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People see it everyday across America. A group of whites burn down a black church, someone gets hurt or murdered from a racial slur, or fights break out at school or in public. These are the extremes of racism. Racism is definitely not a good thing, it's a power that has taken over through the last two years. In doing research on Racism, I hope that my feelings towards blacks would improve and they have. What will the future bring for Racism? What are the main problems of racism? Can we get a hold on racism throughout America or will we self-destruct in our own hate?

Racism is everywhere, as much as today tries to hide it or say that we resolved it forty-to-fifty years ago. Racism is still all over the place. Racism first showed it teeth in America, when the segregation of blacks and whites came along. The segregation shut down all activities or actions from whites and blacks. It absolutely separated whites and blacks from being close to each other in public and blacks having no rights. Then the movement took place when Rosa Parks wouldn't give up her seat to a white man on a bus. At the time she was tired of the treatment her and fellow African-Americans were getting. She said she was tired and on this fateful day she bgan the turning wheels of the Civil Rights Movement. The Civil Rights Movement took place and gave blacks their future as they have now. It gave them the freedom that they deserved and needed. They were given the ability to vote; not having to be separated in such insane ways against whites, as they were. Positive helpers in the role of black's rights were Dr. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X. King had a dream that little black boys and girls would be able to join hands with little white boys and girls. His dream came true. On April 4th 1968, King was leaving his motel room. When he was shot and killed (Schulke).

Everybody knows what racism is, but there are so many other factors that tie in with racism. If someo

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Реферат: Racism Essay Research Paper Racism Everywhere you

Racism Essay, Research Paper

Everywhere you go, everywhere you look, there is always somebody different.

The American society focuses on that person, or group of people. They made them feel

worthless and they treated them like animals.

Imagine walking down the street and having people stare at you or call you

names, or talk behind your back. Imagine not knowing the time because nobody will tell

you. Why won?t they tell you the time, or spare you some change? Because your black.

Actually, because your skin is a different color, your because your a different kind of

religion. In a way I admire them because they?ve survived for hundreds of years until

they were free, and now that they?re free, the modern white men harasses them and beats

them. I mean, they even had a world wide organization named for them.

The KKK has been around for awhile. The KKK or the Ku Klux Klan, was

started to get rid of blacks and Jewish people. The author of “A Monument to Racism”

writes in her article that she was in Flowery Branch, Georgia, and in front of Danny

Carver?s house, he?s a KKK leader, was 8 or more signs, and on these signs read: “A

brain is a terrible thing to waste, that?s why niggers don?t have one. (Glamour 110).”

Another sign said “NAACP” or “Niggers, Alligators, Apes, Coons, and Possums. Or

insisting that blacks don?t have brains and that they should be treated like animals.

There?s a figurine in front of the yard that had 4 young black men sitting on it with 2

KKK hooded members by them. To top it off, Carver?s lawn was on the Atlantic

highway, the main way through the capital. I strongly agree with Valerie Joseph when

she says that she “wanted to believe that people actually cared, she wanted to believe that

there were lawyers, activists, parents, church groups of all races that were bombarding

this man with phone calls and letters. She hoped that maybe teenagers would plan to

smash the figurines in the middle of the night. (Joseph 110). You can help stop this, all

you have to do is try to accept black people as you do anyone else. If you can?t, you

don?t have to express it, keep it to yourself. If you hear somebody saying something

about somebody else, all you have to do is say listen, there just as equal as you are. If

you do it, pretty soon they?ll quit.

I was in a situation one time at a bus station and was wearing baggy pants and a

shirt, I also had my beeper on. I came into the bus station off the bus and I sat down. I

heard footsteps coming closer to me and I thought I smelled alcohol. When I turned

around there was a man standing there, I said is there something I can do for you? He

turned to me and got right up in my face and said why do you wear such baggy pants? I

said their comfortable, and “Why do you wear such tight pants?” You know the old

saying: Don?t EVER mess with a drunk person? Well, I didn?t take that to heart at that

point, and the man said “What are you, some kinda nigger?” I wanted to say are there

different kinds? Then the man started taking off his gloves, he said “If you were a

nigger, I?d hit you!” I didn?t really care if he did because he?d be the only one paying for

it. Actually, I?d probably be in the hospital because that guy looked like he could pack a

punch. Then the next day I seen him talking to a BIG black man, just conversing, no

racism in his voice. It just goes to show you how hypocritical people can be when

they?re racist, but not to black people?s faces.

Many years ago the states had to force business? and schools? to allow blacks in.

For example, the Brown V. Board of Education, or years before federal troops forced

Little Rock Central high School to admit black students. The question I ask is why

would they want to be there if the government had to force the school system to let them

Also, many years ago, there was a segregation. I?m sure all of you know what

that was. It was simply when blacks and whites were separated in everyday life. They

had different water fountains, restrooms, different lines at plays and movies, and blacks

also had to sit in the back of the bus while whites had top picks on seats even if it meant

standing when a white person took your seat. Then, segregation finally was abolished.

“As blacks acquired middle-class status, just like whites before them, they moved out of

central cities, and the sustaining buffers between lower-class blacks and the surrounding

white role models, etc.- were largely removed.” (USA TODAY 55)

I was looking through “Time” magazine and I found an article that was titled

“Evict thy Neighbor.” It was about a couple that had been getting harassed by their

neighbors, they sued for $10 million in damages. Instead, U.S. District Court judge Ann

Williams authorized a settlement agreement, that will be that the harassers will have to

leave their home within 180 days.

So, there are all these people doing this, but yet they know they could go to jail.

We ask our selves, why do people do this? Well, it all started with slaves. The

African-Americans came to the United States hundreds and hundreds of years ago from

Africa. Most of the slaves came from Ethiopia, Zaire, Somalia, and Nigeria. They came

across the Atlantic Ocean with some of the first settlers. They were then sold at slave

trades and auctioned off. But, back to the modern day, blacks would think that they?d

have some sort of protection or sense of safety with police officers, but then back to the

Rodney King trial in 1993 when police pulled over a drunken black man that they said

was swerving over the road. When the man, Rodney King, got out of his car, more than 3

police officers approached him and beat him almost to death. The whole thing was

caught on tape with one of the police car?s dash mounted cameras. the four identified

police officers were put on trial, when the verdict came that they were found not guilty,

the L.A. Riots started almost immediately. People were beating others, looting stores,

and blacks were shooting and beating white police officers.

Some think that there would?ve been the L.A. riots all over again if the jury

would?ve found O.J. Simpson guilty last year.

As I said before, there is something you can do. You might not be able to stop

riots, but you?ll probably make a persons day better.

You might know of Texaco, It?s a large chain of gas stations throughout the

United States. Several employees have been called “porch monkeys” and “orangutans”.

Texaco pled guilty because an employee walked in on a faculty meeting and heard white

employee?s copying the way African Americans talk. All the white employees were also

getting promoted to a higher rank when they were doing nothing, when black employees

were working hard and getting they?re checks reduced. The settlement at Texaco was

$115 million in cash to about 1,400 current and former black workers who served. $26.1

million in pay raise over five years for black employees. $35 million for a task force to

set up diversity training programs, and an independent panel to oversee Texaco?s

employment practices. Another suit was filed against “Avis” for refusing to serve blacks

in North and South Carolina. By now it should be apparent to everyone that bigotry still

flourishes in many parts of America.

Also, rappers, who we all know are mostly black, are harassed and put down

daily, because of what they sing about. nobody criticizes country singers who sing about

the same thing over and over, or the love songs that sing about the same thing. It

shouldn?t matter what color they are or what they look like, it?s the music they sing.

Every parent thinks that rap is bad, because it has a few swears, but not if you get the

edited version. Everyone thinks that rappers commit crimes. Blacks make up 12 percent

of the population, 44 percent of arrests made are blacks being arrested for violent crimes

(US News 93). A black man can not even get a cab for 3 hours because cabbies are

afraid to drive through the ghetto. What is the ghetto? A place where homeless and low

income black and white people live and hang out.

If you just think before you talk you can make a difference, if you put yourself in

all these situations I?ve just mentioned, you would want to make a difference.

Racism Essay Research Paper Racism Everywhere you

Racism Essay Research Paper Racism Everywhere you

Everywhere you go, everywhere you look, there is always somebody different.

The American society focuses on that person, or group of people. They made them feel

worthless and they treated them like animals.

Imagine walking down the street and having people stare at you or call you

names, or talk behind your back. Imagine not knowing the time because nobody will tell

you. Why won?t they tell you the time, or spare you some change? Because your black.

Actually, because your skin is a different color, your because your a different kind of

religion. In a way I admire them because they?ve survived for hundreds of years until

they were free, and now that they?re free, the modern white men harasses them and beats

them. I mean, they even had a world wide organization named for them.

The KKK has been around for awhile. The KKK or the Ku Klux Klan, was

started to get rid of blacks and Jewish people. The author of “A Monument to Racism”

writes in her article that she was in Flowery Branch, Georgia, and in front of Danny

Carver?s house, he?s a KKK leader, was 8 or more signs, and on these signs read: “A

brain is a terrible thing to waste, that?s why niggers don?t have one. (Glamour 110).”

Another sign said “NAACP” or “Niggers, Alligators, Apes, Coons, and Possums. Or

insisting that blacks don?t have brains and that they should be treated like animals.

There?s a figurine in front of the yard that had 4 young black men sitting on it with 2

KKK hooded members by them. To top it off, Carver?s lawn was on the Atlantic

highway, the main way through the capital. I strongly agree with Valerie Joseph when

she says that she “wanted to believe that people actually cared, she wanted to believe that

there were lawyers, activists, parents, church groups of all races that were bombarding

this man with phone calls and letters. She hoped that maybe teenagers would plan to

smash the figurines in the middle of the night. (Joseph 110). You can help stop this, all

you have to do is try to accept black people as you do anyone else. If you can?t, you

don?t have to express it, keep it to yourself. If you hear somebody saying something

about somebody else, all you have to do is say listen, there just as equal as you are. If

you do it, pretty soon they?ll quit.

I was in a situation one time at a bus station and was wearing baggy pants and a

shirt, I also had my beeper on. I came into the bus station off the bus and I sat down. I

heard footsteps coming closer to me and I thought I smelled alcohol. When I turned

around there was a man standing there, I said is there something I can do for you? He

turned to me and got right up in my face and said why do you wear such baggy pants? I

said their comfortable, and “Why do you wear such tight pants?” You know the old

saying: Don?t EVER mess with a drunk person? Well, I didn?t take that to heart at that

point, and the man said “What are you, some kinda nigger?” I wanted to say are there

different kinds? Then the man started taking off his gloves, he said “If you were a

nigger, I?d hit you!” I didn?t really care if he did because he?d be the only one paying for

it. Actually, I?d probably be in the hospital because that guy looked like he could pack a

punch. Then the next day I seen him talking to a BIG black man, just conversing, no

racism in his voice. It just goes to show you how hypocritical people can be when

they?re racist, but not to black people?s faces.

Many years ago the states had to force business? and schools? to allow blacks in.

For example, the Brown V. Board of Education, or years before federal troops forced

Little Rock Central high School to admit black students. The question I ask is why

would they want to be there if the government had to force the school system to let them

Also, many years ago, there was a segregation. I?m sure all of you know what

that was. It was simply when blacks and whites were separated in everyday life. They

had different water fountains, restrooms, different lines at plays and movies, and blacks

also had to sit in the back of the bus while whites had top picks on seats even if it meant

standing when a white person took your seat. Then, segregation finally was abolished.

“As blacks acquired middle-class status, just like whites before them, they moved out of

central cities, and the sustaining buffers between lower-class blacks and the surrounding

white role models, etc.- were largely removed.” (USA TODAY 55)

I was looking through “Time” magazine and I found an article that was titled

“Evict thy Neighbor.” It was about a couple that had been getting harassed by their

neighbors, they sued for $10 million in damages. Instead, U.S. District Court judge Ann

Williams authorized a settlement agreement, that will be that the harassers will have to

leave their home within 180 days.

So, there are all these people doing this, but yet they know they could go to jail.

We ask our selves, why do people do this? Well, it all started with slaves. The

African-Americans came to the United States hundreds and hundreds of years ago from

Africa. Most of the slaves came from Ethiopia, Zaire, Somalia, and Nigeria. They came

across the Atlantic Ocean with some of the first settlers. They were then sold at slave

trades and auctioned off. But, back to the modern day, blacks would think that they?d

have some sort of protection or sense of safety with police officers, but then back to the

Rodney King trial in 1993 when police pulled over a drunken black man that they said

was swerving over the road. When the man, Rodney King, got out of his car, more than 3

police officers approached him and beat him almost to death. The whole thing was

caught on tape with one of the police car?s dash mounted cameras. the four identified

police officers were put on trial, when the verdict came that they were found not guilty,

the L.A. Riots started almost immediately. People were beating others, looting stores,

and blacks were shooting and beating white police officers.

Some think that there would?ve been the L.A. riots all over again if the jury

would?ve found O.J. Simpson guilty last year.

As I said before, there is something you can do. You might not be able to stop

riots, but you?ll probably make a persons day better.

You might know of Texaco, It?s a large chain of gas stations throughout the

United States. Several employees have been called “porch monkeys” and “orangutans”.

Texaco pled guilty because an employee walked in on a faculty meeting and heard white

employee?s copying the way African Americans talk. All the white employees were also

getting promoted to a higher rank when they were doing nothing, when black employees

were working hard and getting they?re checks reduced. The settlement at Texaco was

$115 million in cash to about 1,400 current and former black workers who served. $26.1

million in pay raise over five years for black employees. $35 million for a task force to

set up diversity training programs, and an independent panel to oversee Texaco?s

employment practices. Another suit was filed against “Avis” for refusing to serve blacks

in North and South Carolina. By now it should be apparent to everyone that bigotry still

flourishes in many parts of America.

Also, rappers, who we all know are mostly black, are harassed and put down

daily, because of what they sing about. nobody criticizes country singers who sing about

the same thing over and over, or the love songs that sing about the same thing. It

shouldn?t matter what color they are or what they look like, it?s the music they sing.

Every parent thinks that rap is bad, because it has a few swears, but not if you get the

edited version. Everyone thinks that rappers commit crimes. Blacks make up 12 percent

of the population, 44 percent of arrests made are blacks being arrested for violent crimes

(US News 93). A black man can not even get a cab for 3 hours because cabbies are

afraid to drive through the ghetto. What is the ghetto? A place where homeless and low

income black and white people live and hang out.

If you just think before you talk you can make a difference, if you put yourself in

all these situations I?ve just mentioned, you would want to make a difference.

Direct Essays - Racism Football

DirectEssays.com Home » Racism (80 Papers) 1. Racism Before and Today

Racism today is both the same and different from racism of the early 1900's. Some areas of racism that are the same include that of the dark colored skinned population being segregated from whites and groups ganging up against people of a colored skin. Areas of racism that have changed dramatically include that amount of criticism the groups receive and the forms that they receive criticism. Look at a basketball or football team, it is mainly consisted of very talented dark skinned people. Racism has changed a lot during the past hundred years, working toward the goal of everyo.

2. Athletes: Are They Role Models Or Not?

Rugby League Footballers abuse alcohol, there is widespread corruption in cricket, racism in football, Rugby League and AFL and violence and fights among the players. Sports people do not make good role models, as there is racism in sport. Here is an example from AFL Football. When some football personalities asked a player with an ethnic background what he was called, he said he was called "a wog", "dago" "goat herder " and also "a greaseball", but he said when this happened they just have to get on with the game and he thought that the Aboriginal players should stop being pansies a.

3. America's Sports Discrimination

[American] Football is a beastly game played by beasts." - Henry Blaha (1972)Racism is prolific in America, events such as the struggle for equality in the 1950's and 60's, and riots in St. Racism in British sporting institutes, such as the Premiership, does appear to be a real problem.The commissioner of the National Football League, Paul Tagliabue has formed a committee to tackle racism in the NFL, but racism is currently a 'popular' subject and it is fashionable to be seen to be confronting the problem. This is not to say that racism in Britain only occurs at foo.

4. Friday Night Lights: Ups and Downs of Football

Bissinger; he talks about all the ups and downs the football team goes through on and off the field. Even though this helps the book get across its point of racism, it is still a very offensive term. Football. I say this because it helps me look at my life in football and compare it to the life of football in Odessa. t have to be into football to like this book, you just have to love to read.

5. Discrimination Towards Black Athletes

Racism and Discrimination in Sports Racism has be a part of sports in American society ever since we began to play here. In the early 20th century of our country, whites and blacks began to compete against each other in sports like football, basketball, and horse racing. Nothing approximates this in Baseball or Football. Division 1 football has only four black coaches out of the total 115, or about 3.5 percent. "College football thrives on the blood, sweat and tears of black players and there has to be opportunities beyond the pla.

6. Racism in America, Acton, and ABRHS

Racism in America, Acton, and ABRHSThe United States have always been plagued with racism, whether racial, gender or class discriminations. Even though America represents an ideal life, racism and prejudices still lie in subtle forms that effect our daily lives.Americans like to see themselves as law-abiding citizens who uphold American ideals. These seniors were the stereotypical jocks that play varsity football and lacrosse and were popular members of their class.

7. Critique on Higher Learning and School Ties

These problems being racism, finding apeer group and finding financial aid. Or it can be skinheads climbing up on abelltower trying to kill as many black students as possible.The movie school ties is about a star football player, whohappens to be Jewish going to a private high school in the 1950's. InSchool Ties the main character is only attending this prestigiousschool to benefit their football team. The severity of this is shownwhen he misses a sacred Jewish holiday to play a football game. To the University he is only a Football player and if he isn'twinning football ga.

8. "My Bestfriend"

This was before I even knew the meaning of the word racism. He we told each other our names, and then agreed to play two-hand touch football. As they approached, I asked them if they would like to join our game of football. This was the same racism that I saw as a kid in my quite suburb town. As I grew older, my understanding about racism would expand.

9. Remembering the Titans

The movie Remember the Titans is one about a high school football team. Williams High School Titans succeeded as a football team. The most important leadership decision he made was when he cut Ray, whose racism was hurting the team. Coach Boone saw the problems with racism and set out to break the barrier between black and white, because he knew that if the team came together off of the field, they also would come together on it. Williams High School football team was a success both on and off the field.

10. A Racism Invited

Racism, discrimination, prejudice, and hatred are all among the issues that author Harper Lee deals with. They harbor no prejudice or discriminatory feelings towards anyone, no doubt because of their upbringing by their morally inclined father, Atticus Finch.One of the more evident of the themes present in To Kill a Mockingbird is without a doubt racism and prejudice. He would not play football, tackle anyway, he did not have an interesting occupation (not in their minds so far), and had no exciting hobbies.

11. The Movie School Ties

The school is for rich kids but one Jewish kid, David Green got in by a football scholarship. There would have been no problem with that but Dillon hated David because he took his football place, His girlfriend, and his popularity so none of the other boys thought that David was telling the truth. This movie ties into our curriculum in the part about Discrimination and racism. I think that the film shows a good viewing of how racism works because the kids were David's friends until they found out that he was a Jew then they didn't want to even be near him.

12. Deadly, Unna? Essay

I think that the author wants the readers to consider things along the lines of racism, prejudice, discrimination, friendships, family relationships, courage and doing what's right.There was a bit of racism, mostly it seems like two gangs hating each other and have their own territory. In this part the author wanted us to see some of the situations racism can cause, for example the Beach part. Particly I would try not to do this as I don't want to loose one of my best friends but if they were to come back without a problem it, they would properly think its best for you.All u.

13. The Outsider

One time I saw a football player duck tape a member of the band to a bench. The band member looked very frustrated and begged for the football player to let him loose. The football player and his friends began to laugh hysterically and left him there until some one helped him out of it. The football player had no apparent reason for his actions, only to prove to him self and his friends that the "band nerd" was inferior to him. It exists in other things such as racism, and sexism.

14. Tyrone Willingham

Tyrone WillinghamTyrone Willingham, who last year accepted the job of head football coach at Notre Dame University, broke a sort of "color barrier" at the school. So on December 21st 2001 he got the chance to prove himself to the football community that he was a great coach.In taking the head coaching position he fulfilled a dream of his. Notre Dame declined any sort of racism on their part in saying that there was no reason for not having an African American as a head coach.

15. The Racial Tension in the US

What is racism really. Racism is cowardly. Racism is everywhere and it begins in the home. Racism grew like a cancer in my friend. There was a time I was talking to one of my friends, who happened to be black, after my high school's football game and my racist friend pulled me aside and said, "Hey Ced, why are y.

16. Racism, Discrimination and Prejudice

This book deals with some issues such as racism, discrimination, and prejudice. He would not play football with them, they thought he had a boring job, and he did not have any interesting hobbies.

17. Life isn't Fair

Girls were allowed to play football and I was told I could do and be whatever I wanted when I grew up. Baldwin did not let racism affect him at first. This quote shows Baldwin's lifelong struggle with the effects of racism. His father let himself believe that racism had a power over him, and ended up being a victim. Not to the cruelty of racism, but to his own fear and hatred towards racism.

18. Diverse Society of Today

There is a lot of racism, arguments, protests, and contradicting beliefs. Two of the biggest issues of my generation today is racism and stereotyping. Things like all Asians are smart, all black people aredangerous, all Spanish people are dirty, all Jews are cheap, all upper-class white peopleare snobs, all football players are dumb, all country people are just stupid hicks, and manyother absurd stereotypes shape our society today greatly.

19. How Race is Lived In United States of America

Since in the past of football most quarterbacks were dominantly white. The story was about a white quarterback accepting a scholarship to play for a big time football school among black colleges. Another example of a level of prejudice in the article was when the quarterback came into the huddle he told his teammates to 'calm down, and shut up,' the black football players were not going to let a white person talk to them like that, although it would have been alright if that came from a clack person. Just trying to ignore racism as being a problem in the United States.

20. The Discrimination and Racism in sports

Discrimination of colour is known as racism. Discrimination and racism are present in all societies worldwide. In actuality, racism and other forms of discrimination, within the microcosm of sport, will forever be a reality.The fight against racism goes back into the years past slavery. Along with the racism come the stereotypes. "I'm sorry, 'they would say, 'but its just the thought of those two-gays and football players.

21. Racism in Societies Worldwide

Discrimination of colour is known as racism. Discrimination and racism are present in all societies worldwide. The fight against racism goes back into the years past slavery. Along with the racism come the stereotypes. "I'm sorry, 'they would say, 'but its just the thought of those two-gays and football players.

22. Love Poetry

THEY will be at Showdown XI tomorrow night, the children dressed in their football heroes' jumpers. It's part of football's tradition. At Football Park last weekend I heard an ageing Power supporter say to his mate: ``It doesn't matter what you think of those blackfellas, they can really play football.''. In the same crowd, children wore numbered Power football jumpers. No self-conscious racism here.

23. The Evil Inside Us

Unfortunately, their meaning is muted by a growing problem among us. racism. The generalizations that only blacks are good at basketball, the only good football quarterbacks are white, and white wrestlers are superior to blacks are completely untrue.

24. The Affirmative Action:Diminishes Discrimination on Women & Minorities

Some of us believe that the best way to achieve a colorblind future is to practice colorblindness now, and some of us believe that colorblindness after centuries of racism will merely lock in white advantage. I remember when black quarterbacks were a rarity in the National Football League - when the most talented collegiate passers were, if they were black, switched to defensive back or running back or something of that nature.

25. Clash of Titans

Two races, Black and White: ONE school, ONE sport, ONE football team, and a few weeks at ONE camp TOGETHER. One of the players of the Titans is Gerry Bertier.Gerry Bertier is your average all-American football star, but his priorities are strong. (Coach Boone)" Gerry and the other White football players decided to play because Coach Yoast is going to stay as the Defense Coordinator. Gerry and Julius gets into a fight because Julius puts up a poster of a Black football player holding his fist up and his head down. Segregation and Racism may be strong and powerful, but Unity conqu.

Реферат на тему Racism And Prejudice Essay Research Paper KismartoniSociology

Racism And Prejudice Essay, Research Paper

Racism and Prejudice

People of the world are part of different races, which share different biologically transmitted traits that members of society deem socially significant. Nineteenth-century biologist labeled people with relatively light skin and fine hair as Caucasians; they called those with darker skin and coarser, curlier hair Negroid; and people with yellow or brown skin and distinctive folds on the eyelids were termed Mongoloid.

Sociologist consider such categories misleading since we now know that no society is composed of biologically pure individuals because of the human migration and the interracial births. People with different races have different ethnicity or different shared cultural heritage. Members of an ethnic category have common ancestor, language, or religion that, together, confer a distinctive social identity. Race and ethnicity are different since one is biological and the other is cultural. But the two sometimes go hand in hand. Some people distinguished by physical or cultural traits are socially disadvantaged, this category of persons is called a racial or ethnic minority. Minorities share the same identity; they are set apart and subordinated.

Minorities often suffer from prejudice what is a rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people with little regard for the facts. Prejudices can be positive or negative. Prejudices combine to form a stereotype which involves emotions like love and loyalty generally toward members of ingroups or hate and fear toward outgroups, they are exaggerated images that are hard to change even in the face of contradictory evidence.

Racism is a more powerful and destructive form of prejudice, racism refers to the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another. Today, racism remains a serious social problem everywhere as people still contend that some racial and ethnic categories are “better” than others are.

Social scientist have came up with various theories to explain prejudice. The first hypothesis is the scapegoat theory holds that prejudice springs from frustration. The authoritarian personality theory follows it, which states that extreme prejudice was a personality trait of particular individuals. The third approach holds that, some prejudice is common to everyone since such attitudes are embedded in culture. The last views claims that powerful people utilize prejudice as a strategy to oppress minorities. Closely related to prejudice is the concept of discrimination, any action that involves treating various categories of people unequally. Like prejudice, discrimination can be either positive ( providing special advantages ) or negative.

Social scientist describe patterns of interaction among racial and ethnic categories in terms of four models; Pluralism, assimilation, segregation, and genocide.

Pluralism is a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social parity. Pluralism is the goal of our society’s recent trend toward multiculturalism.

Assimilation is the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture. This involves changing modes of dress, values religion, language, or friends. Not surprisingly, elite’s tend to favor the assimilation model since it holds them up as the standard to which others should aspire.

Segregation refers to the physical and social separation of categories of people. Until the early 1960’s, the “Jim Crow” laws formally segregated hotels, restaurants, parks, buses and even drinking fountains. Some minorities, especially religious orders like Amish, they voluntarily segregated themselves.

The most brutal form of racism is the genocide which is the systematic annihilation of one category of people by another. This happened during the course of history when the nazis exterminated more than 6 million Jewish man, woman, and children in what has become the Holocaust. Also in Cambodia between 1975 and 1980, Pol Pot’s communist regime condemned to death 2million people for being able to speak any Western language and even individuals who wore eyeglasses, viewed as a symbol of capitalist culture.

I gave surveys to 24 randomly selected students from the Escola Americana do Rio de Janeiro. The surveyed group of students was equally divided into males and females. With the help of the survey I wanted to find out if people discriminate or prejudice minorities and if they do so which gender does is more racist. The survey consisted of three parts.

The first part of the survey showed a picture of a white skin colored person and an Afro-American person, than the surveyed person was asked to choose one of the pictures for a business magazine article. For males male pictures were used and for females female pictures were used in the survey.

The second part of the survey asked the surveyed person that how would he/she fell if his/her best friend would get married to someone of a different ethnic race or religion. The possible answers were strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree.

The third part of the survey stated a sentence saying that the school should give scholarships to intelligent minority students. Than the surveyed person had to mark his feelings in a multiple choice list were the possible answers were strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree.

Result of males

Result of females

In the first part of the survey the males tended to favor more the look of the picture than the photo’s race. Women tended to show a little negative discrimination towards the colored person picture.

In the second part of the survey both of the genders encouraged interracial marriage and neither of the to sexes disagreed or strongly disagreed.

The third part of the survey showed a big difference between the two genders and their responds for the scholarship question. The males favored the scholarships of intelligent minority students and none of the disagreed or strongly disagreed. On the other hand the females showed a more discriminative behavior 8% of them strongly disagreed and 17% disagreed, only 33% agreed and 17% strongly agreed.

The overall conclusion shows that females tend to discriminate and prejudice more than males. This answer could be misleading because only 24 people were surveyed and also could be that the females read and answers the questions more carefully than the males.

The first article dealt with the interesting question of does race affect intelligence. The author states that race is related to intelligence of course he is aware that claims of this kinds are explosive because they fly in the face of our democratic and egalitarian beliefs by implying that people of one racial type are inherently “better” than another. Therefore he ask the next question which is ” is intelligence the work of nature, in which case disparities signal that one race is actually superior to another one, or does it reflect the forces of nurture or environment? ” The article draws the conclusion that cultural patterns matter, because genetic changes occur thousands of years and these people largely intermarried among themselves. “Nature” simply cannot explain such a dramatic rise in IQ scores.

Chapter 12 talks about the difference between the race and ethnicity. This chapter explains how people prejudice minorities and gives various theories of prejudice. The chapter also explicates what is a stereotype and racism, describes discrimination, pluralism, assimilation, segregation and genocide.