Amaranthus Gangeticus Descriptive Essay - Essay for you

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Amaranthus Gangeticus Descriptive Essay

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION Herbaceous spineless plant reaching 30-60 cm in height. The leaves are 4-10 cm in length, elliptic to lanceolate, dark green, light green or red. It has a terminal head of bright coloured leaves, which may be red, purple, yellow or variegated. USES Leaves are used as vegetables and it may be planted as an ornamental. GROWING PERIOD Annual, may be harvested 30-50 days from sowing or 15-20 days from transplanting. If the plant is cut back and not uprooted it may continue to grow for 120-300 days, and provide successive harvests. COMMON NAMES Chinese amaranth, Tampala, Chinese spinach, Yin-choy, Amaranth, Amarante, Bayam, Kulitis, Phti, Phak khom suan, Rau den. FURTHER INF Scientific synonym: A. gangeticus, A. oleraceus, A. tristis, A. mangostanus. Chinese amaranth is a tropical vegetable native of South-East Asia that thrives in coastal areas during the summer months. It can be found at elevations between sea level and 800 m. Adapted to low to medium humidity. The yield may be 20-25 t/ha if the entire plant is harvested or 30-60 t/ha with successional harvesting of shoots. With a normal yield of 25 t/ha in 8 weeks about 125 kg N, 25 kg P, 250 kg K, 75 kg Ca and 40 kg Mg may be taken up from the soil. Photosynthesis pathway C4.

SOURCES (A. tricolor L.)
Hartmann T 1983 pp 36
Roecklein J 1987 pp 482 [USE]
Duke J 1975 pp 6 [PH, RAIN, TEMP]
Hackett C 1982 pp 25 [FER, PHO, DEP, PH, TEXT, TEMP]
Tindall H 1983 pp 38-41 [FER, TEXT, PH, TEMP, PHO]
Janick J 1991 pp 211
Hockings E 1961b pp 419 [USE, FER]
Westphal E 1989 pp 34-37 [USE, LIG, TEMP, PHO, RAIN, FER, DRA, TEXT]

FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN - Helping to build a world without hunger

Other articles

Amaranths (Chinese Spinach)

Amaranths (Chinese Spinach)

Description - Amaranths are green, leafy vegetables and/or grain crops. The leaves of vegetable amaranths and the seeds of grain amaranths are high in protein. More commonly known in the United States is the amaranth used as a bedding plant called Joseph's Coat. Amaranth varies greatly in color of the foliage, the shape of the leaves and the height of the plant. The clover-like flowers are small but occur in such large numbers that their affect is outstanding.

Culture - Amaranth, both vegetable and grain types, are easy to grow. Order specific edible varieties of amaranth to get the greens. If you don't get Amaranth gangeticus, get one of the edible varieties. Some seedsmen promote their varieties as producing edible grain only while other seedsmen promote their varieties for "greens" or leafy use. This warm season crop grows from 2 to 4 feet or more. The grain varieties are usually erect. Amaranth greens are grown like other green crops. Amaranths do well in hot, high light conditions, producing edible foliage in summer conditions. Plant 1/4 ounce of seed to 250 feet of bed and cover to inch or less depth. Amaranths do best on sunny, raised beds. Plants should be thinned to 6 inches apart. Plants respond to well fertilized soils and irrigation during hot summers.

Selection - Harvest greens 5 to 6 weeks after sowing. As with most greens crops, the young succulent leaves are preferred for eating. The greens are tied in bunches and sold in cartons by the bunch or by the pound. Keep amaranth greens refrigerated or iced in shipment or storage.

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Amaranthus gangeticus ( Kahlalu Amaranth )

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Amaranthus gangeticus
( Kahlalu Amaranth )

The leaves of this variety can be used as salad greens. Originally from Jamaica. Plants are 4 to 6 feet tall with a red seed head. Rare. Amaranth is a traditional seed crop grown by the Aztecs and Southwest peoples as a grain. The grain is high in Lysine and the young leaves are high in Iron and Calcium. Can be planted after the frost date, requires full sun. Plant 1/4 inches deep, thin the edible seedlings to 10 to 15 inches apart. Will cross pollinate with other varieties, so if you want to save seed, put paper bags over the flowerheads. Seeds can be cooked as a hot cereal, or ground and used as flour.

How to Grow this Plant:

Height: 4 ft. to 6 ft.
Width: 0 ft. to 0 ft.

annuals and biennials, edibles,

Mid Summer to Early Fall

USDA Hardiness Zone:

Not defined for this plant

Sun to Full Sun

Some Sand to Clay Loam

How-to. Fertilization for Annuals and Perennials

Annuals and perennials may be fertilized using: 1.water-soluble, quick release fertilizers; 2. temperature controlled slow-release fertilizers; or 3. organic fertilizers such as fish emulsion. Water soluble fertilizers are generally used every two weeks during the growing season or per label instructions. Controlled, slow-release fertilizers are worked into the soil ususally only once during the growing season or per label directions. For organic fertilizers such as fish emulsion, follow label directions as they may vary per product.

Conditions. Light Conditions

Unless a site is completely exposed, light conditions will change during the day and even during the year. The northern and eastern sides of a house receive the least amount of light, with the northern exposure being the shadiest. The western and southern sides of a house receive the most light and are considered the hottest exposures due to intense afternoon sun.

You will notice that sun and shade patterns change during the day. The western side of a house may even be shady due to shadows cast by large trees or a structure from an adjacent property. If you have just bought a new home or just beginning to garden in your older home, take time to map sun and shade throughout the day. You will get a more accurate feel for your site's true light conditions.

Conditions. Full to Partial Sun

Full sunlight is needed for many plants to assume their full potential. Many of these plants will do fine with a little less sunlight, although they may not flower as heavily or their foliage as vibrant. Areas on the southern and western sides of buildings usually are the sunniest. The only exception is when houses or buildings are so close together, shadows are cast from neighboring properties. Full sun usually means 6 or more hours of direct unobstructed sunlight on a sunny day. Partial sun receives less than 6 hours of sun, but more than 3 hours. Plants able to take full sun in some climates may only be able to tolerate part sun in other climates. Know the culture of the plant before you buy and plant it!

Conditions. Light and Plant Selection

For best plant performance, it is desirable to match the correct plant with the available light conditions. Right plant, right place! Plants which do not receive sufficient light may become pale in color, have fewer leaves and a "leggy" stretched-out appearance. Also expect plants to grow slower and have fewer blooms when light is less than desirable. It is possible to provide supplemental lighting for indoor plants with lamps. Plants can also receive too much light. If a shade loving plant is exposed to direct sun, it may wilt and/or cause leaves to be sunburned or otherwise damaged.

Dry is defined as an area that regularly receives water, but is fast draining. This results in a soil that is often dry to a depth of 18 inches.

Conditions. Outdoor Watering

Plants are almost completely made up of water so it is important to supply them with adequate water to maintain good plant health. Not enough water and roots will wither and the plant will wilt and die. Too much water applied too frequently deprives roots of oxygen leading to plant diseases such as root and stem rots. The type of plant, plant age, light level, soil type and container size all will impact when a plant needs to be watered. Follow these tips to ensure successful watering:

* The key to watering is water deeply and less frequently. When watering, water well, i.e. provide enough water to thoroughly saturate the root ball. With in-ground plants, this means thoroughly soaking the soil until water has penetrated to a depth of 6 to 7 inches (1' being better). With container grown plants, apply enough water to allow water to flow through the drainage holes.

* Try to water plants early in the day or later in the afternoon to conserve water and cut down on plant stress. Do water early enough so that water has had a chance to dry from plant leaves prior to night fall. This is paramount if you have had fungus problems.

* Don't wait to water until plants wilt. Although some plants will recover from this, all plants will die if they wilt too much (when they reach the permanent wilting point).

* Consider water conservation methods such as drip irrigation, mulching, and xeriscaping. Drip systems which slowly drip moisture directly on the root system can be purchased at your local home and garden center. Mulches can significantly cool the root zone and conserve moisture.

* Consider adding water-saving gels to the root zone which will hold a reserve of water for the plant. These can make a world of difference especially under stressful conditions. Be certain to follow label directions for their use.

Conditions. Normal Watering for Outdoor Plants

Normal watering means that soil should be kept evenly moist and watered regularly, as conditions require. Most plants like 1 inch of water a week during the growing season, but take care not to over water. The first two years after a plant is installed, regular watering is important for establishment. The first year is critical. It is better to water once a week and water deeply, than to water frequently for a few minutes.

How-to. Planting and Removing Annuals

When planting annuals. begin by preparing the soil. Rototill rotted compost, soil conditioner, pulverized bark, or even builders sand into the existing soil and rake it smooth. Annuals grow quickly, so space them as recommended on plant tags. Remove plants from their containers or packs gently, being sure to keep as much soil as you can around the root ball. If the rootball is tight, loosen it a bit by gently separating white, matted roots with your fingers or a pocket knife. Plant at the same depth they were in the containers. Gently fill in around the plants, providing support but not cutting off air to the roots. Water the plants well.

Through the season, be sure to fertilize for optimal performance. Take special care to cut back or completely remove any diseased plants, as soon as you see there is a problem. At the end of the season, be sure to remove all plants and their root balls. Rake the bed well to prepare it for the next season's planting.

Aphids are small, soft-bodied, slow-moving insects that suck fluids from plants. Aphids come in many colors, ranging from green to brown to black, and they may have wings. They attack a wide range of plant species causing stunting, deformed leaves and buds. They can transmit harmful plant viruses with their piercing/sucking mouthparts. Aphids, generally, are merely a nuisance, since it takes many of them to cause serious plant damage. However aphids do produce a sweet substance called honeydew (coveted by ants) which can lead to an unattractive black surface growth called sooty mold.

Aphids can increase quickly in numbers and each female can produce up to 250 live nymphs in the course of a month without mating. Aphids often appear when the environment changes - spring & fall. They're often massed at the tips of branches feeding on succulent tissue. Aphids are attracted to the color yellow and will often hitchhike on yellow clothing.

Prevention and Control. Keep weeds to an absolute minimum, especially around desirable plants. On edibles, wash off infected area of plant. Lady bugs and lacewings will feed on aphids in the garden. There are various products - organic and inorganic - that can be used to control aphids. Seek the recommendation of a professional and follow all label procedures to a tee.

Fungi. Leaf Spots

Leaf spots are caused by fungi or bacteria. Brown or black spots and patches may be either ragged or circular, with a water soaked or yellow-edged appearance. Insects, rain, dirty garden tools, or even people can help its spread.

Prevention and Control. Remove infected leaves when the plant is dry. Leaves that collect around the base of the plant should be raked up and disposed of. Avoid overhead irrigation if possible; water should be directed at soil level. For fungal leaf spots, use a recommended fungicide according to label directions.

Edibles. Edible Landscape

An edible landscape is one in which all or most of the plants can be eaten or used for cooking in some way. If you are interested in edible gardening, it is highly recommended that you pratice organic methods in the garden. At the very least, do not use chemicals in the area of the garden where there are edibles. Be creative. Many edibles look great in containers, hanging baskets, or even as foundation plants.

An annual is any plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season.

Glossary. Seed Start

Seed Start. easily propagated from seed.

An edible is a plant that has a part or all of it that can be safely consumed in some way.

Glossary. Drought Tolerant

Very few plants, except for those naturally found in desert situations, can tolerate arid soils, but there are plants that seem to be more drought tolerant than others. Plants that are drought tolerant still require moisture, so don't think that they can go for extended period without any water. Drought tolerant plants are often deep rooted, have waxy or thick leaves that conserve water, or leaf structures that close to minimize transpiration. All plants in droughty situations benefit from an occasional deep watering and a 2-3 inch thick layer of mulch. Drought tolerant plants are the backbone of xeriphytic landscaping.

Amaranthus gangeticus: definition of Amaranthus gangeticus and synonyms of Amaranthus gangeticus (English)

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Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Amaranthus gangeticus Amaranthus gangeticus From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Elephant Head Amaranth

Amaranthus gangeticus is also known as elephant-head amaranth. It is an annual flowering plant with deep purple flowers. It can grow from 2-3 feet in height.

In Bangladesh. it has been used as a leafy vegetable. Scientific study suggests that it inhibits calcium retention. Another study suggested that due to high levels of antioxidants found in the plant, it could have a radioprotective role in mice.

References

This Amaranthaceae article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Amaranthus tricolor - Useful Tropical Plants

Amaranthus tricolor Cultivation Details

A plant originally from the tropics, it can be grown in a wide range of climates from the temperate zone to the tropics, where it thrives from near sea level to about 800 metres[

Title Ecocrop Publication Author Website http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 22 - 30°c, but can tolerate 8 - 45°c[

Title Ecocrop Publication Author Website http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. It can be killed by temperatures of 4°c or lower[

Title Ecocrop Publication Author Website http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,200 - 1,500mm, but tolerates 300 - 2,700mm[

Title Ecocrop Publication Author Website http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
Prefers a light well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position[

Title The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. Publication Author Huxley. A. Publisher MacMillan Press Year 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5 Description Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Title Oriental Vegetables Publication Author Larkcom J. Publisher John Murray Year 1991 ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 Description Well written and very informative.

], though it does succeed in heavier soils[

Title Oriental Vegetables Publication Author Larkcom J. Publisher John Murray Year 1991 ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 Description Well written and very informative.

]. Dislikes dry conditions[

Title Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Publication Author Website http://www.prota.org Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.

]. Tolerates fairly acid soils[

Title Oriental Vegetables Publication Author Larkcom J. Publisher John Murray Year 1991 ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 Description Well written and very informative.

]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 - 7.5, tolerating 4.3 to 8[

Title Ecocrop Publication Author Website http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
When grown as a leaf crop, the first harvest can be taken about 30 - 50 days after sowing the seed. So long as it is carried out regularly, and the plant prevented from flowering, cropping can then continue for a further 120 - 300 days[

Title Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Publication Author Website http://www.prota.org Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.

Title Ecocrop Publication Author Website http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description Basic information on a wide range of useful plants, plus details of environmental needs where available.

].
Continuous cropping may yield up to 20 kg/m2 marketable leaves per year[

Title Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Publication Author Website http://www.prota.org Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.

].
Plants are particularly susceptible to attacks by leaf-chewing insects[

Title Edible Leaves of the Tropics Publication Author Martin. F. W.; Ruberte. R. M. & Meitzner. L. S. Publisher Echo. USA. Year 1998 ISBN 0-9653360-1-8 Description A terse guide, giving reasonable detail on the more common leaf crops and brief information on a wide range of lesser known plants.

].
Plants should not be given inorganic fertilizers, see notes above on toxicity.
A polymorphic species[

Title RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Publication Author F. Chittendon. Publisher Oxford University Press Year 1951 ISBN - Description Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200 ]).

], it is often cultivated for its edible leaves, there are many named varieties[

Title Oriental Vegetables Publication Author Larkcom J. Publisher John Murray Year 1991 ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 Description Well written and very informative.

].
Most if not all members of this genus photosynthesize by a more efficient method than most plants. Called the 'C4 carbon-fixation pathway', this process is particularly efficient at high temperatures, in bright sunlight and under dry conditions[

Title Lost Crops of the Incas Publication Author Popenoe. H. et al Publisher National Academy Press Year 1990 ISBN 0-309-04264-X Description An excellent book. Very readable, with lots of information and good pictures of some lesser known food plants of S. America.

Edible Uses

Leaves - raw or cooked. Often used at the young seedling stage[

Title Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Publication Author Hedrick. U. P. Publisher Dover Publications Year 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6 Description Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

Title Dictionary of Economic Plants. Publication Author Uphof. J. C. Th. Publisher Weinheim Year 1959 ISBN - Description An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

Title A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Publication Author Usher. G. Publisher Constable Year 1974 ISBN 0094579202 Description Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

], they have a very mild flavour and are also cooked as a spinach[

Title Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Publication Author Facciola. S. Publisher Kampong Publications Year 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 Description Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

]. An excellent hot weather substitute for spinach[

Title Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Publication Author Facciola. S. Publisher Kampong Publications Year 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 Description Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

]. The leaves contain about 3.5% protein, 0.25% fat, 6.6% carbohydrate, 3.1% ash, 24mg iron per 100g, 464mg calcium per 100g, they are rich in vitamin A and have a fair content of vitamins B1 and C[

Title Famine Foods listed in the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Publication Author Reid. B. E. Publisher Southern Materials Centre; Taipei Year 1977 ISBN - Description A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.

]. On a zero moisture basis 100g of the leaves contains up to 2441mg calcium, 1008mg phosphorus, 51mg iron, 34mg sodium, 4475mg potassium, 37,623 micrograms beta-carotene equivalent, 0.68mg thiamine, 2.37mg riboflavin, 11.48mg niacin and 730mg ascorbic acid[

Title Medicinal Plants of China Publication Author Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Publisher Reference Publications, Inc. Year 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4 Description Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

The crisp interior of large stems makes a tasty vegetable[

Title Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Publication Author Facciola. S. Publisher Kampong Publications Year 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9 Description Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

]. It can be eaten raw or cooked as an asparagus substitute[

Title Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Publication Author Hedrick. U. P. Publisher Dover Publications Year 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6 Description Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

Title A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Publication Author Usher. G. Publisher Constable Year 1974 ISBN 0094579202 Description Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

Title Alternative Foods. Publication Author Sholto-Douglas. J. Publisher Year ISBN Description Not very comprehensive, it seems more or less like a copy of earlier writings with little added.

Title Plants for Human Consumption. Publication Author Kunkel. G. Publisher Koeltz Scientific Books Year 1984 ISBN 3874292169 Description An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

]. Very small, about 1mm in diameter[

Title Flora of China Publication Author Website http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/ Publisher Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis. Year 1994 ISBN Description An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.

], but easy to harvest and very nutritious. The seed can be cooked whole, and becomes very gelatinous like this, but it is rather difficult to crush all of the small seeds in the mouth and thus some of the seed will pass right through the digestive system without being assimilated[

Title Plants for a Future Author Ken Fern Description Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

]. The seed contains saponins[

Title Medicinal Plants of China Publication Author Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Publisher Reference Publications, Inc. Year 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4 Description Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

]. If this is the case it is probably best to either soak the seed for at least 12 hours and then rinse thoroughly before cooking or to give the seed a long slow cooking in order to destroy the saponins[

Title Plants for a Future Author Ken Fern Description Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.

Medicinal

The whole plant is astringent and diuretic[

Title Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Publication Author Chopra. R. N. Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Publisher Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. Year 1986 ISBN - Description Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

Title Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Publication Author Website http://www.prota.org Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.

]. A decoction of the root is used with Cucurbita moschata to control haemorrhage following abortion[

Title Medicinal Plants of China Publication Author Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Publisher Reference Publications, Inc. Year 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4 Description Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

The seeds are said to have aphrodisiac properties[

Title Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Publication Author Bown. D. Publisher Dorling Kindersley, London. Year 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31 Description A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

A decoction of very old plants is taken internally to improve vision and strengthen the liver.

Other Uses

Yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the whole plant[

Title Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. Publication Author Grae. I. Publisher MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. Year 1974 ISBN 0-02-544950-8 Description A very good and readable book on dyeing.

Propagation

Seed - can be sown in situ or in a nursery seedbed and then transplanted to their permanent position 2 - 3 weeks later[

Title Traditional Vegetables in Benin Publication Author Achigan-Dako E. Et al Publisher Darwin Initiative; International Foundation for Science Year 2009 ISBN Description Issued as a PDF on the Internet, it contains basic information on over 250 species of plants used for food in Benin.

]. Seedlings do not transplant well[

Title Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Publication Author Website http://www.prota.org Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3,200 species of useful plants of Africa.

]. Germination is usually rapid and good if the soil is warm[

Title Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Publication Author Rice. G. (Editor) Publisher Thompson and Morgan. Year 1987 ISBN - Description Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.

], but poor germination rates are experienced in cool or cold soils[

Title The National Non-Food Crops Centre Crop Database Publication Author Website http://www.nnfcc.co.uk/crops/pd.cfm Publisher Year 0 ISBN Description An excellent on-line information source, with information on over 100 species (as of 2006) of plants being investigated as bio-crops.

]. A drop in temperature overnight aids germination[

Title Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Publication Author Rice. G. (Editor) Publisher Thompson and Morgan. Year 1987 ISBN - Description Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.

].
Cuttings of growing plants root easily[

Title Oriental Vegetables Publication Author Larkcom J. Publisher John Murray Year 1991 ISBN 0-7195-4781-4 Description Well written and very informative.

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Elephant Head Amaranth, Amaranthus Amaranthus tricolor Greek

Elephant Head Amaranth, Amaranthus 'Greek'

On Aug 25, 2009, lehua_mc from Portland, OR (Zone 8b) wrote:

So so happy with my amaranth! My Seeds of Change Elephant Head seeds have added a really exotic flare to my garden, with lush, robust foliage and attention grabbing blooms. Always a conversation starter. I planted a whole bed of them, and am as close to being in a jungle with them as I can get! I planted them with some remaining Hopi Red Dye, which was good since the Hopi tends to flop in the late season (and the Elephant has yet to even try), however word is they cross pollinate easily. Looking forward to what comes forth next year, but their individual uses may be compromised.

On Nov 15, 2005, Farmerdill from Augusta, GA (Zone 8a) wrote:

A unique and stoutly-branched variety. Produces green-gold flower plumes with an abundance of dark purple seeds. In Greece the greens are served steamed. Sow directly, 8-10 seeds per foot when soil is warm and danger of frost has passed. For an earlier crop, can be planted in flats and transplanted when 4-8 inches tall. Enriching soil with mature compost gives larger plants and greater yield of seeds. Pick at peak of bloom, or for eating, leave heads on plants until they drop a few seeds or pick before the first frost. Dry a week.

Amaranthus gangeticus (Amaranthaceae), a name incertae sedis

References

Bojian, B. Clemants, S.E. & Borsch, T. (2003) Amaranthus L. In. Wu, Z.Y. Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.), Flora of China 5. Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp. 415–429.

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Amaranthus gangeticus

Amaranthus gangeticus

Taxobox
name = "Elephant Head Amaranth"
regnum = Plant ae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Caryophyllales
familia = Amaranthaceae
genus = " Amaranthus "
binomial = "Amaranthus gangeticus"
binomial_authority = L

"Amaranthus gangeticus " is also known as elephant-head amaranth. It is an annual flowering plant with deep purple flowers. It can grow from 2-3 feet in height.

In Bangladesh. it has been used as a leafy vegetable. Scientific study suggests that it inhibits calcium retention. Another study suggested that due to high levels of antioxidants found in the plant, it could have a radioprotective role in mice.

* [http://www.robsplants.com/plants/AmaraGange.php Growing Information and Picture ]
* [http://www.nutritionsociety.org.uk/bjn/090/bjn0900521.htm Calcium Nutrition Study ]
*Verma RK, Sisodia R, Bhatia AL. J Med Food. 2002 Winter;5(4):189-95

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