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Balantidium Coli Descriptive Essay

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Unbound MEDLINE: Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Balantidium coli isolated in the Philippine

Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Balantidium coli isolated in the Philippines. Abstract

Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoon inhabiting the colon of swine, rodents, horses, nonhuman primates and humans. In association with disease triggered by other infectious agents, B. coli may become a pathogenic opportunist. This study describes the isolation, cultivation, morphological as well as molecular characterization of B. coli isolated from the large intestine of a pig in the Philippines. Based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy, this protozoon presents a dense ciliation in the oral structure and somatic cilia that are arranged in a more transverse field. Oral and somatic monokinetids were identified in the cortex of the organism. The presence of heterokaryotic nuclear condition is evident, and the cell body of the ciliate shows numerous mucocysts, several food vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and contractile vacuoles. Polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene were performed in order to compare our isolate with other previously reported B. coli isolates. The full-length sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of the isolate showed 99% similarity to other B. coli isolates reported in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with previously reported B. coli isolates from gorillas, pig, and ostrich. To date, no studies on the ultrastructure and phylogeny of B. coli isolated in the Philippines have been reported. Results from this study may serve as a baseline data for further ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies on this organism. This study also suggests that morphological characteristics along with molecular identification are essential for validating and identifying species of Balantidium.

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Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Balantidium coli isolated in the Philippines

First online: 10 November 2009

Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Balantidium coli isolated in the Philippines
  • Ma. Lourdes Nilles-Bije Affiliated with Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman Institute of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Silliman University
  • . Windell L. Rivera Affiliated with Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman Molecular Protozoology Laboratory, Natural Sciences Research Institute, University of the Philippines, Diliman Email author

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Abstract

Balantidium coli is a ciliated protozoon inhabiting the colon of swine, rodents, horses, nonhuman primates and humans. In association with disease triggered by other infectious agents, B. coli may become a pathogenic opportunist. This study describes the isolation, cultivation, morphological as well as molecular characterization of B. coli isolated from the large intestine of a pig in the Philippines. Based on scanning and transmission electron microscopy, this protozoon presents a dense ciliation in the oral structure and somatic cilia that are arranged in a more transverse field. Oral and somatic monokinetids were identified in the cortex of the organism. The presence of heterokaryotic nuclear condition is evident, and the cell body of the ciliate shows numerous mucocysts, several food vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and contractile vacuoles. Polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene were performed in order to compare our isolate with other previously reported B. coli isolates. The full-length sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of the isolate showed 99% similarity to other B. coli isolates reported in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with previously reported B. coli isolates from gorillas, pig, and ostrich. To date, no studies on the ultrastructure and phylogeny of B. coli isolated in the Philippines have been reported. Results from this study may serve as a baseline data for further ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies on this organism. This study also suggests that morphological characteristics along with molecular identification are essential for validating and identifying species of Balantidium .

References

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Parasites - Research Paper by Lindsey620

Parasites Essay

Below is an essay on "Parasites" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

1.
value:
7 points

Acanthamoeba differs from Naegleria fowleri in that only Acanthamoeba
| is a free-living ameba of fresh waters. |
| enters typically through broken skin or the conjunctiva. |
| is the cause of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. |
| enters through the nasal mucosa. |
| is acquired by swimming in contaminated water. |
2.
value:
7 points

Human asymptomic carriers are common in
| balantidiasis. |
| amebiasis and trichomoniasis. |
| elephantiasis. |
| trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. |
| cryptosporidiosis and malaria |
3.
value:
6 points

Diseases transmitted by vectors include
| balantidiasis. |
| amebiasis and trichomoniasis. |
| amebic meningoencephalitis. |
| trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. |
| cryptosporidiosis and cyclosporiasis. |
4.
value:
6 points

The large intestines of pigs are the primary reservoir of the pathogen that causes
| balantidiasis. |
| amebiasis and trichomoniasis. |
| amebic meningoencephalitis. |
| trypanosomiasis leishmaniasis. |
| cryptosporidiosis and cyclosporiasis |
5.
value:
6 points

Which of the following is acquired when amoebas are forced into human nasal passages during swimming?
| Naegleria fowleri |
| Toxoplasma gondii |
| Balantidium coli |
| Giardia lamblia |
| Entamoeba histolytica |
6.
value:
6 points

Which of the following has four pairs of flagella?
| Naegleria fowleri |
| Toxoplasma gondii |
| Balantidium coli |
| Giardia lamblia |
| Entamoeba histolytica |
7.
value:
6 points

Which of the following is an apicomplexan parasite?
| Naegleria fowleri |
| Toxoplasma gondii |
| Balantidium coli |
| Giardia lamblia |
| Entamoeba histolytica |
8.
value:
6 points

Which of the following is a sexually transmitted disease?
| toxoplasmosis |
| trichomoniasis |
| giardiasis |
| malaria |
|.

Balantidium coli descriptive essay

Balantidium Introduction: Balantidium Description of Balantidium

Balantidium: Infection by parasitic PROTOZOA of the genus BALANTIDIUM. The presence of Balantidium in the LARGE INTESTINE leads to DIARRHEA; DYSENTERY; and occasionally ULCER.
Source: Diseases Database

Balantidium. A genus of protozoa parasitic in the digestive tract of vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. Asexual multiplication is accomplished by transverse binary fission. Its organisms are ovoidal in shape and have a ciliated covering over the entire body.
Source: MeSH 2007

Balantidium: Related Topics Terms associated with Balantidium: Terms Similar to Balantidium: Broader terms for Balantidium

Source - MeSH 2007

Hierarchical classifications of Balantidium

The following list attempts to classify Balantidium into categories where each line is subset of the next.

MeSH 2007 Hierarchy: External links related to: Balantidium Interesting Medical Articles: Medical dictionaries: More Medical Dictionary Topics

PPT - Balantidium coli, Giardia lamblia, and trichomonas

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Balantidium coli, Giardialamblia, and trichomonas.

Continue in protozoa

Balantidium coli:
  • It’s uncommon parasite of humans.
  • It commonly infects pigs and has a worldwide distribution.

  • Two stages can be seen:

  • The trophozoite: large, easily seen oval shaped ciliate with a rapid revolving motility.

  • The cyst is. large, round, thick walled, it’s the infective stage. Cilia is common but not clearly seen in cyst.

    • Macronucleus stains well with iodine and other stains.
  • A large macronucleus may be seen “kidney shape”. A very small micronucleus lies close to the macronucleus but not clearly appear.

  • Habitat: Large intestine.

  • Disease: Balantidiasis with dysentery-abdominal pain, mucoid bloody diarrhea with tenesmus.

  • Complications: Intestinal: haemorrhage, appendicitis, peritonitis.

  • Extra intestinal: amoeba can migrate and infect other organs (liver, lung, skin, brain).

  • Diagnosis: stool examination.

  • Diagnostic Parasitology; B

    Diagnostic Parasitology

    Due to its large size, Balantidium coli is one of the easier intestinal protozoa to identify. The cyst, top left, measures about 50 to 70 µm in diameter. The parasite is characterized by the presence of a large kidney-shaped macronucleus. The image at right is an unstained wet mount of a cyst (courtesy of Gustavo Gini).

    The trophozoite is oval and measures approximately 50 to 100 µm long and 40 to 70 µm wide. Balantidium coli is the only pathogenic ciliate. The image on the left was taken at 400x. In the image on the right, the cytostome is visible (arrow), image courtesy Gustavo Gini.

    Copyright 2008 Don Lehman

    CDC - Balantidiasis - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Balantidium coli Infection FAQs What is Balantidium coli?

    Balantidium coli is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes the infection called balantidiasis. While this type of infection is uncommon in the United States, humans and other mammals can become infected with Balantidiumcoli by ingesting infective cysts from food and water that is contaminated by feces. Mostly asymptomatic, Balantidium infection can cause such symptoms as diarrhea and abdominal pain.

    Where is Balantidium coli endemic?

    Balantidium coli infection in humans is rare in the United States. Balantidium coli is found throughout the world, but it is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions and developing countries. Because pigs are an animal reservoir, human infections occur more frequently in areas where pigs are raised, especially if good hygiene is not practiced.

    How is Balantidium coli transmitted?

    Balantidium coli is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Humans can become infected by eating and drinking contaminated food and water that has come into contact with infective animal or human fecal matter. Infection can occur in several ways, including the following examples:

    • eating meat, fruits, and vegetables that have been contaminated by an infected person or contaminated by fecal matter from an infected animal,
    • drinking and washing food with contaminated water, or
    • having poor hygiene habits.
    What are the signs and symptoms?

    Most people infected with Balantidium coli experience no symptoms. Balantidium coli infects the large intestine in humans and produces infective microscopic cysts that are passed in the feces, potentially leading to re-infection or infection of others. People who are immune-compromised are the most likely to experience more severe signs and symptoms. These include persistent diarrhea, dysentery, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. If left untreated, perforation of the colon can occur.

    Is there a test for Balantidium coli infection?

    Yes. Stool samples can be examined by a laboratory. Microscopic examination can detect Balantidium coli in the stool.

    Is this contagious?

    Yes. Balantidium coli is contagious by the fecal-oral route.

    Is there treatment?

    Yes. The three medications often used to treat Balantidium coli are tetracycline, metronidazole, and iodoquinol. See your health care provider for treatment.

    How can I prevent Balantidium coli ?

    Balantidium coli infection can be prevented when traveling by following good hygiene practices. Wash your hands with soap and warm water after using the toilet, changing diapers, and before handling food. Teach children the importance of washing hands to prevent infection. Wash all fruits and vegetables with clean water when preparing or eating them, even if they have a removable skin.

    This information is not meant to be used for self-diagnosis or as a substitute for consultation with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the parasites described above or think that you may have a parasitic infection, consult a health care provider.

    Balandium Coli

    Balandium Coli

    February 2006 Agdex 655-11 Balantidium in Swine he disease balantidiasis is an example of a zoonotic waterborne infection. The protozoan causing the infection, Balantidium coli, is common in swine worldwide in warm and temperate climates, but is rarely reported in Canada. Although there appears to be little risk of acquiring B. coli in Canada, producers should be aware of the disease and its effects on their animals and themselves. The prevalence of balantidiasis in Canada is not known precisely since it is not a reportable disease in people, and few surveys have been conducted to determine its prevalence in swine. T The trophozoite stage is large, oval and covered with short cilia that allow it to swim in the large intestine. This motile stage measures 50 to 100 microns in length and 40 to 70 microns in width. Two nuclei are present, one large bean-shaped macronucleus and one small round micronucleus. The second stage, the cyst stage, is responsible for transmitting the parasite to a new host. The cysts measure from 50 to 70 microns in diameter. Both cysts and trophozoites pass in the feces, but only the environmentally-resistant cyst can survive outside the body and contaminate food and water. When the cyst is eaten, it “hatches” (excysts) in the host’s intestine, releasing the motile form that begins to feed on cell fragments, starch grains and other organic matter. Life cycle of Balantidium Balantidium coli is the largest protozoan that parasitizes man. Two stages occur (Figure 1). Figure 1. Life cycle of Balantidium coli How does Balantidium harm pigs? Balantidium is usually found as a harmless organism in pigs, but it can sometimes cause severe clinical and even fatal disease. B. coli can be found in all age categories of animals. Some pigs experience moderate to severe diarrhoea, while others show no sign of disease. The difference between the acute and the symptomless pigs may indicate that different strains of the parasite are involved. Sows can shed many cysts thereby contaminating farrowing pens. Many scientists believe Balantidium from pigs and humans are the same species. However, some pig strains of the parasite can be distinguished from human strains and are not infectious to humans. Most infected individuals show no symptoms. Others develop diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and headache. Recurrent diarrhoea may persist for weeks to months. Balantidium rarely invades the intestine. When it does, it produces ulceration of the colon. Some of the ulcers may extend to the muscular layer of the intestine. Although the number of these cases is small, extra-intestinal disease can occur. How is infection spread? People become infected when they accidentally ingest cysts contaminating food or water. Domestic hogs probably serve as the most important reservoir host for human infection. In areas where pigs are the main domestic animal, the prevalence of human infection can be high. Pig farmers, butchers or people working in slaughterhouses are particularly susceptible to infection. Human infection is fairly rare in temperate areas, although once the infection is established, it can spread to others, particularly where poor environmental sanitation and personal hygiene are found. How will I know my herd is infected? Your veterinarian can do a routine microscopic examination of a fresh fecal sample to find the organism. Cysts are found in normal feces whereas trophozoites are found most often in watery feces. Do other animals get Balantidium? Several species of Balantidium have been described including B. suis from pigs, B. caviae from guinea pigs and B. duodeni from frogs. Pigs appear to be the major reservoir of strains of B. coli found in humans. How can I prevent infection? Overcrowded pens or barns and poor sanitation practices are some of the factors that can lead to the spread of Balantidium. Since the method of transmission is by ingesting infective cysts in contaminated food and water, preventative measures involve increased attention to personal hygiene and sanitation measures. Prepared by: Can Balantidium harm people? It is not known whether B. coli in pigs is identical to the species known from humans, and that is why their importance in the study of disease and prevention is not clear. Humans are apparently not susceptible to some pig strains of the parasite. Some strains of Balantidium produce no sign of infection, while other strains may cause severe diarrhoea. As in pigs, the differences in clinical features may be the result of differences in host susceptibility to the parasite or differences in the virulence of particular strains of the parasite. Murray J. Kennedy, Ph.D. Food Safety Division 02/6/500 2

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