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By C. V. Raman. Introduction. • In this essay “Water-The Elixir Of Life”, Sir. C. V. Raman brings out how water is indispensable to plant and.

Sir C. V. Raman 1888 - 1970 - Nobel Prize for Physics. Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, a British writer of Indian origin who was.

His uncle was the Nobel Prize-winning Indian physicist, Sir C. V. Raman. According to an autobiographical essay published with his Nobel lecture, he was.

C. V. RAMAN. Sir C. V. Raman was born on 8 November 1888 in a village near Tiruchirapalli. His father. In 1922, he wrote a brilliant essay on the Molecular.

Fortunately Sir C. V. Raman got Nobel Prize before IITs were setup, or he. I like to write poems, short stories or essays over current issues.

CNR Rao becomes the third scientist after Sir CV Raman and APJ Abdul Kalam to get the highest civilian honour for science.

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Sir C. V. Raman and Raman Spectroscopy (1888-1970)

Chandrashekhar Venkata Raman was born on November 7th, 1888, in the small village of Thiruvanaikkava near Trichinopoly, Madras Presidency (now Tiruchirapalli, state of Tamil Nadu, India) in Southern India, the son of Chandrashekara Aiyar, who became the Professor of Mathematics and Physics at the Mrs. A. V. N. College in Vishakapatnam when his son was three years old, and Parvati Ammal, who belonged to a family famous for Sanskrit scholarships. Young Raman received an early interest in science and music from his father and a strong personality and sense of self-reliance from his mother. He attended the A. V. N. College and then the Presidency College of the University of Madras, from which he received his BA degree in 1904 at the age of 15, ranking first in his class and winning the gold medals for Physics and English. While still an undergraduate, he began research on acoustics and optics and published his first article (in the Philosophical magazine) in 1906 at the age of 18. He received his MA degree with highest honors in January 1907.

Because of ill health, Raman was unable to pursue further studies at any of the universities in Great Britain (He was disqualified medically by the Civil Surgeons of Madras, who said that the rigors of English Climate would kill him) and because at that time there were no opportunities or incentives in India for a scientific career, he entered the Indian Civil Service, attaining first place on the competitive examination for a position in the Indian Finance Department (The Indian Audit and Account Service was the only Government department that did not require a training period in Great Britain). In June 1907, he was posted at Calcutta as Assistant Accountant General, and that same year he married 13-year old Lokasundari Ammal, an artist who shared his interest in musical instruments, by whom he had two sons, Chandrasekhara, and Radhakrishnan. He served the Indian Finance Department in posts of increasing responsibility for a decade, much as Einstein worked as an examiner in the Swiss Patent Office. Like Einstein, he continued to carry out independent research working nights and weekends, mostly at the laboratory of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science at Calcutta. He worked primarily on vibrations and sound (theoretical and experimental investigations of the oscillations of strings) and on the theory of musical instruments, especially that of violins and Indian drums.

During this period Raman published 30 papers in Nature, the Philosophical magazine, and the Physical review, which led to his being offered, in 1917, the newly endowed Palit professorship of Physics at the University of Calcutta. Despite a considerable financial sacrifice, he resigned his better paying government post to accept this chair, which he held for 16 years, during which time he continued his work on acoustics and optics and made Calcutta a center for scientific research.

In the summer of 1921, Raman represented his University at the British Empire Universities Congress at Oxford, and lectured on the theory of stringed instruments before the Royal Society of London. Returning home by the way of the Mediterranean Sea, he was fascinated by its opalescent, deep blue color and attempted to discover the cause. Rejecting Lord Rayleigh's explanation that it was caused by the reflection from the sky, in 1922 Raman showed that the scattering of light by water molecules could account for the color of the sea exactly as the scattering of light by air molecules accounted for the color of the sky.

Despite his increasing preoccupation with optics, Raman also continued his research on acoustics, which resulted in his election to fellowship in the Royal Society in 1924. He worked on the excitation of strings vibrations; motion of the bowed point; the effect of the bridge in coupling the motion of the string to the body of the violin; vibration phenomena of the piano, veena and sitar; and the harmonic overtones of Indian drums. He also traveled extensively, visiting and representing India in Canada, the United States (At Nobel laureate Robert A.Millikan's invitation he spent five months at the California Institute of technology in 1924), the USSR, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. In India, he was active in organizing learned societies and journals, e.g. the Indian Science Congress (1924), The Indian Academy of Sciences (1934) and its Proceedings (in which much of his work was published) and the Indian Journal of Physics (which he founded and of which he became editor in 1926).

In the field of optics, Raman studied light scattering by various substances, especially liquids. In April 1923, his associate K .R. Ramanathan observed a weak secondary radiation, shifted in wavelength along with normally scattered light, which was attributed to 'fluorescence'. In January 1928, S. Venkateswaran next noticed that highly purified glycerin does not appear blue under sunlight but instead radiates a strongly polarized, brilliant, green light; they reported in Nature (March 31,1928) 'a new type of secondary radiation' from the scattering of focused beams of sunlight in both carefully purified liquid and dust free air.

Raman further refined his experiment by using a mercury arc as the light source on February 28, 1928, and on March 16 he reported his results to the Indian Science Association at Bangalore in the Southern Indian state of Karnataka ('A New Radiation', Indian Journal of Physics, 2,387 (1928)). This secondary radiation showed several lines shifted toward longer wavelengths (the shifts were characteristics of the substances used) and indicated the absorption of energy by the scattering molecule, an effect predicted in 1923 by the Austrian Physicist Adolf Smekal (1895-1959) and observed independently, but in less detail, several months after Raman and Krishnan's discovery by the Soviet Physicists Grigorii Samuilovich Landsberg (1890-1957) and Leonid Isaakovich Mandelshtam (1879-1944). For his discovery, known as the Raman Effect, which Ernest Rutherford described as 'among the best three or four discoveries in experimental physics of the decade'. Raman was awarded the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society of London (1930), the Matteucci Medal of the Societa Italiana delle Scienze (1928) was knighted by King George V of Great Britain (1929) and received honorary degrees from numerous universities. In 1930, he received that ne plus ultra of science, the Nobel Prize (in Physics) 'for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him'. He was the first Asian to receive a Nobel Prize in science. Raman continued his work on the Raman effect through the 1930s', as did many others; almost 2,000 articles on it were published during the dozen years following its discovery.

Beginning at 1930, Raman divided his time between training future leaders of science and crystallographic studies that he thought 'will ultimately have repercussions in the whole scientific world'. Believing that two and possibly four types of diamonds based on tetrahedral and octahedral symmetry must exist; he used a large portion of his USD 40,000 Nobel Prize to buy diamonds. He studied their Raman spectra, fluorescence, absorption spectra, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, X-ray diffraction patterns, and infrared spectra, and he demonstrated that the luminescence of a diamond excited by ultraviolet light is a characteristic of the diamond itself and is not due to impurities or defects, as was previously believed. He also investigated optical effects in minerals (labradorite, pearly felspar, and agate) and gems such as opal and pearls.

In 1933, Raman moved to Bangalore to become Director (1933-1937) of the Indian Institute of Science and Head of its Department of Physics (1933-1948). Here he pursued experimental and theoretical work on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies, Brillouin scattering in liquids, light scattering in colloids, and the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light. In 1948, Raman became the first Director of the Raman Research Institute built on land in Hebbal, a suburb of Bangalore, given by the Mysore government to the Indian Academy of Sciences. That same year he was appointed the first National Professor by the Government of a newly independent India.

Among topics investigated by Raman during his later years were colors and their perception, the spectroscopic study of flowers (the first to do this), the physiology of human color vision (he developed a new theory), and electrical and magnetic anisotropy. A proud man of great authority, Raman was often arrogant and contemptuous of others, yet he was generous in encouraging his students. He often represented India at international meetings, was fluent in English slang, and considered himself a humorist. Educated entirely in India, he carried out pioneering scientific research when few Indians made science a career and when the Indian scientific community was small and relatively isolated. For his championing of Indian science, he was regarded, along with Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, and Jawaharlal Nehru, as one of the heroes of the Indian political and cultural renaissance. He died on November 21, 1970 in Bangalore and was cremated in his beloved rose garden.

The Raman Effect, a scattering of a portion of monochromatic light when it is passed through a transparent substance, is the counterpart for visible light of the Compton Effect for X-rays. The American experimental physicist Robert Williams Wood considered it 'one of the most convincing proofs of the quantum theory of light'. In addition to the light of the original frequency, the spectrum of the scattered light contains weaker lines (Raman lines) differing from the original frequency by constant amounts and due to the grain or loss of their energy experienced by the photons because of their interaction with the vibrating molecules of the substance through which they pass.

Since no two compounds have the same Raman spectrum and since the intensity of a Raman line of a substance is proportional to its concentration, Raman spectroscopy can be used in qualitative and quantitative analysis. It is also employed in the elucidation of the structures of molecules, the study of the interactions between molecules and the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

Much information about a molecule can be deduced from its Raman spectrum. For example, for a diatomic molecule the effective moment of inertia in the lowest vibrational energy state and from this the effective inter-nuclear distance for this state can be obtained. Because homo-nuclear molecules such as H2 and N2 have no permanent dipole moment, they yield no pure rotational or vibrational infrared spectrum and therefore can be studied only by their Raman effect (although electronic spectra can yield rotational spectra). From an analysis of the vibrational-rotational bands there can be obtained the classical vibrational frequency of the diatomic molecule, the moments of inertia and inter-nuclear distances for higher vibrational states, the force constant, the dissociation energies, the zero point energy, the potential energy curve as a function of the inter-nuclear distance, and the rotational and vibrational energies needed for thermodynamic calculations.

Raman spectral data can also be used to detect interactions between molecules. For example, if hydrogen bonding is present, Raman displacements corresponding to C single bond H and C double bond O vibrations appear at values much lower than their normal values. The weakness of the scattered radiation have been the greatest deterrent to the widespread adoption of Raman spectroscopy as an analytical technique. Since the more intense the primary radiation source, the greater the intensity of the Raman spectra, the advent of lasers transformed this method of largely academic interest into a highly practical, powerful tool with a number of commercially available instruments and installations in many industrial laboratories. If Raman were alive today, he would undoubtedly be amazed―and pleased―by the multifaceted uses now made of his 'new' radiation.

Famous scientists Raman, Sir C

Raman, Sir C.V. Famous scientists Raman, Sir C.V.

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Raman, Sir C.V. (1888-1970) Eminent Indian Scientist (F.R.S.) National Professor of Physics and founder Director of Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. He was awarded Nobel Prize for his discovery of ‘Raman Effect’ (Feb 28, 1928). His work on study of crystal structure is of unique importance. Feb 28 is celebrated every year as National Science Day.

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C.V. Raman Facts

In 1902, he joined the Presidency College in Madras where his father became a lecturer mathematics and physics.

He resigned from his position in the government after he was made the first Palit Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta, continuing his research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.

In 1928 he was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Physics but lost to Owen Richardson.

He led experiments on the scattering of light and discovered what is now called the Raman effect.

He lost another Nobel Prize of Physics to Louis de Brogile in 1929.

Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress of 1929.

He was the first Asian and the first non-white person to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences.

Despite his focus on the sciences, Raman is also known for his writings, for which he also received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.

Raman helped discover the quantum photon spin in 1932, which helped confirm the quantum nature of light.

He also studied the acoustics of musical instruments and worked out a theory to explain the acousto-optic effect; this effect made a profound impact on Carl Sagan, when he saw it demonstrated at the 1939 World's Fair.

In 1933, he joined the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore as its first Indian director, an ironic appointment considering the previously all-white British colonial government.

He started the Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. company in 1943, which manufactured potassium chlorate for the match industry.

In 1948 he began studying the spectroscopic behavior of crystals and developed approaches for a new manner of fundamental problems of crystal dynamics.

He also made contributions to the fields of human vision, the optics of colloids, and electrical and magnetic anisotropy.

Sir c v raman essay scholarships

C. V. Raman

Lokasundari Ammal (1907–1970)

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman. FRS [ 2 ] (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist, born in the former Madras Province. whose ground breaking work in the field of light scattering earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics. He discovered that, when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect. [ 3 ] In 1954, he was honoured with the highest civilian award in India, the Bharat Ratna. [ 4 ] [ 5 ]

Early years Family

Raman's maternal grandfather, Saptarshi Sastri, was a Sanskrit scholar who was learned in navya nyaya (modern logic). Raman's father initially taught in a school in Thiruvanaikaval, became a lecturer of mathematics and physics in Mrs. A.V. Narasimha Rao College, Vishakapatnam (then Vizagapatnam) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. and later joined Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai ). [ 6 ]

Early education

At an early age, Raman moved to the city of Visakhapatnam and studied at St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School. Raman passed his matriculation examination at the age of 11 and he passed his F.A. examination (equivalent to today's Intermediate exam, PUC/PDC and +2 ) with a scholarship at the age of 13.

In 1902, Raman joined Presidency College in Madras where his father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics. [ 7 ] In 1904 he passed his Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) examination: He stood first and won the gold medal in physics. In 1907 he gained his Master of Arts (M.A.) degree with the highest distinctions. [ 1 ]

Career

In 1917, Raman resigned from his government service after he was appointed the first Palit Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta. At the same time, he continued doing research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Calcutta. where he became the Honorary Secretary. Raman used to refer to this period as the golden era of his career. Many students gathered around him at the IACS and the University of Calcutta.

Energy level diagram showing the states involved in Raman signal

On 28 February 1928, Raman led experiments at the IACS with collaborators, including K. S. Krishnan. on the scattering of light, when he discovered what now is called the Raman effect. [ 8 ] A detailed account of this period is reported in the biography by G. Venkatraman. [ 9 ] It was instantly clear that this discovery was of huge value. It gave further proof of the quantum nature of light. Raman had a complicated professional relationship with K. S. Krishnan, who surprisingly did not share the award, but is mentioned prominently even in the Nobel lecture. [ 10 ]

Raman spectroscopy came to be based on this phenomenon, and Ernest Rutherford referred to it in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929. Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was conferred a knighthood. and medals and honorary doctorates by various universities. Raman was confident of winning the Nobel Prize in Physics as well, but was disappointed when the Nobel Prize went to Owen Richardson in 1928 and to Louis de Broglie in 1929. He was so confident of winning the prize in 1930 that he booked tickets in July, even though the awards were to be announced in November, and would scan each day's newspaper for announcement of the prize, tossing it away if it did not carry the news. [ 11 ] He did eventually win the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect". [ 12 ] He was the first Asian and first non-white to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. Before him Rabindranath Tagore (also Indian) had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.

Raman and Suri Bhagavantam discovered the quantum photon spin in 1932, which further confirmed the quantum nature of light. [ 13 ]

Raman had association with the Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi ; he attended the foundation ceremony of BHU [ 14 ] and delivered lectures on "Mathematics" and "Some new paths in physics" during the lecture series organised at BHU from February 5 to 8, 1916. [ 15 ] He also held the position of permanent visiting professor at BHU. [ 16 ]

During his tenure at IISc, he recruited the talented electrical engineering student, G. N. Ramachandran. who later went on to become a distinguished X-ray crystallographer.

Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam. [ 17 ] He was also interested in the properties of other musical instruments based on forced vibrations such as the violin. He also investigated the propagation of sound in whispering galleries. [ 18 ] Raman's work on acoustics was an important prelude, both experimentally and conceptually, to his later work on optics and quantum mechanics. [ 19 ]

Raman and his student, Nagendra Nath, provided the correct theoretical explanation for the acousto-optic effect (light scattering by sound waves), in a series of articles resulting in the celebrated Raman–Nath theory. [ 20 ] Modulators, and switching systems based on this effect have enabled optical communication components based on laser systems.

Raman was succeeded by Debendra Mohan Bose as the Palit Professor in 1932. In 1933, Raman left IACS to join Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore as its first Indian director. [ 21 ] Other investigations carried out by Raman were experimental and theoretical studies on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies (published 1934–1942), and those on the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light.

He also started the company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (now known as TCM Limited ) which manufactured potassium chlorate for the match industry [ 22 ] in 1943 along with Dr. Krishnamurthy. The Company subsequently established four factories in Southern India. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India. [ 23 ]

In 1948, Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behaviour of crystals, approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. He dealt with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behaviour of numerous iridescent substances (labradorite. pearly feldspar. agate. opal. and pearls ). Among his other interests were the optics of colloids. electrical and magnetic anisotropy. and the physiology of human vision.

Raman retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, a year later. He served as its director and remained active there until his death in 1970, in Bangalore, at the age of 82.

Personal life

He was married on 6 May 1907 to Lokasundari Ammal (1892–1980). [ 24 ] They had two sons, Chandrasekhar and radio-astronomer Radhakrishnan .

Raman was the paternal uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1983) for his discovery of the Chandrasekhar limit in 1931 and for his subsequent work on the nuclear reactions necessary for stellar evolution .

Achievements

During a voyage to Europe in 1921, Raman noticed the blue colour of glaciers and the Mediterranean sea. He was motivated to discover the reason for the blue colour. Raman carried out experiments regarding the scattering of light by water and transparent blocks of ice which explained the phenomenon.

There is an event that served as the inspiration of the Raman effect. On a December evening in 1927, Raman's student K. S. Krishnan (who later became the Director of the National Physical Laboratory ) gave him the news that Professor Compton had won the Nobel Prize for his studies of the scattering of X-rays. This led Raman to theorize that if the Compton effect is applicable for X-rays, then it may be for light also, and to devise some experiments.

Raman employed monochromatic light from a mercury arc lamp which penetrated transparent material and was allowed to fall on a spectrograph to record its spectrum. He detected lines in the spectrum which he later called Raman lines. He presented his theory at a meeting of scientists in Bangalore on 16 March 1928, and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.

Books

For compact work, see: Scientific Papers of C. V. Raman. S. Ramaseshan (ed.).

  • Vol. 1 – Scattering of Light (Ed. S. Ramaseshan)
  • Vol. 2 – Acoustics
  • Vol. 3 – Optics
  • Vol. 4 – Optics of Minerals and Diamond
  • Vol. 5 – Physics of Crystals
  • Vol. 6 – Floral Colours and Visual Perception
Honours and awards

Bust of Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum.

Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies.

India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928. [ 27 ]

Archive of Raman Research Papers

The Raman Research Institute. founded by Raman after his tenure at IISc. curates a collection of Raman's research papers, and articles on the web. [ 28 ]

Death

At the end of October 1970, he collapsed in his laboratory, the valves of his heart having given way. He was moved to hospital and the doctors gave him four hours to live. He survived and after a few days refused to stay in the hospital as he preferred to die in the gardens of his Institute surrounded by his flowers.

Two days before Raman died, he told one of his former students, "Do not allow the journals of the Academy to die, for they are the sensitive indicators of the quality of science being done in the country and whether science is taking root in it or not." That same evening, Raman met with the Board of Management of his Institute and discussed (from his bed) with them any proceedings with regards to the Institute’s management. Raman died from natural causes early next morning on 21 November 1970.

Posthumous recognition and contemporary references
  • On 7 November 2013, A Google Doodle honoured Raman on the 125th anniversary of his birthday. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ]
  • A road in India's capital, New Delhi. is named C. V. Raman marg. [ 32 ]
  • An area in eastern Bangalore is called CV Raman Nagar. [ 33 ]
  • The road running north of the national seminar complex in Bangalore is named C. V. Raman Road. [ 34 ]
  • A building at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore is named the Raman Building. [ 35 ]
  • A hospital in eastern Bangalore on 80 Ft. Rd. is named the Sir C V Raman Hospital.
See also References Further reading
  • Banerjee, Somaditya (2014). "C. V. Raman and Colonial Physics: Acoustics and the Quantum". Physics in Perspective16 (2): 146–178. Bibcode :2014PhP. 16..146B. doi :10.1007/s00016-014-0134-8.  
  • Miller, Foil A.; Kauffman, George (1989). "C. V. Raman and the Discovery of the Raman effect". Journal of Chemical Education66 (10): 795–801. Bibcode :1989JChEd..66..795M. doi :10.1021/ed066p795.  
  • Ramaseshan S: C.V.Raman. Journal of Madras University. section B, Sept.1983, 46(1): 1–16.
  • Scientific Papers of CV Raman. Ed. S Ramaseshan, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore 1988.
  • Sri Kantha S: The discovery of the Raman Effect and its impact in Biological Sciences. European Spectroscopy News. Aug/Sept. 1988, no.80, 20, 22, 24 & 26.
  • Sri Kantha S: Raman's prize. Nature. 1989; 340: 672.
  • Fabelinski I,L. Priority and the Raman Effect. Nature. 1990; 343: 686.
  • "CV Raman centennial issue". Journal of the Indian Institute of Science68 (11–12). 1988.  
External links

Sir c v raman essay scholarships

C. V. Raman Biography Family and Background

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was born on November 7, 1888, in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu to a Tamil Brahmin family. Raman’s ancestors were agriculturists, established near Porasakudi Village and Mangudi in the Tanjore district. His father, Chandrasekhara Iyer, studied in a school in Kumbakonam and passed the Matriculation examination in 1881. Eventually, in 1891, he gained a Bachelors of Arts degree in physics at the Society of the Promotion of the Gospel College in Tiruchirapalli. Chandrasekara became a lecturer in the same college. After passing the Matriculation Exam, he married Parvathi Ammal, and they had eight children—five sons and three daughters. On November 7, 1888, their second child, Raman, was born in his maternal grandfather’s house in Tiruvanaikkaval.

Raman’s elder brother, the first child, was C. Subrahmanya (better known as C.S. Iyer). His son, (Raman's nephew) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. grew up to become world famous as an extraordinary astrophysicist. and was the Morton D. Hull Distinguished Service Professor in the University of Chicago. and was also a Nobel Laureate .

School

When Raman was four years old, his father, Chandrasekaran, moved to Visakhapatnam to take up a post as a lecturer in the Mrs A.V. Narasimha Rao College. There he taught physics, mathematics, and physical geography. Chandrasekaran was considered strong, both physically and mentally, as he was greatly involved in sports. physical culture, and Indian Carnatic music. among other activities.

Unlike his father, Raman was not physically strong; however, Raman had intellectual brilliance. He excelled in his studies, and showed early signs of unusual talent, winning accolades from his teachers and earning many prizes and scholarships.

Raman became interested in physics while still in school. He once built a dynamo by himself, and had deep curiosity regarding the workings of physical concepts and devices.

College

C. V. Raman finished school at the young age of eleven, by passing the Matriculation Examination with the first rank (top marks). He then joined the AVN College to study for the Intermediate Examination. He again earned accolades, and finished with top marks in the university examination. In 1903, he left for Chennai (then Madras) with a scholarship to study for the BA degree in the Presidency College, where he was the youngest student. The Presidency College was the best college in Southern India at that time. Most of the professors at the time Raman went to college were Europeans. Here, Raman’s interest in physics became even more focused, and he also developed a great liking for English.

Further Study

C. V. Raman completed his Masters degree in physics while still a teenager

In 1904, Raman passed the BA examinations with first rank in the university, and won gold medals in English and Physics. Raman’s teachers advised him to go to England for further studies, but the Civil Surgeon of Madras ruled it out, claiming that the young Raman was too frail to withstand the English climate. Instead Raman did his MA in physics in Presidency College and did not go abroad until he was thirty-three. With the professor of Physics at that time, R. Llewellyn Jones, Raman said he “enjoyed a measure of academic freedom which seems almost incredible. To mention only one detail, during the whole of my two years’ work for the MA degree, I remember attending only one lecture…”

Books that Influenced Raman

Chandrasekara Venkata Raman found several books he came across in his college career very useful and often eye-opening. Of the books that influenced him, he wrote:

I finished my school and college career and my university examinations at the age of eighteen. In this short span of years, had been compressed the study of four languages and of a great variety of diverse subjects, in several cases up to the highest university standards. A list of all the volumes I had to study would be of terrifying length. Did these books influence me? Yes, in the narrow sense of making me tolerably familiar with subjects so diverse as Ancient Greek and Roman History, Theory and Public Finance, the late Sanskrit writers and minor English authors, to say nothing of Physiography, Chemistry and a dozen branches of Pure and Applied Mathematics, and of Experimental and Theoretical Physics. But out of this welter of subjects and books, can I pick out anything really to mould my mental and spiritual outlook and determine my chosen path in life? Yes, I can and I shall mention three books. … The Light of Asia. I remember being powerfully moved by the story of Siddhartha’s great renunciation, of his search for truth and of his final enlightenment. This was at a time when I was young enough to be impressionable, and this reading of the book fixed firmly in my mind the idea that this capacity for renunciation in the pursuit of exalted aims is the very essence of human greatness.

About books on science, Raman said:

The next set of books that I have to mention is one of the most remarkable works of all time namely, The Elements of Euclid. … The pages of Euclid are like the opening bars of the music of the grand opera of Nature’s great drama. So to say, they lift the veil and show to our vision a glimpse of the vast world of natural knowledge awaiting study.

Raman had an innate sense of love for music and he was also influenced by the works of the great Hermann von Helmholtz .

Raman said about this third of the three books of great influence on him:

It was my great good fortune, while I was still a student at college, to have possessed a copy of an English translation of his great work On The Sensations of Tone … It can be said without exaggeration that it profoundly influenced my intellectual outlook. For the first time, I understood from its perusal what scientific research really meant and how it could be undertaken. I also gathered from it a variety of problems for research which were later to occupy my attention and keep me busy for many years.

Early Career and Marriage

Raman took and passed his Masters examination in January 1907, again, with top marks and several accolades and prizes. While he wanted to focus on science (particularly research) opportunities for research in India (specifically for Indians) were zero. His possibility of going to England had been ruled out due to his weak health at the time. Therefore, Raman’s eyes looked to work in Government service, as it is known to be safe, secure, and even prestigious. Even in this case, he wanted to join the esteemed Indian Civil Service (ICS), which was the highest position in Government service, but this required studying in England and also appearing for the examination there—this choice was also ruled out for medical reasons. His next choice was the Financial Civil Service (FCS), where Raman’s brother C.S. Iyer was already a member. The FCS was the forerunner of the Indian Audit and Accounts Service of today. Author G. Venkataraman states in his book Journey Into Light. “Recruitment to it was by an all-India competitive examination, but even to appear for this examination one had to first go through an interview.” [1] Raman was screened, and as usual, stood first in the written examination, though he had to study some unfamiliar subjects like history and economics. Later, Raman’s other brother, Mr. Ramaswamy, confided, “After returning from the screening interview Raman said, “I took one look at all the candidates who had assembled, and I knew I was going to stand first.”” This instance shows the early formation of what was well known as the Raman Ego!

Raman passed the FCS examination in 1907, and before having an official position, married Lokasundari. This part of his life happened in a very nontraditional manner. Usually, Indian marriages are arranged by parents—this comprised of finding a proper horoscope match for their child. This included analyzing the star positions on their birth date, and other horoscopic figures. Following this is a visit by the boy and his parents to the girl’s house, to check to see if they like her—during this time, the girl usually is asked to give a musical presentation. Provided these arrangements have been in agreement and the girl’s family offers enough dowry. the date for their marriage is set.

Raman’s marriage took a completely different course of events. As a college student, Raman was friendly with Mr. Ramaswamy Sivan, who was a freemason. theosophist, and a man with progressive views. Raman often went to visit Mr. Sivan at his house, where one day, he heard music from an Indian Classical Instrument, veenai—it was played by Lokasundari, Sivan’s sister-in-law, who came for a visit from Madurai. Lokasundari was quite talented at playing the veenai, and Raman became attracted to her immediately. At that time, as Lokasundari was of marriageable age and her family was looking for a suitable groom, Sivan discussed this idea to Raman, who instantly agreed. Raman then proceeded to get his parents’ approval. But it was then found that Lokasundari, though of the same cast as Raman (Brahmin), was of a different subset—this match was, in those days, strictly forbidden. Raman’s father, a very liberal-minded man, accepted the idea of Raman selecting his own bride, even one from a different subset. However, the rest of the family, including Raman’s mother, were displeased. Regardless of such obstacles, however, Raman followed his heart and insisted on having his own way. In fact, he even refused to accept dowry from the girl’s side:

The story has it that on the first occasion he saw her, she was playing on the veena the Tyagaraja keertana [composition] ‘Rama ni Samanam Evaro?’ [Rama, is there anyone your equal?]. We shall never know whether it was by intent or by accident. Anyway, she insists that she still does not know if Raman married her for the extra allowance of Rs. 150 which the Finance Department gave to its married officers! [2]

The couple had two sons, Chandrasekhar and Radhakrishnan. Lokasundari came to be known as Lady Raman:

Those who have known her … had often said that her principal interest in life was to enable Professor Raman to carry on his scientific work with efficiency and in an uninterrupted manner … Seldom did she permit projection in the public of her own personality as distinct from that of her husband. This aspect of hers, besides being in line with the best of Indian traditions, was so noticeable on occasions that she drew the admiration of all concerned. [3]

Raman was given a position as Assistant Accountant-General in Calcutta in mid-1907—he was still a teenager then. His salary was then Rs. 400, including the marriage allowance. Raman and Lokasundari left for Calcutta. capital of what was then British India.

Raman made use of the diverse and scientific atmosphere of Calcutta, and was able to give full expression to his scientific creativity—Calcutta was then known as the premier city for science in the East. Apart from being posted in Calcutta, Raman was also sent to Nagpur and Rangoon; no matter the place, Raman always found ways to conduct experiments at home.

As the story goes, one evening while returning from work, he spotted the sign of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. He started visiting the laboratory after office hours and did experiments, which culminated with his Nobel Prize winning work.

Later Years and Death

Ramaseshan, author of C.V. Raman – A Pictorial Biography. noted, “Many things happened [during the last decade of Raman’s life and] time in his Institute and in the country which affected Raman greatly. The half a dozen graduate students whom he had handpicked to work at his Institute began to leave. By 1960 all of them had gone and he chose not to take any more and (except for two assistants) he was almost all alone.” [2] It was at this time that Raman started to isolate himself from the world outside his institute—he built high walls on the compounds of his institute to discourage visitors. He underwent depression.

Much of Raman’s emotional turmoil was caused by the way things were happening in the newly independent country:

It seemed to him that scientific administrators, not believing that there was sufficient strength in the country for science to grow, looked outside more and more for inspiration. The policy seemed to be that expenditure (however indiscriminate), would automatically further the progress of science and technology. He felt that the universities, which till then identified and generated talent, were denuded and decertified by the exodus of scientists and teachers to better-paid positions in large, impersonal Government laboratories. Quantity appeared to be mistaken for quality. His attitude towards everyone—especially the Government—became one of suspicion and cynicism. [2]

An example of Raman’s source of disappointment with the Government is the idea that purchase and use of elaborate, expensive equipment from outside the country would greatly help advance scientific and technological progress. This contradicted Raman’s belief that even simple experiments can be conducted to find great scientific theories, as that is what even he had done in the Presidency College himself. Depicting such thoughts, a story from Journey Into Light goes, “… once he saw one of his students in a crest-fallen mood. Upon enquiry he learnt that (spectroscopic) experiments similar to those being performed by his student were also in progress in England at the same time and the student’s worry was that whereas he had merely a 1 kW lamp his competitor abroad had a 10 kW lamp. “Don’t worry,” Raman told the student, “put a 10 kW brain on the problem.”

Raman gave his last Gandhi Memorial Lecture, On the Cochlea and the perception of sound. on October 2, 1970. For the first and last time in his life, he requested the audience to allow him to sit down while answering their questions. This was the beginning of the end:

At the end of October he collapsed in his laboratory, the valves of his heart having given way. He was moved to hospital and the doctors gave him four hours to life. He survived and after a few days refused to stay in the hospital as he preferred to die in the gardens of his Institute surrounded by his flowers. [2]

Two days before Raman died, he told one of his former students, “Do not allow the journals of the Academy to die, for they are the sensitive indicators of the quality of science being done in the country and whether science is taking root in it or not.”

That same evening, Raman met with the Board of Management of his Institute and discussed (from his bed) with them any proceedings with regards to the Institute’s management. Raman passed away from natural causes early next morning, November 21, 1970.

Academic Career First Paper

With the great freedom Raman found with Professor Jones while studying physics in Presidency College, he productively used the time, designing and developing experiments to answer the boundless questions he had. Only the fundamental laboratory instruments were available in the physics lab at the time (only enough for class work), but Raman made use of just these. Raman’s questions were often those whose answers were not found in the published literature. Thus, the essence of research came instinctively to him and was enough to push him to conduct experiments throughout his life.

While Raman was well aware of light in a wave form, and the concept of diffraction. he experimented with asymmetric diffraction of light. He compiled his findings on this experiment, and gave it to Professor Jones for comments. However, Professor Jones offered no opinion for several months. Around that time, Raman was aware of the Philosophical Magazine. perhaps those subscribed by the Connemara Public Library about five km away from Presidency College (it is not certain how Raman came to know of this magazine). Then, taking his first step towards publication, Raman sent his paper on asymmetric diffraction to the Philosophical Magazine in London, under the title “Unsymmetrical diffraction bands due to a rectangular aperture.” This paper was published in 1906—Raman, only 18 and not yet out of college, was the sole author with no acknowledgments. Raman’s achievement was even more astounding because Presidency College was not a research college, and Raman’s paper was the first to come out of that institution.

Almost immediately after Raman’s first publication, the famous R.W. Wood of Johns Hopkins University published another. Wood later sent a cable to Nature. exclaiming the discovery of the Raman Effect.

Research

In 1917, Raman resigned from his government service and took up the newly created Palit Professorship in Physics at the University of Calcutta. Simultaneously, he continued doing research at the IACS, where he became the Honorary Secretary. Raman used to refer to this period as the golden era of his career. Many talented students gathered around him at the IACS and the University of Calcutta. He was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929.

In addition to his Nobel Prize winning work on the scattering of light, Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition velocities. This does a better job in explaining bowed string vibration over Helmholtz's approach. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam.

In 1933, Raman became the director of the newly established Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore. The IISc was set up in 1909 with the main objective of bringing out original research and providing training in science and engineering. Up till Raman’s appointment, all of IISc’s directors were British and so were most of the faculty. Two years later, he continued as a Professor of Physics. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India .

He retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and a year later he established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore Karnataka, serving as its director and remained active there until his death in 1970.

Raman Scattering

Raman won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect. "Raman scattering" or the "Raman effect" is the inelastic scattering of a photon. Raman spectroscopy is based on this phenomenon.

When light is scattered from an atom or molecule. most photons are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering). The scattered photons have the same energy (frequency ) and, therefore, wavelength. as the incident photons. However, a small fraction of scattered light (approximately one in ten million photons) is scattered from excitations with optical frequencies different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons. [4] Thus, when a beam of light passes through a liquid this scattering effect causes some of it to emerge as a different color. This explains why the ocean appears blue. [5]

In a gas. Raman scattering can occur with a change in vibrational, rotational, or electronic energy of a molecule (see energy level). As Raman noted, "The character of the scattered radiations enable us to obtain an insight into the ultimate structure of the scattering substance."

In 1922, Raman published his work on the "Molecular Diffraction of Light," the first of a series of investigations with his collaborators which ultimately led to his discovery (on February 28, 1928) of the radiation effect which bears his name. The Raman effect was first reported by C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan, and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam, in 1928. Raman received the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his work on the scattering of light.

Physicists welcomed Raman's finding as proof of quantum theory. Chemists are concerned primarily with the vibrational Raman effect. In 1998 the Raman Effect was designated an ACS National Historical Chemical Landmark in recognition of its significance as a tool for analyzing the composition of liquids, gases, and solids. [5]

The Raman Effect differs from the process of fluorescence. For the latter, the incident light is completely absorbed and the system is transferred to an energetically excited state, from which it can go to various lower states only after a certain period (resonance lifetime). The result of both processes is essentially the same: A photon with a frequency different from that of the incident photon is produced and the molecule is brought to a higher or lower energy level. But the major difference is that the Raman Effect can take place for any frequency of incident light. In contrast to the fluorescence effect, the Raman Effect is therefore not a resonant effect.

Legacy

Raman spectroscopy, which uses the Raman effect, has been found a valuable tool for the identification and analysis of a wide ranger of materials. It is used to analyze a wide range of materials, including highly complex materials such as biological organisms and human tissue.

Raman was honored with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society early in his career (1924) and knighted in 1929. In addition to receiving the Nobel Prize in physics in 1930, he was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1954 and the Lenin Peace Prize (1957). India celebrates National Science Day on the 28th February of every year to commemorate Raman's discovery in 1928. Pictures of C. V. Raman, his father Chandrasekaran, and Professor Jones (Raman's physics professor) hang at the entrance of the lecture hall of the Physics Department of Presidency College. In 1939, the Indian Academy of Sciences brought out a commemorative volume on Raman’s fiftieth birthday.

Raman also started a company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in 1943, along with Dr. Krishnamurthy. The Company during its 60 year history established four factories in Southern India.

C. V. Raman is the uncle of three world renowned physicists: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Nobel laureate; Sivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar FRS, known for Liquid crystal research; and Sivaraj Ramaseshan, former director of the Indian Institute of Science.

Raman gave his vision for the future of the he established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore Karnataka in a letter shortly before he died:

This Institute was created by me in 1948 to provide a place in which I could continue my studies in an atmosphere more conductive to pure research than that found in most scientific institutions. To me the pursuit of science has been an aesthetic and joyous experience. The Institute has been the haven where I cold carry on my highly personal research. This personal character of the Institute should obviously change after me. It must blossom into a great center of learning embracing many branches of science. Scientists from different parts of India and all over the world must be attracted to it. With its beautiful gardens, large libraries, extensive museums, I feel that the Institute offers a perfect nucleus for the growth of a center of higher learning. Science can only flower out when there is an internal urge. It cannot thrive under external pressures. Fundamental science cannot be driven by instructional, industrial, governmental or military pressure. This is the reason why I decided as far as possible not to accept money from Government. I have bequeathed all my property to the Institute. Unfortunately, this may not be sufficient for the growth of this center of Learning. I shall therefore not put it as a condition that no governmental funds should be accepted by the Institute. I would however strongly urge taking only funds that have no strings attached.

Works Quotes

When he was offered a toast during the Nobel function: Being a strict teetotaller he responded,

Sir, you have seen the Raman Effect on alcohol; please do not try to see the alcohol effect on Raman.

Books

For compact work, see: Scientific Papers of CV Raman. S. Ramaseshan (ed.).

  • Vol. 1 - Scattering of Light (Ed. S Ramaseshan)
  • Vol. 2 - Acoustic
  • Vol. 3 - Optica
  • Vol. 4 - Optics of Minerals and Diamond
  • Vol. 5 - Physics of Crystals
  • Vol. 6 - Floral Colours and Visual Perception
Bibliography
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  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations of a New Type," Nature. 1909
  • "The Ectara," J. Indian Math. Club. 1909
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations," Nature. 1910
  • "Oscillations of the Stretched Strings," J. Indian Math. Club. 1910
  • "Photographs of Vibrational Curves," Philos. Mag.. 1911
  • "Remarks on a Paper by J.S. Stokes on 'Some Curious Phenomena Observed in Connection with Melde's Experiment'," Physics Rev.. 1911
  • "The Small Motion at the Nodes of a Vibrating String," Phys. Rev.. 1911
  • "The Maintenance of Forced Oscillations of a New Type," Philos. Mag. 1912
  • "Some Remarkable Cases of Resonance," Phys. Rev. 1912
  • "Experimental Investigations on the Maintenance of Vibrations," Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.. 1912
  • "Some Acoustical Observations," Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.. 1913
  • "The Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings," Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.. 1914
  • "The Maintenance of Vibrations," Phys. Rev. 1914
  • "Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings," Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. 1914
  • "On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force," Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.. 1914
  • "On the Maintenance of Combinational Vibrations by Two Simple Harmonic forces," Phys. Rev.. 1915
  • "On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force," Philos. Mag. 1915
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 1," Philos. Mag. 1916 (with S Appaswamair)
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' of the Violin and Cello," Nature (London). 1916
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments," Philos. Mag.. 1916
  • "The Maintenance of Vibrations in a Periodic Field of Force," Philos. Mag. 1917 (with A. Dey)
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 2," Philos. Mag. 1917 (with A Dey)
  • "On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 3," Philos. Mag. 1917 (with A Dey)
  • "On the Alterations of Tone Produced by a Violin 'Mute'," Nature (London) 1917
  • "On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments," Philos. Mag.. 1918
  • "On the Wolf-Note in Pizzicato Playing," Nature (London), 1918
  • "On the Mechanical Theory of the Vibrations of Bowed Strings and of Musical Instruments of the Violin Family, with Experimental Verification of Results - Part 1," Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. 1918
  • "The Theory of the Cyclical Vibrations of a Bowed String," Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. 1918
  • "An Experimental Method for the Production of Vibrations," Phys. Rev.. 1919
  • "A New Method for the Absolute Determination of Frequency," Proc. R. Soc. London. 1919
  • "On the Partial Tones of Bowed Stringed Instruments," Philos. Mag. 1919
  • "The Kinematics of Bowed Strings," J. Dept of Sci. Univ. Calcutta. 1919
  • "On the Sound of Splashes," Philos. Mag. 1920
  • "On a Mechanical Violin-Player for Acoustical Experiments, Philos. Mag.. 1920
  • "Experiments with Mechanically-Played Violins," Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. 1920
  • "On Kaufmann's Theory of the Impact of the Pianoforte Hammer," proc. S. Soc. London. 1920 (with B Banerji)
  • "Musical Drums with Harmonic Overtones," Nature (London), 1920 (with S. Kumar)
  • "Whispering Gallery Phenomena at St. Paul's Cathedral," Nature (London) 1921 (with G.A. Sutherland)
  • "The Nature of Vowel Sounds," Nature (London) 1921
  • "On the Whispering Gallery Phenomenon," Proc. R. Soc. London. 1922 (with G.A. Sutherland)
  • "On Some Indian Stringed Instruments," Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. 1921
  • "On Whispering Galleries," Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci.. 1922
  • "On the Molecular Scattering of Light in Water and the Colour of the Sea," Proceedings of the Royal Society. 1922
  • "The Acoustical Knowledge of the Ancient Hindus," Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee - Vol 2 ,
  • "The Subjective Analysis of Musical Tones," Nature (London), 1926
  • "Musical Instruments and Their Tones"
  • "A new type of Secondary Radiation," Nature. 1928
  • "A new radiation," Indian Journal of Physics. 1928
  • "The Indian Musical Drums," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.. 1935
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part I," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.. 1935 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part II," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.. 1935 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "Nature of Thermal Agitation in Liquids," Nature (London), 1935 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part III: Doppler Effect and Coherence Phenomena," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.. 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part IV: Generalised Theory," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.. 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part V: General Considerations - Oblique Incidence and Amplitude Changes," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.. 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "Diffraction of Light by Ultrasonic Waves," Nature (London), 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • "Acoustic Spectrum of Liquids," Nature (London), 1937 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)
  • "Light Scattering and Fluid Viscosity," Nature (London), 1938 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)
  • The New Physics: Talks on Aspects of Science. 1951
  • Lectures on Physical Optics. 1959
See also Notes
  1. ↑ G. Venkataraman, Journey Into Light: Life and Science of C.V. Raman (Oxford University Press, 1989, ISBN 818532400X ).
  2. ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 S. Ramaseshan and C. Ramachandra Rao, C.V. Raman - A Pictorial Biography (Bangalore: Indian Academy of Sciences, 1988, ISBN 8185324077 ).
  3. ↑ S. Bhagavantam, "Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman: 1888-1970," Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (London: Royal Society) 17(1971): 564-592.
  4. ↑ Daniel C. Harris and Michael D. Bertolucci, Symmetry and Spectroscopy (Dover Publications, 1989, ISBN 978-0486661445 ).
  5. ↑ 5.0 5.1 Frontiers of Knowledge: Why is the Sea Blue? Retrieved July 24, 2007.
References
  • Bhagavantam, S. "Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman: 1888-1970." Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (London: Royal Society) 17(1971): 564-592.
  • Haider, S.G. “C.V. Raman”. Remembering our Leaders. New Delhi: Children's Book Trust, 1990. ISBN 817011487X
  • Harris, Daniel C. and Bertolucci, Michael D. Symmetry and Spectroscopy. Dover Publications, 1989. ISBN 978-0486661445
  • Ramaseshan, S. (ed.). Scientific Papers of C.V. Raman: Scattering of Light. Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 0195623789
  • Ramaseshan, S. and C. Ramachandra Rao. C.V. Raman - A Pictorial Biography. Bangalore: Indian Academy of Sciences, 1988. ISBN 8185324077
  • Venkataraman, G. Journey Into Light: Life and Science of C.V. Raman. Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 818532400X
External links

All Links retrieved July 27, 2014.