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Misplaced Anxiety Definition Essay

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Реферат - Test Anxiety Essay Research Paper Test Anxiety - Иностранный язык

Test Anxiety Essay, Research Paper

Test Anxiety is a disorder that effects many people. There are many theories and ideas about what actually causes this anxiety. This paper will discuss a few examples and give some solutions to getting around the anxious test feelings. Test anxiety is defined as a special case of specific phobia. It brings on certain phenomenological, physiological, and behavioral responses, which are usually related to fear of failure (Sapp, 183). A specific phobia, is a fear of certain objects or events, such as a fear of heights or enclosed places (Gleitman, A49). Researchers believe that test anxiety begins at a young age in most children. Usually preschool, or whenever a child s performance or personality seems to conflict with what they believe their parents unrealistic expectations would be (Sapp, 183). When a parent gives negative reinforcement towards a child s work, it will usually lead to some sort of anxiety in the future, in order to not receive that same negative attitude from their parents when performing a similar task. There are two major components of test anxiety, worry and emotionality. Liebert and Morris first conceptualized these two components in 1967. They defined these terms in the following way. Worry is the fear of doing something wrong. The definition of emotionality is in terms of the physiological reactions evoked by evaluative stress (Spielberger, 7). These reactions are feelings of tension, apprehension, and nervousness. When these responses occur while taking an exam, it can usually be classified as the condition; test anxiety. Another belief about test anxiety is that it is a result of crucial real life consequences for examinees. In a test performed in 1966 by Sarason, it was observed that when 10%of the most anxious students and 10% of the least anxious students of an elementary school were quizzed. The high anxious students were over one year behind national norms in reading and math basic performance. The low anxious students were the opposite, they were one year ahead of the national norm (Zeidner, 5). This proves that anxiety does have an effect on performance. Wine, in 1971 stated that test anxiety is primarily due to the worry cognitions experienced by students during examination (Spielberg, 7). Meaning that their intellectual growth from infancy to adulthood, contains worry about testing. There are many solutions to solving the problem of test anxiety. I will only discuss three of the possible treatments. In actuality there is a vast array of solutions to this anxiety. The first of these is called coping. Coping eliminates or modifies the conditions that produce stress. It also keeps the emotional consequences within manageable bounds (Zeidner, 307). This theory involves a person s constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage the internal and external demands of the stressful situation, such as the exam (Zeidner, 306). Coping is a linear process involving three major steps. The first of these steps is called primary appraisal. This is the process of perceiving and evaluating a situation as involving threat, challenge, harm or benefit to one s self. The second step in the linear pattern is something that is called secondary appraisal, meaning, the process of bringing to mind a variety of potential responses to situations appraised to be threatening or challenging. The final step is called specific coping responses (Zeidner, 307). Coping has a buffering effect on stress. It has significant value under moderate to high stressful situations, but in a low stress situation, it will be less effective (Zeidner, 307). Coping effectiveness must be examined in the context in which problems occur; without information about the social context we would only have half the story (Lazarus, 299). Due to the lack of evidence on coping, I am unable to conclude on effectiveness of coping in solving test anxiety.

The next solution to test anxiety, is cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy is, a generic term that refers to a wide array of therapeutic approaches directed toward modifying the worry and irrational thought patterns of test anxious clients (Zeidner, 367). There are three general areas of cognitive therapies. The first group uses cognitive therapy (CT) alone in treating test anxiety. A second group uses CT in combination with other treatment components such as study counseling (SC) or systematic desensitization (SD) (Spielberg, 135). Systematic desensitization tries to counter-condition an anxiety that has been previously classically conditioned as a stressful situation. It usually involves training in deep muscle relaxation while visualizing stressful situations. This will eventually cause the patient to be able to approach high stress situations without experiencing anxiety (Zeidner, 356). The third group consists of several studies that compared CT alone with combinations of CT and other treatment components. After testing these theories they found that the first group is ineffective in most people. It may have reduced the anxiety, but not to a significant extent. In nine out of ten tests, CT alone showed a decrease in anxiety, but in only two of these tests, did it show an improvement in test grades or performance (Spielberg, 136). The second group produced a decrease in test anxiety, but it was still insignificant. Using the theory of systematic desensitization was found to be the most effective when performed. It showed a decrease in anxiety, and raised the performance level significantly (Spielberg, 135). After a patient went through this therapy, they were able to reduce the physiological effects of anxiety that in turn reduced the overall anxiety. One other treatment for test anxiety, is parental behavior. Parental attitude can also be considered prevention for test anxiety. This would be for a parent to form a positive relationship with their child. If a parent sends positive messages to their child, when at a young age, they will not feel as anxious during stressful situations (Sapp, 194). There is no concrete evidence proving this to be completely effective. More research is needed investigating the effects of parental influences and child-parental interactions and their possible long term effects. (Sapp, 184). The only way to know if a treatment is truly effective, is by then testing the person, monitoring them for anxiety and a significant raise in test scores as well as a raise in GPA. Test anxiety is a problem that effects many people. This condition is one of the leading reasons for failure amongst students of all ages. But, as discussed in this paper, it can be prevented or treated in many ways. All that is needed is a little bit of positive reinforcement. In conclusion, the best way to overcome test anxiety is to either possibly prevent it by positive parental reinforcement, or to undergo the theory of systematic desensitization. SD has been proven one of the most effective and popular forms of treatments, and therefore, it would be the best way to overcome this specific phobia. In the future, a person suffering from test anxiety should get in the habit of relaxing their muscles when approaching or thinking of stressful situations. This will then lead to a calmer response when approaching an exam or another fearful situation.

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Test Anxiety Essay Research Paper Test Anxiety

Test Anxiety Essay, Research Paper

Test Anxiety is a disorder that effects many people. There are many theories and ideas about what actually causes this anxiety. This paper will discuss a few examples and give some solutions to getting around the anxious test feelings. Test anxiety is defined as a special case of specific phobia. It brings on certain phenomenological, physiological, and behavioral responses, which are usually related to fear of failure (Sapp, 183). A specific phobia, is a fear of certain objects or events, such as a fear of heights or enclosed places (Gleitman, A49). Researchers believe that test anxiety begins at a young age in most children. Usually preschool, or whenever a child s performance or personality seems to conflict with what they believe their parents unrealistic expectations would be (Sapp, 183). When a parent gives negative reinforcement towards a child s work, it will usually lead to some sort of anxiety in the future, in order to not receive that same negative attitude from their parents when performing a similar task. There are two major components of test anxiety, worry and emotionality. Liebert and Morris first conceptualized these two components in 1967. They defined these terms in the following way. Worry is the fear of doing something wrong. The definition of emotionality is in terms of the physiological reactions evoked by evaluative stress (Spielberger, 7). These reactions are feelings of tension, apprehension, and nervousness. When these responses occur while taking an exam, it can usually be classified as the condition; test anxiety. Another belief about test anxiety is that it is a result of crucial real life consequences for examinees. In a test performed in 1966 by Sarason, it was observed that when 10%of the most anxious students and 10% of the least anxious students of an elementary school were quizzed. The high anxious students were over one year behind national norms in reading and math basic performance. The low anxious students were the opposite, they were one year ahead of the national norm (Zeidner, 5). This proves that anxiety does have an effect on performance. Wine, in 1971 stated that test anxiety is primarily due to the worry cognitions experienced by students during examination (Spielberg, 7). Meaning that their intellectual growth from infancy to adulthood, contains worry about testing. There are many solutions to solving the problem of test anxiety. I will only discuss three of the possible treatments. In actuality there is a vast array of solutions to this anxiety. The first of these is called coping. Coping eliminates or modifies the conditions that produce stress. It also keeps the emotional consequences within manageable bounds (Zeidner, 307). This theory involves a person s constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage the internal and external demands of the stressful situation, such as the exam (Zeidner, 306). Coping is a linear process involving three major steps. The first of these steps is called primary appraisal. This is the process of perceiving and evaluating a situation as involving threat, challenge, harm or benefit to one s self. The second step in the linear pattern is something that is called secondary appraisal, meaning, the process of bringing to mind a variety of potential responses to situations appraised to be threatening or challenging. The final step is called specific coping responses (Zeidner, 307). Coping has a buffering effect on stress. It has significant value under moderate to high stressful situations, but in a low stress situation, it will be less effective (Zeidner, 307). Coping effectiveness must be examined in the context in which problems occur; without information about the social context we would only have half the story (Lazarus, 299). Due to the lack of evidence on coping, I am unable to conclude on effectiveness of coping in solving test anxiety.

The next solution to test anxiety, is cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy is, a generic term that refers to a wide array of therapeutic approaches directed toward modifying the worry and irrational thought patterns of test anxious clients (Zeidner, 367). There are three general areas of cognitive therapies. The first group uses cognitive therapy (CT) alone in treating test anxiety. A second group uses CT in combination with other treatment components such as study counseling (SC) or systematic desensitization (SD) (Spielberg, 135). Systematic desensitization tries to counter-condition an anxiety that has been previously classically conditioned as a stressful situation. It usually involves training in deep muscle relaxation while visualizing stressful situations. This will eventually cause the patient to be able to approach high stress situations without experiencing anxiety (Zeidner, 356). The third group consists of several studies that compared CT alone with combinations of CT and other treatment components. After testing these theories they found that the first group is ineffective in most people. It may have reduced the anxiety, but not to a significant extent. In nine out of ten tests, CT alone showed a decrease in anxiety, but in only two of these tests, did it show an improvement in test grades or performance (Spielberg, 136). The second group produced a decrease in test anxiety, but it was still insignificant. Using the theory of systematic desensitization was found to be the most effective when performed. It showed a decrease in anxiety, and raised the performance level significantly (Spielberg, 135). After a patient went through this therapy, they were able to reduce the physiological effects of anxiety that in turn reduced the overall anxiety. One other treatment for test anxiety, is parental behavior. Parental attitude can also be considered prevention for test anxiety. This would be for a parent to form a positive relationship with their child. If a parent sends positive messages to their child, when at a young age, they will not feel as anxious during stressful situations (Sapp, 194). There is no concrete evidence proving this to be completely effective. More research is needed investigating the effects of parental influences and child-parental interactions and their possible long term effects. (Sapp, 184). The only way to know if a treatment is truly effective, is by then testing the person, monitoring them for anxiety and a significant raise in test scores as well as a raise in GPA. Test anxiety is a problem that effects many people. This condition is one of the leading reasons for failure amongst students of all ages. But, as discussed in this paper, it can be prevented or treated in many ways. All that is needed is a little bit of positive reinforcement. In conclusion, the best way to overcome test anxiety is to either possibly prevent it by positive parental reinforcement, or to undergo the theory of systematic desensitization. SD has been proven one of the most effective and popular forms of treatments, and therefore, it would be the best way to overcome this specific phobia. In the future, a person suffering from test anxiety should get in the habit of relaxing their muscles when approaching or thinking of stressful situations. This will then lead to a calmer response when approaching an exam or another fearful situation.

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Test Anxiety Essay Research Paper Test Anxiety

Test Anxiety Essay Research Paper

Test Anxiety is a disorder that effects many people. There are many theories and ideas about what actually causes this anxiety. This paper will discuss a few examples and give some solutions to getting around the anxious test feelings. Test anxiety is defined as a special case of specific phobia. It brings on certain phenomenological physiological and behavioral responses which are usually related to fear of failure (Sapp 183). A specific phobia is a fear of certain objects or events such as a fear of heights or enclosed places (Gleitman A49). Researchers believe that test anxiety begins at a young age in most children. Usually preschool or whenever a child s performance or personality seems to conflict with what they believe their parents unrealistic expectations would be (Sapp 183). When a parent gives negative reinforcement towards a child s work it will usually lead to some sort of anxiety in the future in order to not receive that same negative attitude from their parents when performing a similar task. There are two major components of test anxiety worry and emotionality. Liebert and Morris first conceptualized these two components in 1967. They defined these terms in the following way. Worry is the fear of doing something wrong. The definition of emotionality is in terms of the physiological reactions evoked by evaluative stress (Spielberger 7). These reactions are feelings of tension apprehension and nervousness. When these responses occur while taking an exam it can usually be classified as the condition; test anxiety. Another belief about test anxiety is that it is a result of crucial real life consequences for examinees. In a test performed in 1966 by Sarason it was observed that when 10%of the most anxious students and 10% of the least anxious students of an elementary school were quizzed. The high anxious students were over one year behind national norms in reading and math basic performance. The low anxious students were the opposite they were one year ahead of the national norm (Zeidner 5). This proves that anxiety does have an effect on performance. Wine in 1971 stated that test anxiety is primarily due to the worry cognitions experienced by students during examination (Spielberg 7). Meaning that their intellectual growth from infancy to adulthood contains worry about testing. There are many solutions to solving the problem of test anxiety. I will only discuss three of the possible treatments. In actuality there is a vast array of solutions to this anxiety. The first of these is called coping. Coping eliminates or modifies the conditions that produce stress. It also keeps the emotional consequences within manageable bounds (Zeidner 307). This theory involves a person s constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage the internal and external demands of the stressful situation such as the exam (Zeidner 306). Coping is a linear process involving three major steps. The first of these steps is called primary appraisal. This is the process of perceiving and evaluating a situation as involving threat challenge harm or benefit to one s self. The second step in the linear pattern is something that is called secondary appraisal meaning the process of bringing to mind a variety of potential responses to situations appraised to be threatening or challenging. The final step is called specific coping responses (Zeidner 307). Coping has a buffering effect on stress. It has significant value under moderate to high stressful situations but in a low stress situation it will be less effective (Zeidner 307). Coping effectiveness must be examined in the context in which problems occur; without information about the social context we would only have half the story (Lazarus 299). Due to the lack of evidence on coping I am unable to conclude on effectiveness of coping in solving test anxiety.

The next solution to test anxiety is cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy is a generic term that refers to a wide array of therapeutic approaches directed toward modifying the worry and irrational thought patterns of test anxious clients (Zeidner 367). There are three general areas of cognitive therapies. The first group uses cognitive therapy (CT) alone in treating test anxiety. A second group uses CT in combination with other treatment components such as study counseling (SC) or systematic desensitization (SD) (Spielberg 135). Systematic desensitization tries to counter-condition an anxiety that has been previously classically conditioned as a stressful situation. It usually involves training in deep muscle relaxation while visualizing stressful situations. This will eventually cause the patient to be able to approach high stress situations without experiencing anxiety (Zeidner 356). The third group consists of several studies that compared CT alone with combinations of CT and other treatment components. After testing these theories they found that the first group is ineffective in most people. It may have reduced the anxiety but not to a significant extent. In nine out of ten tests CT alone showed a decrease in anxiety but in only two of these tests did it show an improvement in test grades or performance (Spielberg 136). The second group produced a decrease in test anxiety but it was still insignificant. Using the theory of systematic desensitization was found to be the most effective when performed. It showed a decrease in anxiety and raised the performance level significantly (Spielberg 135). After a patient went through this therapy they were able to reduce the physiological effects of anxiety that in turn reduced the overall anxiety. One other treatment for test anxiety is parental behavior. Parental attitude can also be considered prevention for test anxiety. This would be for a parent to form a positive relationship with their child. If a parent sends positive messages to their child when at a young age they will not feel as anxious during stressful situations (Sapp 194). There is no concrete evidence proving this to be completely effective. More research is needed investigating the effects of parental influences and child-parental interactions and their possible long term effects. (Sapp 184). The only way to know if a treatment is truly effective is by then testing the person monitoring them for anxiety and a significant raise in test scores as well as a raise in GPA. Test anxiety is a problem that effects many people. This condition is one of the leading reasons for failure amongst students of all ages. But as discussed in this paper it can be prevented or treated in many ways. All that is needed is a little bit of positive reinforcement. In conclusion the best way to overcome test anxiety is to either possibly prevent it by positive parental reinforcement or to undergo the theory of systematic desensitization. SD has been proven one of the most effective and popular forms of treatments and therefore it would be the best way to overcome this specific phobia. In the future a person suffering from test anxiety should get in the habit of relaxing their muscles when approaching or thinking of stressful situations. This will then lead to a calmer response when approaching an exam or another fearful situation.

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Misplaced anxiety definition essay

LotsOfEssays.com Anxiety

This research develops a concept analysis of anxiety. This analysis begins with the definition of the term "concept," as that terms is applied in the field of psychology, and proceeds to the definition of the psychological term "anxiety." Following these definitions, the criteria for, antecedents of, and consequences flowing from anxiety are identified and explained. The conditions required for a diagnosis of anxiety then are identified and discussed. Case illustrations then are presented for amplification of the conditions required for diagnosis. Lastly, empirical referents applied in the observation and measurement of anxiety are reviewed.

A concept is a general idea or meaning that typically is mediated by a word, symbol, or sign. A concept may combine several elements from different sources to describe and explain a phenomenon (Whitley, 1992, pp. 155-161).

A concept is formed through a process of abstraction that is followed by a process of generalization. At the level of abstraction, a concept is developed on the basis of limited data. At the level of generalization, the parameters of the concept are extended to all entities sharing those characteristics.

An abstract concept is one that cannot be attributed to a specific entity or occurrence. By contrast, a concrete concept refers to a particular entity or outcome.

Anxiety is defined within the context of feelings experienced by a person (Andrew, Terry, & Karageorghis, 1995, pp. 1255-1266). At one level, anxiety is defined as a feeling of mingled dread and apprehension about a being's future in the absence of an attribution of specific cause for such dread and apprehension. At another level anxiety is defined as a chronic feeling of fear by a being. This chronic feeling of fear may be mild in intensity or the feeling fear may be overwhelming for the being. Anxiety also may be a secondary drive involving a acquired avoidance response. In this latter contex.

More on Anxiety.

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Lots of Essays. "Anxiety." LotsofEssays.com. LotsofEssays.com, (December 31, 1969). Web. 04 Aug. 2016.

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Essay on Anxiety as Discussed by Rollo May at

Discovery Of Being It seems as though every Sociologist creates his or her own definition of Anxiety. Each definition of Anxiety being ghastly different, however, tying back to three common situations: Fear, Encounters with primary groups, secondary groups, and the public, and Anxiety towards Self-Growth. In analyzing Rollo May's "The Discovery of Being," we find that May incorporates many different definitions of these situations from other Sociologists, as well as ties in many of his own thoughts and ideas. Also at times, May disregards strongly other Sociologist's views on these situations, creating an interesting and unique view of society and Psychology. In this analysis of "The Discovery of Being," we will examine May's particular definitions and thoughts on Anxiety and Being, Anxiety and Encounter, and Anxiety and Self-Growth. Early in the book, May touches on his views of Anxiety, he discusses Anxiety as being something that does not arise from a fear of "lack of libidinal satisfactions or security," but rather out of fear of our own powers, and any pertaining conflicts. He discusses this as a present day problem, which has been significantly influenced by society and present societal goals. Libidinal satisfactions are so easily encountered in our day that it becomes hard to avoid them. The prevalent Anxiety is found upon self-reflection and our own realizations of what we actually can do, but for some reason neglect to do so. Our constant outlook to go further in society than our neighbor is tied to our Anxiety of Being and Non-Being. May looks closely at the concept of Being, and notes at one point that "Being" is a participle, also meaning in the process of "being something." An individual's Being is constantly changing throughout life, never reaching a set point. More specifically, May defines Being as an individual's pattern.

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Public Speaking Anxiety: Definition, Examples, Solutions

public speaking anxiety (PSA)

By Richard Nordquist. Grammar & Composition Expert

Richard Nordquist, Ph.D. in English, is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Armstrong Atlantic State University and the author of two grammar and composition textbooks for college freshmen, Writing Exercises (Macmillan) and Passages: A Writer's Guide (St. Martin's Press). Richard has served as the About.com Guide to Grammar & Composition since 2006.

Updated March 10, 2016.

Definition

Public speaking anxiety (PSA ) is the fear experienced by a person when delivering (or preparing to deliver) a speech to an audience. Public speaking anxiety is sometimes referred to as stage fright or communication apprehension .

In The Challenge of Effective Speaking (2012), R.F. Verderber et al. report that "as many as 76% of experienced public speakers feel fearful before presenting a speech."

Continue Reading Below

See Examples and Observations below. Also see:

Examples and Observations
  • "In a 1986 study of about a thousand individuals, researchers discovered that people identified public speaking as their number-one fear. Public speaking anxiety even outranked such fears as going to the dentist, heights, mice, and flying."
    (Sheldon Metcalfe, Building a Speech. Wadsworth, 2010)
  • "Surveys show that the number one fear of Americans is public speaking. Number two is death. Death is number two. That means that at a funeral, the average American would rather be in the casket than doing the eulogy ."
    (American comedian Jerry Seinfeld)
  • Causes of Public Speaking Anxiety
    "[M]ost people's. anxiety about public speaking exists for six reasons. Many people are. anxious because public speaking is
    1. Novel. We don't do it regularly and lack necessary skills as a result.
    2. Done in formal settings. Our behaviors when giving a speech are more prescribed and rigid.
    3. Often done from a subordinate position. An instructor or boss sets the rules for giving a speech, and the audience acts as a critic.
    4. Conspicuous or obvious. The speaker stands apart from the audience.
    5. Done in front of an audience that is unfamiliar. Most people are more comfortable talking with people they know.
    6. A uinique situation in which the degree of attention paid to the speaker is quite noticeable. Audience members either stare at us or ignore us, so we become unusually self-focused."
    (Cindy L. Griffin, Invitation to Public Speaking. 3rd ed. Wadsworth, 2009)

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  • Six Strategies for Managing Anxiety
    1. Start planning and preparing your speech early.
    2. Choose a topic you care about.
    3. Become an expert on your topic.
    4. Research your audience.
    5. Practice your speech.
    6. Know your introduction and conclusion well.
    (adapted from Public Speaking: The Evolving Art. 2nd ed. by Stephanie J. Coopman and James Lull. Wadsworth, 2012)
  • Suggestions for Handling Fear
    1. Anticipate questions and objections, and develop solid responses.
    2. Use breathing techniques and tension-relieving exercises to reduce stress.
    3. Stop thinking about yourself and how you appear to the audience. Switch your thoughts to the audience and how your presentation can help them.
    4. Accept nervousness as natural, and do not try to counteract it with food, caffeine, drugs, or alcohol prior to the presentation.
    5. If all else fails and you start getting the shakes, pick out a friendly face in the audience and talk to that person.
    (adapted from Business Communication. Harvard Business School Press, 2003)
  • Speaking Strategies: A Checklist
    1. Be confident, positive, and energetic.
    2. Maintain eye contact when speaking or listening.
    3. Use gestures naturally--don't force them.
    4. Provide for audience participation; survey the audience: "How many of you. "
    5. Maintain a comfortable, erect posture.
    6. Speak up and speak clearly--don't rush.
    7. Reword and clarify when necessary.
    8. After the presentation, ask for questions and answer them clearly.
    9. Thank the audience.
    (adapted from The College Writer: A Guide to Thinking, Writing, and Researching. 3rd ed. by Randall VanderMey, Verne Meyer, John Van Rys, and Patrick Sebranek. Wadsworth, 2009)
  • Multiple Strategies
    "Sometimes you may need several different pressure-fighting strategies at once--as when you find yourself delivering an important presentation that you've practised to perfection while at the same time you have to field difficult questions on the fly. To succeed in this pressure-filled situation, you will not only have to combat worries, you will also have to make sure you don't exert too much control over your well-practised speech routine. Understanding why different high-pressure situations can derail performance allows you to pick the right strategy to prevent choking."
    (Sian Beilock, Choke. Free Press, 2011)
  • Thinking Makes It So
    "If people feel their public speaking skills can meet or exceed the audience's expectations, then they will not perceive the situation as threatening. If, however, people do not feel their skills are adequate to meet audience expectations then the situation will be perceived as threatening. Cognitive theorists believe that thinking counterproductive thoughts like this triggers public speaking anxiety. When people perceive public speaking as something to be feared, the perception elicits physiological reactions appropriate to a situation in which the person's physical well-being is threatened (increased heartrate, sweating, etc.). These physiological changes reinforce the person's definition of the situation as something to be feared."
    (Joe Ayres and Tim Hopf, Coping WIth Speech Anxiety. Ablex, 1993)
  • Welcome Nervousness
    "[T]he trick to managing nervousness is starting to think of being nervous simply as being alive.

"I recommend you say to yourself, 'Wow, I'm nervous. Excellent! That means I'm alive and have energy to spare. What should I do with this spare energy? Give it away--knock the socks off my audience.'

"As you learn to do this--to welcome nervousness, breathe into it, and recycle it as additional commitment and animation--you may actually begin to look forward to it, to try to be nervous if you aren't nervous."
(Frances Cole Jones, How to Wow: Proven Strategies for Selling Your [Brilliant] Self in Any Situation. Ballantine Books, 2008)

Sheldon: I'm perfectly comfortable speaking to small groups. I cannot speak to large crowds.
Howard Wolowitz: What to you is a large crowd?
Sheldon: Any group big enough to trample me to death. General rule of thumb is 36 adults or 70 children.
(Jim Parsons and Simon Helberg in "The Pants Alternative." The Big Bang Theory. 2010)