzheimer’s disease sufferers had their brains examined. A large number of differences were present when comparing the normal brain to the Alzheimer’s brain. There was a loss of nerve cells from the Cerebral Cortex in the Alzheimer’s victim. Approximately ten percent of the neurons in this region were lost. But a ten percent loss is relatively minor, and cannot account for the severe impairment suffered by Alzheimer’s victims. Neurofibrillary Tangles are also found in the brains of Alzheimer’s victims. They are found within the cell bodies of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex, and take on the structure of a paired helix. Other diseases that have “paired helixes” include Parkinson’s disease, Down’s Syndrome, and Dementia Pugilistica. Scientists are not sure how the paired helixes are related in these very different diseases. Neuritic Plaques are patches of clumped material lying outside the bodies of nerve cells in the brain. They are mainly found in the cerebral cortex, but have also been seen in other areas of the brain. At the core of each of these plaques is a substance called amyloid, an abnormal protein not usually found in the brain. This amyloid core is surrounded by cast off fragments of dead or dying nerve cells. The cell fragments include dying mitochondria, presynaptic terminals, and paired helical filaments identical to those that are neurofibrillary tangles. Many neuropathologists think that these plaques are basically clusters of degenerating nerve cells. But they are still not sure of how and why these fragments clustered together. Congophilic Angiopathy is the technical name that neuropathologists have given to an abnormality found in the walls of blood vessels in the brains of victims of Alzheimer’s disease. These abnormal patches are similar to the neuritic plaques that develop in Alzheimer’s disease, in that amyloid has been found within the blood-vessel walls wherever the patches occur. Another name for these patches is cerebrovascular amyloid, meaning amyloid found in the blood vessels of the brains. Acetylcholine is a substance that carries signals from one nerve cell to another. It is known to be important to learning and memory. In the mid 1970s, scientists found that the brains of those afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease contained sixty to ninety percent less of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase(CAT), which is responsible for producing acetylcholine, than did the brains of healthy persons. This was a great milestone, as it was the first functional change related to learning and memory, and not to different structures. Somatostatin is another means by which cells in the brain communicate with each other. The quantities of this chemical messenger, like those of CAT, are also greatly decreased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of persons with Alzheimer’s disease, almost to the same degree as CAT is lost. Although scientists have been able to identify many of these, and other changes, they are not yet sure as to how, or why they take place in Alzheimer’s disease. One could say, that they have most of the pieces of the puzzle; all that is left to do is find the missing piece and decipher the meaning. If treatment is required for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, then the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association(ADRDA), a privately funded, national, non- profit organization dedicated to easing the burden of Alzheimer victims and their families and finding a cure can be contacted. There are more than one hundred and sixty chapters throughout the country, and over one thousand support groups that can be contacted for help. ADRDA fights Alzheimer’s on five fronts 1- funding research 2- educating and thus increase public awareness 3- establishing chapters with support groups 4- encouraging federal and local legislation to help victims and their families 5- providing a service to help victims and their families find the proper care they need.
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Alzheimers Disease Essay, Research Paper
We are currently living in the age of technology. Our advancements in the past few decades overshadow everything learned in the last 2000 years. With the elimination of many diseases through effective cures and treatments, humans can expect to live a much longer life then that of their grandparents. The population of the United States continues to rise, and with the “baby boom” era coming of age, the number of elderly people is rising as well. This increase has brought with it a large increase in diseases associated with old age. Alzheimer’s dementia is one of the most common and feared diseases afflicting the elderly community. Alzheimer?s disease, once thought to be a natural part of aging, is a severely debilitating form of mental dementia. Although some other types of dementia are curable or effectively treatable, there is currently no cure for the Alzheimer variety.
A general overview of Alzheimer’s disease including the clinical description, diagnosis, and progression of symptoms, helps one to further understand the treatment and care of patients, the scope of the problem, and current research.
The clinical definition of dementia is “a deterioration in intellectual performance that involves, but is not limited to, a loss in at least 2 of the following areas: language, judgment, memory, visual or depth perception, or judgment interfering with daily activities.” (Institute, 1996, p.4). The initial cause of Alzheimer?s disease symptoms is a result of the progressive deterioration of brain cells (neurons) in the cerebral cortex of the brain. This area of the brain, which is the largest and uppermost portion, controls all our thought processes, movement, speech, and senses. This deterioration initially starts in the area of the cortex that is associated with memory and then progresses into other areas of the cortex, then into other areas of the brain that control bodily functions. The death of these cells causes an interruption of the electrochemical signals between neurons that are a key to cognitive as well as bodily functioning.
Currently Alzheimer?s disease can only be confirmed at autopsy. After death the examined brain of an Alzheimer victim shows two distinct characteristics. The first is the presence of neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain including cerebral blood vessels. These plaques consist of groups of neurons surrounded by deposits of beta-amyloid protein. The presence of these plaques is also common to other types of dementia. The second characteristic, neurofibliary tangles, is what separates Alzheimer?s disease from all other forms of dementia. Neurofibliary tangles take place within the disconnected brain cells themselves. When examined under a microscope, diseased cells appear to contain spaghetti-like tangles of normally straight nerve fibers. The presence of these tangles was first discovered in 1906 by the German neurologist Alois Alzheimer, hence the name Alzheimer’s disease.
Although the characteristics listed above are crucial to the diagnosis of Alzheimer?s disease upon death, the clinical diagnosis involves a different process. The diagnosis of Alzheimer?s disease is only made after all other illnesses, which may have the same symptoms, are ruled out. The initial symptoms of Alzheimer?s disease are typical of other treatable diseases. Therefore doctors are hesitant to give the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s in order to save the patient from the worsening of a treatable disease through a misdiagnosis. Some of the initial symptoms include an increased memory loss, changes in mood, personality, and behavior, (symptoms that are common in depression) prescription drug conflict, brain tumors, syphilis, alcoholism, other types of dementia, and many other conditions.
The onset of these symptoms usually brings the patient to his family doctor. The general practitioner runs a typical battery of urinalysis and blood tests that he sends off to the lab. If the tests come back negative, and no other cause of the symptoms is established, the patient is then referred to a specialist. The specialist, usually a psychiatrist, will then continue to rule out other possible illnesses through testing. If the next battery of tests also comes back negative, then the specialist will call on a neurologist to run a series of neurological examinations including a PET and CAT scan to rule out the possibility of brain tumors. A spinal tap is also performed to determine the possibility of other types of dementias. The patient will also undergo a complete psychiatric evaluation. If the patient meets the preliminary criteria for Alzheimer?s disease, an examination of the patients? medical history is also necessary to check for possible genetic predispositions to the disease. The psychiatric team finally meets with the neurological team to discuss their findings. If every other possible disease is ruled out, and the results of the psychiatric evaluation are typical to that of a person with the disease, the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is given.
The initial symptoms of Alzheimer?s disease are usually brushed off as a natural part of aging. The myth that a person’s memory worsens over time is just that – a myth (Myers, 1996, p.100-101). Alzheimer?s disease victims are mostly over the age of 65 and many delay treatment by attributing their problems to age. A victim might forget a well known phone number or miss an important appointment. These symptoms eventually escalate to the total disintegration of personality and all patients end up in total nursing care.
In descending order, the patient goes from (1) decreased ability to handle a complex job to (2) decreased ability to handle such complex activities of daily life as (3) managing finances, (4) complex meal preparation and (5) complex marketing skills. Next comes (6) loss of ability to pick out clothing properly, (7) or to put on clothing properly, followed by (8) loss of ability to handle the mechanics of bathing properly. Then (9) progressive difficulties with continence and (10) toileting occur, followed by (11) very limited speech ability and (12) inability to speak more than a single word. Next comes (13) loss of ambulatory capability. Last to go are such basic functions as (14) sitting up, (15) smiling and (16) holding up one’s head (Brassard, 1993, p.10).
The average time from diagnosis to inevitable death is 8 years. The family of the victim is usually able to care for the victim for an average period of about 4 years (Alzheimer’s, 1996, p.44). During the progression of the disease between 10% and 15% of patients hallucinate and suffer delusions, 10% will become violent and 10% suffer from seizures (Alzheimer’s, 1996, p.46).
Once a person is diagnosed as having Alzheimer?s disease, an assessment is made of the disease’s stage of progression and of the strengths and weaknesses of the victim and the victim’s family. There are different types of assessments available to evaluate the level of dysfunction of the patient. Based on one of these assessments a care plan is put together by a team consisting of a family member, a paid or unpaid care provider, and the victim’s physician. Throughout the progression of the disease, and depending on the needs of the patient, a wide range of expensive medication, such as psychoactive drugs to lift depression and sedatives to control violence may be required.
Unfortunately, although a wide range of treatments have been tested, most prove to be ineffective. At the beginning of the disease the family is usually able to look after the patient without much effort. Frequently families will hire a care giver in order to alleviate some of the work.
Simple changes in the home can make life much easier for the sufferer, help them keep their self esteem, and prolong their stay at home. Examples of low-cost modifications to the environment include reducing the noise levels in the home (telephones, radios, voices, etc.); avoiding vividly patterned rugs and drapes; placing locks up high or down low on doors leading outside (Alzheimer?s disease sufferers are known to wander off); clearing floors of clutter; and reducing the contents of closets in order to simplify choices (Alzheimer, 1992, p.17). Costs are typically paid for by the victim’s family. Many of these, and other more expensive modifications are introduced in long-term care settings. They help in maintaining the safety and security of the victim as well as reducing their confusion.
The patient’s and the family’s condition should be assessed every six months (Alzheimer, 1992, p.21). In response to constantly changing needs, the aspects of care must be constantly modified. Other issues that usually arise during the care of the patient are assessment of the competence of the victim, power of attorney, and response to and prevention of abuse (Aronson, 1988, p.124). Eventually the victim’s condition deteriorates to the point where home care is no longer possible and they must be moved to a long-term care facility.
Any care giver must obtain information and education about the disease in order to effectively care for the victim. During the course of the disease victims might wander, hallucinate, or become suspicious. This behavior can place a large strain on the care giver as well as causing depression and deterioration of their own health (Aronson, 1988, p.132). An Alzheimer?s disease support group is crucial to alleviating some of the stress on the care giver. Through a support group the care giver is given the emotional and practical help needed to accomplish the large task of looking after the victim for as long as possible.
An estimated four million Americans currently have Alzheimer’s disease, and about one in every 10 Americans 65 and older has the disease (Evans, 1989, p.131). But that overall figure is misleading. According to a large survey of retired individuals, risk of Alzheimer’s disease changes considerably during the older years: From age 65 to 74, about 3% of people are affected. From age 75 to 84, the figure rises to 19%, and for those 85 and older, Alzheimer’s afflicts 47% (Evans, 1990, p. 4). Currently the U.S. population is aging, with people over 85 becoming the nation’s fastest-growing age group. Because this is also the group most affected by Alzheimer’s disease, experts warn that unless researchers discover how to prevent the disease, by the year 2050, as many as 15% of those over 65 might have Alzheimer’s.
These large and increasing figures translate into a large burden on the health care system. Even when using the most conservative estimates of the average number of years spent in an institution and the number of afflicted Americans, the costs to health care are immense. At $33,000 per patient per year in an institution and with an average stay of three years until death, the cost of Alzheimer?s disease will amount to $3 billion over the next few years; and if the entry into the disease state remains constant, it will cost the American taxpayer [an added] $1 billion per year thereafter (Brassard, 1993, p.11).
Alzheimer?s disease is a democratic disease. It affects persons of both sexes and all races and ethnic backgrounds. The major risk factors for Alzheimer?s disease are age and heredity. Persons with a high incidence of the disease in their family history are most susceptible. A specific subtype of Alzheimer?s disease exists that is solely connected to heredity. This subtype is known as Familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD). FAD is also known as Early Onset Alzheimer’s disease, named so because its symptoms start to develop much earlier than in the regular sporadic type. Only 5%-10% of all cases are of this type. FAD is suspected when Alzheimer?s disease can be traced over several generations and there is a history of (among previously affected family members) a similar age of onset and duration of the disease (usually 4 years). Approximately 50% of the children of an affected parent go on to develop the disease (Pollen, 1993, p.89).
Much research has been conducted in an attempt to locate the gene that is responsible for FAD. Currently, researchers have isolated genes 1, 14, and 21 (Alzheimer’s, 1996, p.36). However, the evidence still remains inconclusive (Statement, 1996, p.2). There is also a possibility that a specific genetic mutation merely puts a person at risk to the disease and Alzheimer?s disease is triggered by an external force, like a head injury (Statement, 1996, p.4). Finding the specific location of the gene will pave the way for a diagnostic or even predictive test for FAD.
Similar genetic tests already exist for cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy. Locating the Alzheimer?s disease gene will also allow scientists to study why the particular gene is not functioning properly and may give clues for treatment and possible cures. The long term goal of this research is the same as that of any other genetic research and that is gene therapy – which is the possibility that science could one day alter our genetic make-up.
The other much more common type of the disease is Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD). This includes all other types of the disease which are not linked to heredity. Genetic research is also playing a major role in the progress towards a diagnostic or predictive test for SAD. Recently, a gene involved in the transport of cholesterol has been identified to be associated with Alzheimer?s disease. Apolipoprotein E is located on chromosome 19 and seems to contribute to the susceptibility of a person with Alzheimer?s disease (Statement, 1996, p.6). The gene exists in three different forms or alleles (Apo E 2,3,4) and each person has a combination of two of the three. Thus an individual can have any one of the following combinations: Apo E 2/2, 3/3, 4/4, 2/3, 3/4 or 2/4.
Researchers have found a relationship between the number of copies of the 4 allele and the person’s probability of developing the disease. For example a 75 year old individual with the Apo E 4 genotype has approximately a 20% chance of remaining normal; Apo E 3/4 or 2/4, 40%; 2/2, 3/3 or 2/3, a 75% chance (Institute, 1996, p. 6).
For many years, scientists believed that aluminum was at the root of Alzheimer?s disease. High levels of aluminum were detected in the areas surrounding the beta-amyloid plaques associated with neural atrophy (Pollen, 1990, p.77). Recently however, this theory has been abandoned. Scientists concluded that the build-up of aluminum was a direct result of the wrongful use of a particular test agent employed in the studies (Brown, 1992, p.6).
Some of the current pursuits of research are in the areas of viral infection, malfunction of the immune system, and chemical imbalances. One of the hardest theories to disprove is that Alzheimer?s disease is the result of a slow acting virus present at birth (Carlton, 1996, p.13). Others believe that Alzheimer?s disease is an immune system disorder. Support for this theory comes from the presence of beta-amyloid plaques identical to those found in Alzheimer-diseased brains in the post-mortem examinations of immuno-deficiency disease victims (Alzheimer’s, 1996, p.22).
The detection of lower neurotransmitter substances such as acetylcholine, serotonin, norepinephrine and somatostatin in Alzheimer?s sufferers forms the basis of another theory that says Alzheimer?s disease is brought on by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Treatment of patients with drugs that block the breakdown of neurotransmitter substances in the brain have been met with limited success (Brassard, 1993, p.16).
Alzheimer?s disease is an enormous social and economic problem. As the population ages, the number of victims will steadily increase, imposing a massive burden on the health care system. Until a cure and effective treatment are found, Alzheimer?s will remain a terrible disease that slowly eats away at that which is the very essence of a person: their mind, leaving in its wake a mere empty shell of that person. It takes away from all of us the insightful wisdom of one of society’s most prized possessions – the elderly.
Alzheimer Society of America.(1992). Guidelines for Care. New York: Alzheimer Society of America, 17, 21.
Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral Center.(1996). Internet. http://www.alzheimers.org/adear.drct.txt, 22, 36, 44-46.
Aronson, Miriam.(1988). Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease. New York: Scribner’s, 124,132.
Brassard, Daniel.(1993). Alzheimer’s Disease. Library of Parliament, Science and Technology, 10-11, 16.
Brown, Phyllida.(1992, November 7). Alzheimer’s May Not be Linked to Aluminum. New Scientist Supplement, 6.
Carlton University Department of Health Sciences. (1996). Internet. http:\\www.nct.carltonca/fp/social.services/alzheimer/disease.dir, 13.
Evans, D. A. et al.(1989). Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease in a Community Population of Older Persons. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272 (15), 1152.
Evans, D.A. et al. (1990). Estimated Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease in the U.S. Millbank Quarterly, 68:267
Institute for Brain Aging.(1996). Internet.http://www.18.104.22.168/aboutad.html
Myers, David.(1996). Exploring Psychology. New York: Worth. 100-101.
Pollen, Daniel.(1990). Hannah’s Heirs: The Quest For the Genetic Origins of Alzheimer’s Disease. London: Oxford University Press, 77, 89.
Statement on Use of Apolipoprotein E Testing for Alzheimer’s Disease. (1996). American College of Medical Genetics/American Society of Human Genetics, 2-6.
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Alzheimer's is a terrible disease that is growing in numbers every single year. People over the age of 65 are the ones that need to worry most about getting it.
Most people dream of living a regular, normal everyday life and watching their children grow up and have families of their own, but for some people these dreams and all their memories from their past can be erased and lost in an ageless disease that affects more then four million Americans today. Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive disease that varies from person to person and robs its victims of their past and future. Alzheimer’s Disease is known as the “Great
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the most common of the dementing illnesses. A progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain, causing impaired memory, thinking and behavior. A person with.
Eraser” ;and turns everyday normal people into helpless and lifeless individuals who are left being cared for by a caregiver such as family or friends because they are unable to take care of themselves. Not only does this disease affect the person who has the disease but also takes a great toll on the family members who have to live with the victims. Alzheimer’s leaves family members feeling helpless, sad, confused and angry because they feel that there is more
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Alois Alzheimer was the first man to discover Alzheimer’s disease. Before this discovery, the illness was classified as insanity. There is now a more sensitive understanding.
that they could do or that they could have done with them in the past when they were more healthier and were able to do more things. Today more then 100,000 Americans die each year from Alzheimer’s Disease. The number of deaths keep rising and this is leaving families of the victims looking for answers to questions that not even scientists or doctors can figure out about the disease, like why this disease is caused and how this disease can
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Alois Alzheimer was the first man to discover Alzheimer’s disease. Before this discovery, the illness was classified as insanity. There is now a more sensitive understanding of this.
be cured. Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disorder that destroys mental and physical functioning in human beings and eventually leads to death, not because of the disease itself but because the disease eventually causes the body to shutdown the parts a body needs to keep a person alive. Alzheimer’s Disease is the fourth leading cause of deaths
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Imagine this. The year is 1999 and the New York Jets are playing the Minnesota Vikings in the last Super Bowl of the twentieth century. It is late in the fourth quarter, the score is Jets 21, Vikings 20. The Vikings are faced with a crucial fourth and one with a minute, ten left to play in the
I discovered Matmatah a few months ago thanks to a colleague of mine and really fell in love with their style and lyrics. Fresh Brittany sounds with enough of a gipsy rock edge if I may describe them that way!
In a song called “Alzheimer” they write:
Ou alors régressons fatalement,
Eternellement. Des débutants.
Avec la peur comme exutoire à l’ignorance
Alzheimer en prof d’histoire de nos enfances.
which can be more or less translated as
Or let’s fatally regress,
With fear as a way out of ignorance
Alzheimer as the History teacher of our childhood”
I’m not even really doing it justice at this point but I cannot get enough of that verse!
those are some cool cats folks and if you get a chance to give them a listen, take it. Also lookup the video for a song called “la cerise” on youtube (I’d link it but it’s not available in the mainland at the moment)
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Welcome to Wondering Mind.This is the online home of Badr Benjelloun.
I'm an IT Specialist, investment consultant, modern day vagabond and overall geek infatuated with life, music, food and wine, currently residing in China but originally from Casablanca, Morocco.
A follow-up study investigating the effects of resveratrol on Alzheimer's disease brings new detail regarding the immune response within the brain. Although it is not being heralded as a cure, the molecule and its effects will help focus further research.
Could resveratrol be the key to Alzheimer's treatment?
Alzheimer's disease currently affects 5 million Americans. Every 66 seconds, someone in America develops the disease.
Yet, currently, the exact mechanisms behind Alzheimer's are not fully understood, and modern treatments only address the symptoms.
These sobering facts make Alzheimer's research a hotbed of innovation. Any potential avenue is thoroughly investigated, and no molecule is left unturned.
The findings of the latest Alzheimer's study were presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2016 in Toronto, Canada, yesterday. The molecule of interest was resveratrol.What is resveratrol?
Resveratrol is a natural phenol, released by certain plants in response to attack or injury. The compound is found in a number of foods, including grapes, blueberries. raspberries, red wine, and dark chocolate.
Caloric restriction is known to reduce age-related diseases in animals, and resveratrol is known to mimic caloric restriction; it does this by releasing the same proteins - sirtuins - hence the molecule's interest to those studying neurodegenerative, age-related disease.
In 2015, the largest nationwide clinical trial on high-dosage resveratrol was published in Neurology. The researchers found that long-term resveratrol treatment of individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer's appeared to stop, or at least slow, the progress of the disease.
A protein called amyloid-beta40 (Abeta40) is known to decline as dementia worsens. The study in 2015 showed that, in individuals who took resveratrol, the Abeta40 levels remained stable. whereas the placebo group's levels dropped.
At the time, principal investigator Dr. R. Scott Turner warned: "This is a single, small study with findings that call for further research to interpret properly."
Dr. Turner was the lead investigator of the current study, along with neurologist Dr. Charbel Moussa, scientific and clinical research director of the GUMC Translational Neurotherapeutics Program. For this round of trials, the team was interested in the levels of specific molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer's patients.
In all, 19 participants received a daily dose of resveratrol (the equivalent to 1,000 bottles of red wine) and another 19 were given a placebo.Uncovering the anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol
The brains of individuals with Alzheimer's are damaged by inflammation. This inflammation is thought to be because of a reaction to the buildup of proteins in the brain, including Abeta40 and Abeta42.
Increased inflammation appears to worsen the disease. Previously, this inflammation was considered to come only from immune cells within the brain. The current study hints that this might not be the case.
The primary molecule of interest to the researchers was matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The team found a 50 percent reduction of MMP-9 in the CSF of those taking the daily resveratrol dose.
This is significant because MMP-9 is reduced when sirtuin1 (one of the proteins linked to caloric restriction) is activated. Higher levels of MMP-9 are known to cause a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier - a blockade that normally prevents proteins and other molecules from entering the brain.
Additionally, the team found that resveratrol increased levels of compounds linked to a long-term "adaptive" immune response; this suggests an involvement of inflammatory cells that are resident in the brain. This type of reaction degrades and removes neurotoxic proteins.
"These new findings are exciting because they increase our understanding of how resveratrol may be clinically beneficial to individuals with Alzheimer's disease. In particular, they point to the important role of inflammation in the disease and the potent anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol."
Dr. Scott TurnerMore questions to be answered
Although resveratrol is unlikely to be a treatment on its own (it does not prevent tau proteins from attacking and destroying neurons), a phase III trial is planned. Not only have the recent studies given insight into the disease, but they are also throwing out other questions that require answers.
For instance, Dr. Turner explains another of the mysteries to be uncovered: "A puzzling finding from the resveratrol study (as well as immunotherapy strategies for Alzheimer's under investigation) is the greater shrinkage of the brain found with treatment. These new findings support the notion that resveratrol decreases swelling that results from inflammation in Alzheimer's brain."
This "seemingly paradoxical" finding has also been described in drugs used to treat individuals with multiple sclerosis. another brain disease that involves high levels of inflammation.
Alzheimer's is a complicated disease, and it will only be through concerted effort that its secrets are finally revealed, and improved treatments are designed.
Georgetown University Medical Center news release. accessed 27 July 2016.
Additional source: Alzheimer's Association, 2016 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. accessed 27 July 2016.
Additional source: Georgetown University Medical Center, Resveratrol impacts Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. accessed 27 July 2016.
Visit our Alzheimer's / Dementia category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Alzheimer's / Dementia.
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Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic, degenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of cognition. AD that occurs before the age of 60 is known as pre-senile dementia. If AD occurs after the age of 60, it is known as senile dementia. AD accounts for more than 60% of all dementias (Taber's 81).
Alzheimers Disease. Neurobiology, Causes And Treatments Of
Alzheimers disease. Neurobiology, causes and treatments of
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the most common of the dementing illnesses.
A progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain, causing impaired memory, thinking and behavior. A person with Alzh.
What is Dementia. Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairment. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (H.
The Importance of Animal Testing
Research on animals is important in understanding diseases and developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research. Through increased efforts by the scientific community, effective treat.
Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Assoc. Inc.
70 E. Lake Street, Suite 600
Chicago, Illinois 60601 What is Alzheimer's Disease? The most common form of dementing illness, Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is
a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the brain, causing
impaired memory, thinking and behavi.
Alzheimer's, the disease of the degeneration of the brain, was
identified in 1907 by German physician Alois Alzheimer. Four million
Americans suffer from the disease which deprives the victim of the ability
to remember, think, reason, and eventually coordinate movement. This most
common form of dementia is caused physically.
What is. The most common form of dementing illness, (AD) is a progressive, degenerative disease that attacks the
brain, causing impaired memory, thinking and behavior. The person with AD may
experience confusion, personality and behavior changes, impaired judgment, and
difficulty finding words, finishing thoughts or follo.
As the elderly population in the United States of America continues to grow so rapidly, so will the incidence of the dreaded Alzheimers Disease. The 1992 United States census stated that at that time there were 33.9 million Americans over the age of 65, some 13% of the population. It is estimated that by the year 2030 this.
(AD) is one of the most fatal disease in America. It strikes
More than 4 millions of personne. Unfortunately, it also attacks a lot of loved one. And these loved ones are our parents, husband, wifes,
Brother or sisters. And we have to take care of them. But how can we deal with a personne who cant remember our name even tho.
Alzheimers disease is a slowly progressive, degenerative disorder of the brain that eventually results in abnormal brain function and death. The disease was first described in 1907 by a German physician, Dr. Alois Alzheimer(1864-1915). In the neurological autopsy on the brain of a 56-year-old woman Auguste D. of Frankfurt.