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Ecss Model Philosophy Essay

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Efficient Model Updating of the GOCE Satellite Based on Experimental Modal Data

Efficient Model Updating of the GOCE Satellite Based on Experimental Modal Data

European Cooperation for Space Standardization: Space engineering: modal survey assessment. ECSS-E-ST-32-11C (2008)

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics: Guide for the verification and validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations. AIAA Standards Series G-077 (1998)

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers: Guide for verification and validation in computational solid mechanics. ASME V&V (10) (2006)

Göge, D. Link, M. Assessment of computational model updating procedures with regard to model validation. Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 7. 47–61 (2003) CrossRef

Calvi, A. Garcia de Paredes, S. Roy, N. Lefevre, Y. On the development of a stochastic approach for the validation of spacecraft structural dynamic models. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Spacecraft Structures, Materials and Mechanical Testing (CD-ROM), Toulouse, France (2002)

Friswell, M. Mottershead, J. Finite Element Model Updating in Structural Dynamics. Kluwer Academic, Norwell (1995) MATH

Girard, A. Roy, N. Structural Dynamics in Industry. Wiley, New York (2008) CrossRef

Buffe, F. Application of updating methods on the finite element model of Picard. In: European Conference on Spacecraft Structures, Materials and Mechanical Testing (ECSSMMT 2009 CD-ROM), Toulouse, France (2009)

Göge, D. Link, M. Results obtained by minimizing natural frequencies and mode shape errors of a beam model. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 17 (1), 21–27 (2003) CrossRef

Calvi, A. Uncertainty-based loads analysis for spacecraft: finite element model validation and dynamic responses. Comput. Struct. 83 (14), 1103–1112 (2005) CrossRef

Beck, J. Katafygiotis, L. Updating models and their uncertainties. I: Bayesian statistical framework. J. Eng. Mech. 124 (4), 455 (1998) CrossRef

Katafygiotis, L. Beck, J. Updating models and their uncertainties. II: model identifiability. J. Eng. Mech. 124 (4), 463 (1998) CrossRef

Yuen, K.-V. Bayesian Methods for Structural Dynamics and Civil Engineering. Wiley, New York (2010) CrossRef

Ching, J. Chen, Y.-C. Transitional Markov chain Monte Carlo method for Bayesian updating, model class selection, and model averaging. J. Eng. Mech. 133. 816–832 (2007) CrossRef

Kleijnen, J. Sargent, R. A methodology for fitting and validating metamodels in simulation. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 124 (1), 14–29 (2000) CrossRef

Rumelhart, D. McClelland, J. Parallel Distributed Processing, Exploration in the Microstructure of Cognition, vol. 1. MIT Press, Cambridge (1986)

Rumelhart, D. McClelland, J. Parallel Distributed Processing, Exploration in the Microstructure of Cognition, vol. 2. MIT Press, Cambridge (1986)

Bayes, T. An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 53. 370–418 (1763) CrossRef

Jaynes, E. Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003) MATH CrossRef

Vanik, M. Beck, J. Au, S.-K. Bayesian probabilistic approach to structural health monitoring. J. Eng. Mech. 126. 738–745 (2000) CrossRef

Metropolis, N. Rosenbluth, A. Rosenbluth, M. Teller, A. Teller, E. Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines. J. Chem. Phys. 21 (6), 1087–1092 (1953) CrossRef

Hastings, W. Monte Carlo sampling methods using Markov chains and their applications. Biometrika 57 (1), 97–109 (1970) MATH CrossRef

Anderson, J. Introduction to Neural Network. MIT Press, Cambridge (1995)

Bishop, C. Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition. Oxford University Press, London (1995)

Nissen, S. Implementation of a fast artificial neural network library (fann). Technical report, Department of Computer Science University of Copenhagen (DIKU) (2003)

MSC.Software Corporation: MSC.NASTRAN, version 2007.1.0. Santa Ana, CA, USA (2007)

The MathWork: Matlab R2009b. Natick, MA, USA (2009)

COSSAN-X: COmputational Stochastic Structural ANalysis. Chair of Engineering Mechanics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria, EU (2010)

About this Chapter Title Efficient Model Updating of the GOCE Satellite Based on Experimental Modal Data Book Title Computational Methods in Stochastic Dynamics Book Subtitle Volume 2 Pages pp 215-235 Copyright 2013 DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-5134-7_13 Print ISBN 978-94-007-5133-0 Online ISBN 978-94-007-5134-7 Series Title Computational Methods in Applied Sciences Series Volume 26 Series ISSN 1871-3033 Publisher Springer Netherlands Copyright Holder Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Additional Links
  • About this Book
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  • ID3. Inst. Structural Analysis & Seismic Res. National Technical University of Athens
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  • B. Goller (1)
  • M. Broggi (3)
  • A. Calvi (2)
  • G. I. Schuëller
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  • 1. Institute of Engineering Mechanics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 13, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria
  • 3. Institute for Risk and Uncertainty, University of Liverpool, Warrington, WA4 4AD, UK
  • 2. Structures Section TEC-MSS, European Space Agency/ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
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Ecss model philosophy essay

Abstract Submission

Abstract submission will open on the 15 th of December 2015

Good reasons to submit your abstract:

  • be part of the largest multidisciplinary congress in sport science
  • earn international recognition for the work you do
  • boost your career while participating in the ECSS Young Investigators Award, Nutrition Award or Excellence in Football Science Award
  • receive the feedback that helps you progress
  • make the connections you need

The ECSS welcomes contributions from all areas of sport science and sport medicine including:

  • PHYSIOLOGY & SPORTS MEDICINE
  • SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES
  • BIOMECHANICS & NEUROMUSCULAR

Authors are free to choose between oral, mini-oral or e-poster presentation submitting in one of the following topics:

  • Biomechanics
  • Coaching
  • Motor Learning,
  • Adapted Physical Activity
  • Biochemistry
  • Health and Fitness
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neuromuscular Physiology
  • Nutrition, Physiology
  • Physiotherapy
  • Rehabilitation
  • Sports Medicine
  • Training and Testing
  • Economics
  • History
  • Philosophy and Ethics
  • Physical Education and Pedagogics
  • Psychology
  • Sociology
  • Sport Management
  • Sport Statistics and Analyses

Deadline for abstract submission on 1 st of March 2016 at 24:00 (CET*)

Abstract submission is free of charge. After undergoing the reviewing process, all authors will be informed about the acceptance of their submission on the 1 st of April 2016. Registration fee must be paid by the 1 st of May 2016 at the latest to secure the presentation during the congress and the publication in the Book of Abstracts.

*CET = Central European Time

ECSS partners

Models and Methods in the Philosophy of Science: Selected Essays

Models and Methods in the Philosophy of Science: Selected Essays About this Book Book Title Models and Methods in the Philosophy of Science: Selected Essays Copyright 1993 DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-2300-8 Print ISBN 978-90-481-4257-6 Online ISBN 978-94-017-2300-8 Series Title Synthese Library Series Volume 226 Series Subtitle Studies in Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science Publisher Springer Netherlands Copyright Holder Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Additional Links
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Ecss model philosophy essay

Essays about: "ECSS"

Showing result 1 - 5 of 8 essays containing the word ECSS.

1. Comparison of the CCSDS Mission Operations Services with the Packet Utilization Standard Services

University essay from Luleå/Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering

Abstract. The Master Thesis proposes the development of a CCSDS Mission Operations (MO) comparison with the Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) by doing a systematic mapping of all the PUS “telecommand packet, application data” and “telemetry source packet, source data” into the equivalent MO operations and objects. The main advantage of using this systematic approach is the obtainment of an extensive mapping of all the current PUS/MO equivalent services in order to find the main comparison summary of the strengths and weaknesses of CCSDS MO services when juxtaposed with PUS. READ MORE

2. Development of Electronics for Space Debris Detector SOLID

University essay from Luleå/Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering

Abstract. Knowledge of small-particle distributions in space environment models, such as MASTER2009, is limited, due to difficulty in detecting these particles. To verify and improve data for Micro- Meteoroids and Orbital Debris (MMOD) models, Deutches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) is developing the Solar Generator Based In-Orbit Space Debris Detector (SOLID) in-situ space debris detector which is expected to fly as payload in 2014 on the TechnoSat satellite built by Technisches Universität Berlin. READ MORE

3. Real-Time Simulations of SpaceWire On-board Data Handling Networks

University essay from Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering

Abstract. SpaceWire is a widely used on-board data-handling network technology for spacecraft.This project aimed to investigate the way in which SpaceWire is being used in on-board data handling networks on scientific spacecraft. READ MORE

4. HDL Implementation of CCSDS Standards

University essay from Luleå/Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering

Abstract. Communication to and from a satellite is a complicated endeavour. The purpose of this master thesis is to design a communications system for small satellites that will run in a Field Programmable Gate Array for use on satellites. READ MORE

5. Automation of inserts-checking on an Aluminiumsandwich structure

University essay from KTH/Lättkonstruktioner

Abstract. In space projects, checking inserts can be tedious, even more so for high density of inserts. This paper deals with the development of an automation tool for insert checking. All the principles used to perform inserts calculations are based on the ECSS-Design Handbook [1]. Those principles are summarised and adapted to the tool. READ MORE

HDFC Scholarships: ECSS for Indian Students, 2016 Scholarship Positions 2016 2017

HDFC Scholarships: ECSS for Indian Students, 2016

HDFC Bank is offering Educational Crisis Scholarship Support’ (ECSS) programme. The scholarship is open to Indian students.

Educational Crisis Scholarship Support (ECSS) aims to cover students from recognized Private or Government aided schools between standards 6 and 12 and students studying in undergraduate and post-graduate courses (full-time/part-time degree/diploma/ courses) who due to personal/family crises are unable to continue bearing the cost of education and are at risk of dropping out of school/college/university.

HDFC Bank believes that the benefits of economic growth need to flow to all sections of society. Although not a panacea, education would be one of the main interventions that would lead to the overall economic and social development of the society. With the aim of empowering individuals who are economically and socially disadvantaged, the bank has initiated various projects in the field of education and livelihood training.

Course Level: ECSS aims to cover students from recognized Private or Government aided schools between standards 6 and 12 and students studying in undergraduate and postgraduate courses (full-time/part-time degree/diploma/ courses).

Study Subject: Scholarship is awarded to study all the subjects.

Scholarship Award: The Scholarship will cover the total annual School Fee up to a maximum of Rs.10, 000/- and College/University Fee up to a maximum of Rs.25, 000/- of the selected candidates.

Scholarship can be taken in Any HDFC Bank branch

Eligibility: The following criteria must be met in order for applicants to be eligible for scholarship:

  • Schools students from Government aided or Private school in classes 6 to 12
  • College students pursuing Undergraduate/Postgraduate Fulltime/Part-time Degree/ Diploma courses in colleges or universities recognized under UGC/AICTE/State/Central Government rules and guidelines
  • Students undergoing a crisis situation.

Nationality: Indian students can apply for this scholarship.

College Admission Requirement

Entrance Requirements: Schools students from Government aided or Private school in classes 6 to 12 are eligible.

How to Apply: The mode of application is online.

The application can be submitted either online or as a physical copy.

The following documents need to be attached to the Application form:

  • Annexure I (A) – Income proof from the employer duly signed and stamped by the concerned authority along with the salary slip (if any) OR
  • Annexure I (B) –Self declaration of family income (for self-employed)
  • Annexure II – Verification form duly signed and stamped by School Principal/ College Dean/Director printed on the institute letterhead. The annexure should also have the name of the bank account of the institute, in favour of which, the DD/cheque will be issued.
  • Other Documents – Attested copies of last year’s mark sheet, two copies of address proof, doctor’s note (in the case of illness), 10th/ 12th mark sheet and salary slip (if any).

Application Deadline: The application window will be open until 15th July 2016 .

Change lives of international students by helping them achieving successful scholarships, financial aid and free education.

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Scholarship-Positions.com was started in 2007 by Oxford University graduates for helping international students in finding suitable scholarships to study abroad.

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ECSS: Chapter 5

Chapter 5. File organisation and naming conventions Project organisation

If we want to facilitate the easy removal of modular parts from our website/application, we need to think about the way we organise the files that make up the modules.

Ordinarily, when building web stuff, it's a common pattern to split up files in a project by technology type.

Consider this basic folder structure:

In each of these folders you might name related files. For example:

The rub though is that beyond a certain point, even giving the files related names, it's difficult to reason about how each style sheet, logic file and template relate. There might be 80+ CSS partials in the CSS folder and 50+ template stubs in the html folder.

I recognise the reality is that the 'view' part of a website or application is usually generated by any number of different technologies such as Ruby, PHP. NET or even JavaScript - rather than vanilla HTML.

It then becomes increasingly necessary to rely on 'find' in the text editor to find any templates that a certain class is being used on. The same is true in reverse; 'find' is needed to locate the partial(s) that contains the styles needed for a certain module template.

This structure doesn't make things unworkable, just inefficient and it typically requires a little mental orientation to remember what goes with what.

While not essential for ECSS, it's generally preferable that rather than organise by technology type, files are organised and grouped by visual or logical component. So, instead of this:

We aim for something like this:

At first glance this may seem like a seemingly unimportant distinction but it brings important benefits.

The code for each component becomes physically self-enclosed. Then, on our enduring project, when features need changing or are deprecated, all associated code for that module (styles, view logic (HTML) and JS) can be easily updated/removed.

Due credit. Nicolas Gallagher is always ahead of the game when it comes to thinking about CSS implementations at scale and I took and adapted large elements (specifically code organisation by component) of this approach from his work. I'd been name-spacing components for some time (and I'm therefore claiming pseudo multiple discovery) but the approach of organising code by component is taken entirely from hearing him talk on this matter.

With the exception of intentionally 'global' CSS, all code that relates to the presentation of a component or module should be included in the partials that sit alongside the HTML/JS of that component.

Although you may not like it, there's always a degree of global CSS needed; at the very least a simple set of reset or normalise styles for example.

Where the CSS and application logic (e.g. JS/PHP/Ruby) can be stored in the same folder, so much the better. This makes it even easier to know what CSS code is relevant to a module and what is not.

When a module is deprecated, all language files associated with it can be easily removed from the codebase in one go; just delete the folder containing the module.

Just to be crystal clear, consider this folder structure for our imagined ShoppingCart component:

Now suppose we create a new shopping cart:

As soon as our v2 shopping cart is finished, it's easy to remove the code for the prior version from our code base; we just delete the folder containing the original ShoppingCart .

When same folder organisation isn't possible

It may not be possible or preferable to contain style sheets and application logic within the same folder.

In that situation, the next best choice is to mimic the structure of the logic. To exemplify. Suppose the logic for a component is stored in a folder structure like this:

We should mimic this structure as far as possible. On any sizeable application this will make locating related files easier. So we might do this — matching the folder hierarchy of the logic part of the module as much as possible:

Same parent folder should definitely be considered the 'gold' standard when using ECSS but in the absence of that, mimicking the structure of the logic files should provide some of the benefits.

With a concrete idea of how to organise the files within our project, let's turn to the principle way in which we can convey additional meaning and developer convenience to our selectors/classes.

Naming classes and selectors with ECSS

Back in Chapter 3, I recognised the benefits that the BEM approach of naming CSS selectors gave us. Naming a block and then naming any child elements in relation to that block created a namespace for the child elements.

Name-spacing the CSS of a module creates a form of isolation. By preventing name collisions with other elements, chunks of CSS can be more easily moved from one environment to another (from prototype to production for example). It's also far less likely that a change of styles on one selector would inadvertently affect another.

There are a number of other approaches to solve the name collision problem. For example, if you are building an application with the popular React framework, consider Radium which will inline the styles for each node so you can effectively serve no CSS at all. Naturally, there are trade-offs such as a lack of caching and no way to add reset styles but it it certainly solves the issue at hand. In addition, when not building with React, consider CSS Modules. While requiring more involved tooling than ECSS it means you could forgo having to think about naming things altogether as it creates CSS scoped for you. Read more about that here .

ECSS takes the notion of selector namespacing and turns it up to 11. Selectors are effectively namespaced in two ways:

  • a micro namespace: usually used to designate context but can also indicate a parent module
  • the module's own namespace: usually the name of the logic file that created the element in question

Let's look at these in more detail. The 'micro' namespace is a simple 2–3 letter namespace for each module. Building a shopping cart? Try .sc- as your micro namespace. Building the next version of that same shopping cart? That'll be .sc2- then. It's just enough to isolate your component styles and allow the styles to be more self documenting. Let's consider a more involved example.

When it comes to naming things, different things will make sense in different projects. While ECSS can happily adapt to different approaches, I would recommend a consistent approach on a each project.

For example, suppose the micro namespace was being used to convey the parent or origin of the logic that created it. Back to our shopping cart example. We might have a file called 'ShoppingCart.php' that contains all the logic relating to our imaginary shopping cart. We could therefore use sc- as an abbreviation of that file name so we know that any elements that begin with that namespace relate to the shopping cart and are rendered by that related file.

In this case, we would then have selectors like:

  • sc-Title. the title of the shopping cart.
  • sc-RemoveBtn. a button that removes an item from the shopping cart.

Here the selectors are quite compact - aesthetically pleasing if a selector can even be described in that way. However, suppose we have a shopping cart which can live in multiple contexts. A mini cart view and a full page view. In that instance we might decide to use the micro namespace to convey context. For example:

  • mc-ShoppingCart_Title. The title of the shopping cart, generated by the file 'ShoppingCart' when in the 'mini cart' view/context.
  • mc-ShoppingCart_RemoveBtn. the remove button of the shopping cart, generated by the file 'ShoppingCart' when in the 'mini cart' view/context.

Neither of these is the one true way. Part of ECSS philosophy is that while some core principles are essential, it can adapt to differing needs. Generally speaking, for smaller scale use cases, the former approach is fine. However, despite the comparative verbosity of the selectors in the second approach, it is the most resilient and self-documenting. With the second approach you know context, the file that generated the selector (and therefore the module it belongs to) and the element it relates to.

There is more specific information about applying ECSS conventions to web applications and visual modules in Chapter 7.

Reiterating the benefits

As namespaced modules and components are almost guaranteed to not leak into one another, it makes it incredibly easy to build out and iterate on new designs. It affords a hitherto un-thinkable blanket of impunity. Just make a new partial file for the thing you are building, assign a suitable micro-namespace and module name and write your styles, confident in the fact you won't be adversely affecting anything you don't want to. If the new thing you are building doesn't work out, you can just delete the partial file, also confident that you won't be removing the styles for something else. CSS authoring and maintenance confidence - finally!

Source order becomes unimportant

As our rules are now isolated, it makes the order of rules in a style sheet unimportant. This benefit becomes essential when working on a large-scale project. In these scenarios it is often preferable for partial files to be assembled in any order. With rules isolated from each other, this is simple. With our 'self-quarantined' rules, it makes file globbing of partial styles sheets simple and risk free. With some basic tooling in place you can compile all the CSS partials within a module in one fell swoop like this:

No more writing @import statements for every partial in a project and worrying about the order it comes in.

We will talk more about file globbing in Chapter 9.

Anatomy of the ECSS naming convention

As the naming of items is so useful and essential to achieving our goals, the following section documents the naming convention of ECSS in more detail. Think of this like a Haynes manual for your CSS selectors.

Here's a breakdown of an ECSS selector:

To illustrate the separate sections, here is the anatomy of that selector with the sections delineated with square brackets:

With more than a couple of developers it would be recommended that commits to a codebase were rejected that don't follow the ECSS naming pattern. Some information on necessary tooling to facilitate this is covered in Chapter 9.

Explanation of selector sections

Let's go back over the various parts of the ECSS selector and the allowed character types:

  • namespace. This is a required part of every selector. The micro-namespace should be all lowercase/train-case. It is typically an abbreviation to denote context or originating logic.
  • ModuleOrComponent. This is a upper camel case/pascal case. It should always be preceded by a hyphen character ( - ).
  • ChildNode. This is an optional section of the selector. It should be upper camel case/pascal case and preceded by an underscore ( _ ).
  • variant. This is a further optional section of the selector. It should be written all lowercase/train-case.

Using this syntax, each part of a class name can be logically discerned from another. More information on what these sections are and how they should be employed follows:

Namespace

As discussed above, the first part of a HTML class/CSS selector is the micro namespace (all lowercase/train-case). The namespace is used to prevent collisions and provide some soft isolation for easier maintenance of rules.

Module or Component

This is the visual module or piece of logic that created the selector. It should be written in upper camel case. I've seen ECSS applied to great effect when the module or component directly references the name of the file that creates it. For example, a file called 'CallOuts.js' could have a selector such as sw-CallOuts (the sw- micro namespace here used to denote it would be used 'Site Wide'). This removes any ambiguity for future developers as to the origin point of this element.

Child Node

If something UpperCamelCase is preceded by an underscore ( _ ) it is a child node of a module or component.

Here, _Header is indicating that this node is the ‘Header’ child node of the ‘Item’ module or component that belongs to the 'sc' namespace (and if it it were a component, that namespace could indicate the parent module).

Variant

If something is all lowercase/train-case and not the first part of a class name it is a variant flag. The variant flag is reserved for eventualities where many variants of a selector need to be referenced. Suppose we have a module that needs to display a different background image depending upon what category number has been assigned to it. We might use the variant indicator like this:

Here the -bg3 part of the selector indicates that this .sc-Item_Header is the category 3 version (and can therefore have an appropriate style assigned).

Doubling up on ECSS selectors

Our previous example indicates a perfect situation where it would be appropriate to use 2 classes on the element. One to assign default styles and another to set specifics to a variant.

Consider this markup:

Here we would set the universal styles for the element with sc-Item_Header and then the styles specific to the variant with sc-Item_Header-bg1. There's nothing revolutionary about this approach, I'm just documenting it here to make it clear there is nothing in the ECSS approach that precludes this practice.

Summary

We've covered a lot of detail in this chapter. The two main areas we looked at were how to organise the language files of our project so that they can be more easily maintained and how to name classes and selectors in ECSS so that the class of an element in the DOM can tell us everything we need to know about its origin, purpose and intended context. We also had a detailed look at the accepted syntax for ECSS selectors: where and how to apply casing differences to delineate different parts of the selector. So far, we have only concerned ourself with static elements. In the next chapter we will look at how ECSS deals with the changing state of a website or application.

How to read Enduring CSS Support the Author

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Ecss model philosophy essay

Examinations and Boards CHANGES IN REGULATIONS

With the approval of the General Board, the following changes in regulations made by boards of faculties and committees will come into effect on 17 May.

1 Board of the Faculty of Anthropology and Geography and Committee for Archaeology (a ) Honour Moderations in Archaeology and Anthropology With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 28, l. 17, delete `Case studies in archaeological methods' and substitute `The nature of archaeological enquiry'.

2 Ibid. l. 22, after `available to' insert `the chairman of'.

3 Ibid. l. 27, after `of study.' insert `These notebooks must bear the candidate's examination number but not the candidate's name, which must be concealed.'

4 Ibid. l. 28, after `course of practical work' insert `to the satisfaction of the examiners'.

(b ) Honour School of Archaeology and Anthropology With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 140, l. 3, after `available to' insert `the chairman of the'.

2 Ibid. l. 9, after `of study.' insert `These notebooks must bear the candidate's examination number but not the candidate's name, which must be concealed.'

3 Ibid. l. 10, after `course of practical work' insert `to the satisfaction of the examiners'.

4 Ibid. p. 142, l. 10, delete `with the thesis' and substitute `at the same time that the thesis is submitted, but in a separate sealed envelope addressed to the chairman of the examiners.'

5 Ibid. p. 140, delete l. 51.

6 Ibid. p. 141, delete l. 4.

8 Ibid. l. 12, delete `The spread of farming in Africa' and substitute `Farming and early states in Sub-Saharan Africa'.

9 Ibid. l. 25, after `the candidate.' insert `All copies must bear the candidate's examination number but not his/her name.'

2 Board of the Faculty of Biological Sciences (a ) Honour School of Natural Science ([from 1 October 1996: Molecular and Cellular] Biochemistry): Part I With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 439, l. 33, after `own work.' insert: `This certificate must be placed in a sealed envelope addressed to the Chairman of Examiners and submitted with the notebooks. Each notebook, and the envelope containing the certificate, must be clearly labelled with the candidate's number. The name and college of the candidate must not appear on any of the notebooks or on the envelope.'

2 Ibid. ll. 36–8, delete from `The examiners shall' to `proceed to Part II.' and substitute:

`In assessing the record of practical work and exercises in data handling, the examiners shall have regard to the attendance record of the candidates at each and every class provided, and to the marks recorded for each and every class provided. Candidates whose overall performance in either the written papers or in practical work and data handling is judged by the examiners to be insufficient to warrant the award of Honours may either be deemed to have failed the examination, or may, at the discretion of the examiners, be awarded a Pass degree. Candidates in either category will not be allowed to proceed to Part II.'

(b ) Honour School of Natural Science ([from 1 October 1996: Molecular and Cellular] Biochemistry): Part II With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 440, l. 20, after `the first draft.' insert: `This statement must be submitted at the same time as the project in a sealed envelope addressed to the Chairman of Examiners. Each project, and the envelope containing the statement, must be clearly labelled with the candidate's number. The name and college of the candidate must not appear on the project or on the envelope.'

2 Ibid. delete from `It shall be the duty' in l. 49, p. 440, to l. 2, p. 441, and substitute:

`It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Sub-faculty to submit this proposal to the Chairman of the Sub-faculty and to the Chairman of Examiners for approval. The Chairman of the Sub-faculty and the Chairman of the Examiners shall determine the option (if any) in which the proposed essay falls. In the event of the two Chairmen not giving their joint approval, the candidate shall write the essay on a topic from the list published by the Examiners. It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Sub-faculty to communicate the outcome of the submission to the candidate, stating the option in which the essay is to be written, not later than 12 noon on Monday of the third week of Hilary Term in the academic year in which the examination is to be taken.'

3 Ibid. p. 441, after l. 7, insert: `The essay (two copies) must be legibly typed on one side only of A4 paper, held firmly in a stiff cover, and submitted by Friday of the fifth week of the Full Term in which the examination is held, addressed "The Clerk of the Schools, Oxford, for the Chairman of the Examiners in the Final Honour School of Natural Science (Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Part II)".'

4 Ibid. l. 12, after `as the essay.' insert: `This certificate must be submitted at the same time as the essay in a sealed envelope addressed to the Chairman of Examiners. Each essay, and the envelope containing the certificate, must be clearly labelled with the candidate's number. The name and college of the candidate must not appear on the essay or on the envelope.'

5 Ibid. delete ll. 19–23.

6 Ibid. p. 440, l. 40, before `topic' insert: `subject that falls within a'.

3 Board of the Faculty of Clinical Medicine Second Examination for the Degree of BM With immediate effect

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 872, l. 27, delete `and Rheumatology'.

2 Ibid. l. 37, delete `options' and substitute `special study subjects'.

4 Board of the Faculty of English Language and Literature (a ) Moderations in English Language and Literature With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 43, delete ll. 9–12, and substitute: `Candidates will be expected to answer questions on such topics as: the nature of `literary' language, of literary form; textuality and intertextuality; theories of the novel; problems of interpretation; the production and reception of literary texts; the relation of literature to gender, to history, to ideology, to psychoanalysis; theories of culture, of cultural difference.'

(b ) Honour School of English Language and Literature With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 216, ll. 10–11, delete `The thesis. own work,' and substitute: `A certificate signed by the candidate to the effect that the thesis is the candidate's own work, placed in a sealed envelope bearing the candidate's examination number and addressed to the Chairman of Examiners, must be presented together with the thesis.'

2 Ibid. p. 217, ll. 19–20, delete `Each essay. work.' and substitute: `A certificate signed by the candidate to the effect that each essay is the candidate's own work, placed in a sealed envelope bearing the candidate's examination number and addressed to the Chairman of Examiners, must be presented together with each essay.'

3 Ibid. delete from l. 34 on p. 215 to l. 4 on p. 216 and substitute:

`an essay of about 6,000 words on any subject which forms part of, or is connected with, the subjects of the course being offered, provided that the candidate has obtained approval of the subject from the Deputy Chairman of the Board of the Faculty of English Language and Literature by the end of the Michaelmas Full Term preceding the examination[1] ; or (b ) any essay or part of an essay which he has already sent in, or proposes to send in, for any University essay prize, the whole not exceeding about 6,000 words, provided that its subject is, in the opinion of the Deputy Chairman of the Board, relevant to the study of the English language or of'.

4 Ibid. p. 217, after l. 26 insert:

`(g ) Essays deemed to be of excessive length may be penalised.'

5 Ibid. p. 222 (as modified by change in regulations 1, Para 3, in Gazette. 13 July 1995, p. 1395), after `(w) Language, Film and the Media' insert `[The numbers entering for this paper may be restricted.]'.

6 Ibid. in the final line of (i )(a ), replace `at' with `from' and at the end of the line insert `by Monday of the fifth week in the Trinity Term preceding that in which it will be examined.

5 Boards of the Faculties of English Language and Literature and Modern History (a ) Honour School of Modern History and English (i ) With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 401, ll. 33–4, delete `This certificate. thesis.' and substitute: `This certificate, placed in a sealed envelope bearing the candidate's examination number and addressed to the Chairman of Examiners, must be presented together with the thesis.'

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 399, delete ll. 18–45 and insert: `Each candidate shall offer seven papers as set out below. Papers will be of three hours' duration, except where otherwise indicated. The subjects of the examination in the Honour School shall be: (i ) and (ii) Two compulsory interdisciplinary papers, chosen from the list below (candidates should note that this list will vary from time to time, according to the availability of teaching resources, but will always cover a range of periods):

(a ) Literature and Religion in Early Modern England

(b ) Mapping New Territories, c.1770–1830

(c ) The Dangerous Flood of History: Literature and Politics in the 1930s.

Further details of the interdisciplinary papers will be available from the English Faculty Office and Modern History Faculty Office.

(iii) A period of British History not taken in Honour Moderations.

(iv) and (v) Two subjects from Course One or Course Two of the Honour School of English Language and Literature [the English Board may wish to specify at least one compulsory paper].

(vi) and (vii) Either two papers from the Honour School of Modern History, which shall consist of a Special Subject, or some combination of a Further Subject, General History Period, or additional British History period (though with only one Further Subject allowed)

or one additional subject from the Honour School of English Language and Literature, plus one subject from the Honour School of Modern History which shall be either a Further Subject, a General History period or an additional British History period.

The rules for extended essays shall follow those of the parent Schools, except that candidates may substitute an extended essay for one of the interdisciplinary papers provided that they are not offering more than one extended essay elsewhere in the syllabus. When an extended essay is to be substituted for an interdisciplinary paper, the candidate should write, through the Senior Tutor of his or her college or society, to request the approval of the Chairman of the Examiners for the Joint School of Modern History and English for the proposed essay title, not later than the Friday of the second week of the Michaelmas Full Term immediately preceding the examination. Notification of whether or not approval is forthcoming will be given by the Friday of Week Four of that term. Essays on approved interdisciplinary titles, which should be of up to 6,000 words, should be submitted to the Chairman of the Examiners for the Joint School of Modern History and English at the Examination Schools, Oxford, by the Friday of Eighth Week of the Hilary Full Term preceding the examination.

A thesis may be offered as under the existing regulations of the Modern History syllabus, provided that no more than one thesis can be submitted if extended essays are offered.'

2 Ibid. delete pp. 400–1.

3 Ibid. p. 402, delete ll. 1–7.

(b ) Pass School of Modern History and English With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 402, delete ll. 15–25 and insert:

`(a ) One of the interdisciplinary papers as prescribed for the Honour School of Modern History and English (candidates should note that this list will vary from time to time, according to the availability of teaching resources; details of the interdisciplinary papers available in any given year may be obtained from the English Faculty Office and Modern History Faculty Office);

(b ) Two papers as prescribed for the Honour School of Modern History: (i ) one period paper on the History of the British Isles not taken in the First Public Examination; and (ii) one paper taken from the list of Further Subjects (candidates should note that not all Further Subjects will be available to all candidates in every year). A thesis may be offered in accordance with the detailed regulations for the Honour School of Modern History in lieu of either (i ) or (ii);

(c ) Two papers as prescribed for the Honour School of English Language and Literature.'

6 Board of the Faculty of Literae Humaniores (a ) Honour Moderations in Classics With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 28, l. 39, delete `Virgil' and substitute `Virgil'.

2 Ibid. p. 31, l. 3, delete `Philoetetes' and substitute `Philoctetes'.

3 Ibid. p. 40, delete l. 23 and substitute: `Augustine: Confessions I–IV, Clark (Cambridge University Press)'.

(b ) Honour School of Literae Humaniores With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, delete from p. 282, l. 45 to p. 283, l. 6 and substitute:

`(a ) Thucydides and Rhetoric with special reference to the following texts. Compulsory passages for translation and comment will be set from those in list (a ).

(alpha) Thucydides I. 20–3, 31–44, 66–88, 139–46; II. 34–65; V. 86–116.
Herodotus VII. 8–19.
Gorgias, Helen.
Antiphon, Tetralogies.
Euripides, Supplices 399–597, 837–917.

(beta) Thucydides III. 1–85.
Herodotus I. 26–33, VII. 44–55.
Gorgias, Palamedes, Epitaphios (frag. 5–6).
Antiphon, De Caede Herodis.
Plato, Menexenus.
Andocides, de Mysteriis.
Lysias 2.
Euripides, Supplices 1–398, 598–836, 918–end.

7 Boards of the Faculties of Literae Humaniores and Modern Languages Honour School of Classics and Modern Languages With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

(As for the Honour School of Literae Humaniores (see 6 (b ) above).)

8 Boards of the Faculties of Literae Humaniores and English Language and Literature Honour School of Classics and English With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)]

(As for the Honour School of Literae Humaniores (see 6 (b ) above).)

9 Boards of the Faculties of Literae Humaniores and Modern History Honour School of Ancient and Modern History With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 136, ll. 23–4, delete `will be set specifically for this honour school' and substitute `is a modified version of that set for the Honour School of Modern History'.

2 Ibid. l. 27, delete `the first section, and in each of their answers to that section' and substitute `each section, and in their answers in the first section'.

10 Boards of the Faculties of Literae Humaniores and Oriental Studies Regulations for Philosophy in some of the Honour Schools With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 481, l. 28, after `Mathematics and Philosophy' insert `Oriental Studies'.

2 Ibid. p. 487, l. 32, delete `132, and 133' and substitute `and 132 may be offered only by candidates in Literae Humaniores and Oriental Studies. and subject 133'.

11 Boards of the Faculties of Literae Humaniores and Theology Honour School of Philosophy and Theology (i ) With immediate effect (for first examination in 1996)

As for the Honour School of Theology (see 21 (a ) (i ) below).

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

As for the Honour School of Theology (see 21 (a ) (ii) below).

(iii) With effect from 1 October 1996 for one year (for first examination in 1997 only) As for the Honour School of Theology (see 21 (a ) (iii) below). (iv) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

As for the Honour School of Theology (see 21 (a ) (iv) below).

12 Board of the Faculty of Mathematical Sciences Honour Moderations in Mathematics and Computation With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 56, after l. 12 insert: `Practical weight: one-sixth. Paper of 2 hours 30 minutes.'

2 Ibid. after l. 26 insert: `Paper of 3 hours.'

13 Board of the Faculties of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (a ) Honour School of Engineering and Computing Science With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 188, delete ll. 13–20 and substitute:

`Candidates will be required to take three papers as follows:

at least one of:

IE1, Information Engineering I
IE2, Information Engineering II

plus one or two papers chosen from a selection of those available for Section II of the Honour School of Computation. Specification of which Section II papers may be taken will be published in the University Gazette by the Standing Committee for Engineering and Computing Science two years in advance of the relevant examination. The subjects of papers IE1 and IE2 are specified in the appended schedule. The subjects of Section II shall be published in the University Gazette.

Performance in papers from Section II of the Honour School of Computation will be taken to include performance both in the written paper and any practical work associated with the papers. The examiners will consider all papers as having equal weight. Any practical work associated with papers from Section II of the Honour School of Computation must'.

2 Ibid. p. 188, l. 44, delete `and IE3'.

3 Ibid. delete from p. 186, l. 33, to p. 188, l. 11 and substitute:

`Candidates will be required to take seven written papers as follows: Papers A1, A2, A3, and B4 in the Honour School of Engineering Science, Papers ECS1 and ECS2 as specified in the appended schedule,

one of the following:

Paper B3 in the Honour School of Engineering Science,
or.
Paper ECS3, or ECS4, or ECS5, or ECS6 as specified in the appended schedule.

In addition the following, as specified in the appended schedule, shall each be considered by the Examiners as equivalent to one written paper:
ECS7 Practical work,
ECS8 Engineering and Society coursework,
ECS9 Project report.

In the assessment of Paper ECS7 the examiners shall taken into consideration failure of a candidate to complete practical work associated with the Engineering papers to a level prescribed from time to time by the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science. Failure to complete coursework modules to a satisfactory standard will also be taken into account, except that exemption from the requirement to complete coursework modules shall be granted to a candidate who, in Trinity Term of the second year, completes an approved exchange scheme. The Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science shall provide a list, by the end of the sixth week of the Trinity Term in the year of the Part I examination, showing the extent to which each candidate has satisfied these requirements.

By noon on Friday of the ninth week of Trinity Term in the year preceding the Part I examination, each candidate shall submit a portfolio for Engineering and Society coursework (ECS8) containing one essay or report on each of three approved topics as specified in the regulations of the Honour School of Engineering Science.

By noon on Friday of the fourth work of Trinity Term in the year of the Part I examination, candidates shall submit the following:

Reports of practical exercises associated with Paper ECS1. For a report to be considered by the examiners, it must be signed by a demonstrator and must be accompanied by a statement that it is the candidate's own work except where otherwise stated.

The project report ECS9.

Work submitted for ECS1, ECS8, and ECS9 shall be addressed to the Chairman of Examiners, Honour School of Engineering and Computing Science, c/o Clerk of the Examination Schools, Examination Schools, High Street, Oxford.

Reports of practical exercises associated with papers ECS2, ECS3, ECS4, ECS5, ECS6 shall be submitted as specified in the regulations for the examination from which they are drawn.

Candidates may resubmit practical work and work previously submitted for ECS7, ECS8, ECS9. It must be physically presented at the time and in the manner prescribed for current submission. No such work will be accepted if it has already been submitted, wholly or substantially, for another honour school or degree of this University, or for a degree of any other institution.

Candidates may be examined viva voce at the examiners' discretion.

Schedule ECS1 Structures, Algorithms, and Numerical Computation

Practical weight: one-sixth. Paper of 2 hours 30 minutes.

Structures and Algorithms: Elementary propositional and predicate calculus. Mathematical induction. Discrete mathematics: basic properties of sets, relations and functions, sequences, bags, trees. Examples in specifying information systems.

Orders of growth: the big-O notation and its basic properties, lower and upper bounds, simple recurrence relations. Complexity of standard algorithms for matrix multiplication, solution of linear equations. Searching algorithms: bisection, Fibonacci search. Sorting algorithms in memory and on backing store, Dynamic programming. The fast Fourier transform and simple applications.

Discretisation of partial differential equations by finite difference, finite volume, and finite element methods; stability, mesh adaption, error estimates, and implementation issues. Iterative methods; conjugate gradient and multi-grid. Solution of non-linear equations; regions of convergence, bifurcation.

ECS2 Imperative Programming (Honour School of Computation Paper I.1)

ECS3 Programming Language Principles (Honour School of Computation Paper I.2)

ECS4 Concurrency and Distributed Systems (Honour School of Computation Paper I.3)

ECS5 Architecture (Honour School of Computation Paper I.4)

ECS6 Functional Programming and Algorithm Design (Honour Moderations in Mathematics and Computation Paper A7)

ECS7 Practical work associated with Engineering papers A1, A2, A3 together with coursework modules as specified from time to time by the Standing Committee for Engineering and Computing Science

ECS8 Engineering and Society coursework (Honour School of Engineering Science Part I, Paper A7)

ECS9 Project Report A report on a project carried out under supervision as approved by the Standing Committee for the Honour School of Engineering and Computing Science. The report must not exceed 6,000 words plus twenty-five pages of diagrams, listings, photographs, etc.'

(b ) Pass School of Engineering and Computing Science With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first Part I examination in 1998 and first Part II examination in 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 189, delete ll. 10–11 and substitute: `(i )–(vi) Papers A1, A2, A3, B4, ECS1, ECS2 provided that at least one of papers ECS1 and ECS2 is included;

(vii) one of the papers B3, ECS3, ECS4, ECS5, ECS6;

(viii) Paper ECS9, the Project report.'

2 Ibid. p. 198, l. 16, after `coursework' insert `(Papers ECS7 and ECS8)'.

14 Board of the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages (a ) Preliminary Examination in Modern Languages With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 101, delete l. 50 `Camoes, Auto de Filodemo '.

(b ) Honour School of Modern Languages (i ) With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 416, l. 16, delete `14th' and substitute `17th'.

2 Ibid. p. 426, l. 1, delete `under the regulations for that honour school'.

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 415, l. 42, delete `The colloquial koine' and substitute `The literary vernacular'.

2 Ibid. p. 419, delete ll. 29–34 and substitute:

`Candidates may choose one of either A or B: [2] A: Byzantine texts:

Paul the Silentiary, Ekphrasis of Haghia Sophia (ed. Friedlander).
Christ and Paranikas, Anthologia graeca carminum Christianorum. pp. 147–236 and 247–52.
The Life of St Andreas Salos (ed. L. Ryden).
Michael Psellos, Chronographia. bk. VI (ed. S. Impellizzeri, vol. 1, pp. 246–320, and vol. 2, pp. 8–152).

B. Medieval vernacular texts:

Digenis Akritis: the Grottaferrata and Escorial Versions (ed. E.M. Jeffreys).
Le Roman de Libistros et Rhodamné (ed. J.A. Lambert). Ptochoprodromos (ed. H. Eideneier).' 3 Ibid. p. 422, delete ll. 18–20 and substitute:

`(1) Digenis Akritis: the Grottaferrata and Escorial Versions (ed. E.M. Jeffreys).

(2) The vernacular verse romances.'

4 Ibid. p. 425, l. 50 et seq. as amended, delete `(as a paper but not as an Extended Essay.)'

15 Boards of the Faculties of Medieval and Modern Languages and English Language and Literature (a ) Preliminary Examination in English and Modern Languages With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Preliminary Examination in Modern Languages (see 14 (a ) above).

(b ) Honour School of English and Modern Languages (i ) With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (i ) above).

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (ii) above).

16 Boards of the Faculties of Medieval and Modern Languages and Literae Humaniores (a ) Preliminary Examination in Philosophy and Modern Languages With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Preliminary Examination in Modern Languages (see 14 (a ) above).

(b ) Honour School of Classics and Modern Languages (c ) Honour School of Philosophy and Modern Languages (i ) With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (i ) above).

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (ii) above).

(d ) Honour School of Classics and Modern Languages With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 161, l. 49, delete `into' and substitute `from'.

17 Boards of the Faculties of Medieval and Modern Languages and Modern History (a ) Preliminary Examination in Modern History and Modern Languages With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Preliminary Examination in Modern Languages (see 14 (a ) above).

(b ) Honour School of Modern History and Modern Languages (i ) With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

1 As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (i ) above).

2 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 405, delete ll. 32–5 and substitute:

`One of the Honour School of Modern Languages, Papers IV, V, IX, X, XI.'

3 Ibid. p. 406, l. 21, delete `in the language'.

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (ii) above).

18 Boards of the Faculties of Medieval and Modern Languages and Oriental Studies (a ) Preliminary Examination in European and Middle Eastern Languages With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Preliminary Examination in Modern Languages (see 14 (a ) above).

(b ) Honour School of European and Middle Eastern Languages (i ) With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (i ) above).

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

As for the Honour School of Modern Languages (see 14 (b ) (ii) above).

19 Board of the Faculty of Oriental Studies Honour School of Oriental Studies: Egyptology With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 464, delete ll. 46–9 and p. 465, delete ll. 1–2 and substitute:

`2–4 Prepared texts in Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian (lists of texts are available from the Oriental Institute).

Four passages, one in Old Egyptian, two in Middle Egyptian, and one in Late Egyptian, will be set for examination by essay. Candidates must present an essay on one passage. Essays should be typed and provided with proper scholarly apparatus. The passages will be assigned in the Oriental Institute at 10 a.m. on Monday of First Week in Full Term in the term in which the final examination is to be offered, and must be handed in to the Clerk of the Examination Schools no later than 12 noon on Monday of Second Week. Essays should not exceed 2,500 words in length.

Two thirds of the material in the lists of prescribed texts will be selected for examination in papers 2–3. Candidates will be informed of the selection to be examined on Friday of Eighth Week of the Hilary Term preceding the Final examination. The passages to be examined by essay will be drawn from the third of the list of prescribed texts which is not to be examined in papers 2–3.'

20 Board of the Faculty of Physical Sciences (a ) Honour School of Engineering Science With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first Part I examination in Trinity Term 1998, and first Part II examination in Trinity Term 1999)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, delete from p. 179, l. 27 to p. 184, l. 3 and substitute:

`(ii) Regulations Part I

Candidates will be required to take seven written papers, each of three hours, as follows: the five papers A1 to A5 in group A together with two papers taken from B1 to B5 in group B. In addition, they will be required to take three coursework subjects A6 to A8, each to be considered by the examiners as equivalent to one written paper.

Group A: Core course

Paper A1. Mathematical Methods.
Paper A2. Electricity and Electronics.
Paper A3. Control, Dynamics, and Computers.
Paper A4. Structures and Materials.
Paper A5. Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics.
Paper A6. Engineering Practical Work.
Paper A7. Engineering and Society Coursework.
Paper A8. Part I Design Project.

Group B: Basic Options

Paper B1. Mechanical Engineering.
Paper B2. Civil Engineering.
Paper B3. Electrical Engineering.
Paper B4. Information Engineering.
Paper B5. Chemical Engineering.

Candidates shall be required to submit a portfolio for Engineering and Society coursework (A7) containing one essay or report on each approved topic specified by the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science. Written work shall be typed and each essay or report shall have not more than 2,000 words. Approved topics shall be (a ) a management case study AND (b ) a safety assessment AND (c ) EITHER "the engineering profession" or an alternative approved topic. A list of alternative approved topics shall be published in the Gazette by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty not later than Friday of the first week of Hilary Full Term in the academic year preceding that in which the written examination is to be taken. The portfolio of work shall be submitted to the Chairman of Examiners, Honour School of Engineering Science, c/o Clerk of Schools, Examination Schools, High Street, Oxford, not later than noon on Friday of the ninth week of the Trinity Full Term of the year preceding the written examinations. The material must be the candidate's own work and the candidate shall sign and present with the portfolio a detachable certificate to this effect.

Essays or reports previously submitted for the Honour School of Engineering Science may be resubmitted. No essay or report will be accepted if it has already been submitted wholly or substantially for another honour school or degree of this University, or for a degree at any other institution. Resubmitted work must be physically presented at the time and in the manner prescribed for submission.

Candidates shall submit to the examiners reports and supporting material on the Part I Design Project (A8) completed as a part of their course of study. The subject of the project shall be approved by the Projects Committee of the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science and the report on the project and supporting material shall be submitted to the Chairman of the Examiners, Honour School of Engineering Science, c/o Clerk of the Schools, Examination Schools, High Street, Oxford, by noon on Friday of the fourth week of Trinity Term in the year of the Part I examination. The examiners shall consider the project report as the equivalent of a written paper. The project report must not exceed 6,000 words plus twenty-five pages of diagrams, photographs, etc.

Project reports previously submitted for the Honour School of Engineering Science may be resubmitted. No project report will be accepted if it has already been submitted wholly or substantially for another honour school or degree of this University, or for a degree at any other institution. Resubmitted work must be physically presented at the time and in the manner prescribed for submission.

In the assessment of Paper A6 the examiners shall take into consideration failure of a candidate to complete the practical work to a level prescribed from time to time by the sub-faculty. Failure to complete coursework modules to a satisfactory standard will also be taken into account by the examiners, except that exemption from the requirement to complete coursework modules shall be granted to any candidate who, in Trinity Term of the second year, participates in an exchange scheme approved by the sub-faculty. The Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science shall provide a list, by the end of the sixth week of the Trinity Term in the year of the Part I examination, showing the extent to which each candidate has satisfied these requirements.

Candidates may be examined viva voce at the examiner's discretion.

Part II

In Part II a candidate shall be required to offer three written papers from group C. The detailed requirements and arrangements for written papers, and the list of subjects and the syllabuses from which the papers in group C may be selected shall be approved by the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science and published in the Gazette by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science not later than the end of the Trinity Full Term of the academic year preceding the year of the examination of part II. The Sub-faculty will divide the papers into Lists; candidates will be required to select their three group C papers from different Lists.

Each individual candidate shall submit two copies of his or her own report on the part II Design Project completed as part of the course of study. The subject of the project shall be approved by the Projects Committee of the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science and the report on the project shall be submitted to the Chairman of Examiners, Honour School of Engineering Science, c/o Clerk of Schools, Examination Schools, High Street, Oxford, by noon on Friday of the fourth week of Trinity Term. The report shall be considered by the examiners in deciding the class of a candidate as equivalent to two written papers. The project report must not exceed 10,000 words plus forty pages of diagrams, photographs, etc. Project reports previously submitted for Part II of the Honour School of Engineering Science may be resubmitted. No project report will be accepted if it has already been submitted wholly or substantially for Part I or for another honour school or degree of this University, or for a degree of any other institution.

Candidates may be examined viva voce at the examiner's discretion.

Schedule Group A: Core course Paper A1: Mathematical Methods

Fourier series; convolution; Fourier transforms; spectra; sampling and reconstruction; random processes.

Vector algebra; vector calculus; Gauss' and Stokes' theorems; derivation of vector equations describing properties of continuous media such as continuity and Laplace's equation.

Solution of partial differential equations in two independent variables; boundary conditions; application to engineering problems; the wave equation; wave propagation and dispersion.

Linear transformations and equations; matrix rank and diagonalisation; computation of solutions of simultaneous linear equations, iterative algorithms; eigenvalue computation; curve fitting and algorithms for data approximation; computation solution of differential equations.

Paper A2: Electricity and Electronics

Field effect and bipolar transistors; switching circuits. Differential amplifiers and feedback. Electronic instrumentation and signal conditioning. Interface to computer systems.

Steady electric and magnetic fields. Slowly varying fields; Faraday's law, generation of e.m.f. Rapidly varying fields; Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves and the wave equation. RF to optical examples.

The transmission line; wave propagation and impedance matching. Analogue and digital communication systems. Noise. Introduction to typical systems, including optical fibres.

Introduction to electrical power systems. Magnetic circuits; BH loops, reluctance and inductance. Transformers. Electromechanical energy conversion; d.c. and a.c. machines; design constraints and construction.

Paper A3: Control, Dynamics, and Computers

Introduction to Control, system modelling; steady state and transient behaviour. Stability. Analysis and design of simple control systems, both continuous and discrete time.

Introduction to practical systems including computer implementation.

Dynamics; motion with rotation and translation. Kinematics; motion in rotating frames of reference. Mechanism analysis. Cams and equivalent mechanisms.

Mechanical vibrations; system modelling, applications.

Elements of computer architecture; separation of data and control; hardware description languages; input/output; data buses.

Paper A4: Structures and Materials

Elastic analysis of statically determinate and indeterminate frames; the stiffness matrix method. Shear stresses due to torsion.

Elastic continuum problems in two and three dimensions; equilibrium, compatibility, stress-strain relationships and boudnary conditions. The finite element method in two dimensions.

Elastic instability of struts; plastic collapse of beams and frames.

Alloys and strengthening mechanisms; equilibrium diagrams, diffusion, heat treatment.

Plasticity; microscopic and macroscopic behaviour, Von Mises' yield criterion. Creep. Fracture and fatigue.

Paper A5: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics

Baisc concepts of fluid mechanics. Hydrostatics. Conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Stream function. Potential theory. Examples of potential flows. Lift and drag coefficients. Vorticity, circulation. Magnus effect, Kutta-Joukowsky theorem.

Applied fluid mechanics. Dimensional anlaysis, similarity, and model testing.

Turbomachinery. Boundary layer theory. Friction drag. Simple incompressible viscous flows. Turbulent flow in pipes and pipe circuits. Steady flow in open channels. Thermodynamic Machines. Refrigeration systems, steam cycles, internal combustion engines, gas turbine cycles, compressors.

Heat and Mass Transfer. Conduction, radiation, convection, heat exchangers, heat transfer coefficients. Mass transfer by convection and diffusion. An introduction to combustion.

Paper A6: Engineering Practical Work

Practical exercises including: engineering computation, electricity, electronics, control, computer architecture, structures, mechanics, materials, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics.

Paper A7: Engineering and Society Paper A8: Design Project Group B: Basic options Paper B1: Mechanical Engineering

Applications of elasticity and plasticity, mechanics of non-metallic materials, power transmission, dynamics of machines, gas dynamics and hygrometry.

Paper B2: Civil Engineering

Structural design, soil mechanics, hydraulics, civil engineering projects.

Paper B3: Electrical Engineering

Communications systems, electrical properties of materials, signal processing, semiconductor devices, and integrated circuits.

Paper B4: Information Engineering

State-space systems, feedback control, computer-controlled systems, applied estimation, two-dimensional signal analysis, computational geometry.

Paper B5: Chemical Engineering

Chemical thermodynamics, separation processes, chemical reactors, process design.

Group C: Advanced Options

These papers will contain questions on the subjects for each paper as published in the Gazette by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science.'

(b ) Pass School of Engineering Science With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first Part I examination in Trinity Term 1998, and first Part II examination in Trinity Term 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 184, l. 11, after `A6', insert `A7, A8'.

2 Ibid. p. 184, l. 12, delete `one' and substitute `two'.

3 Ibid. p. 184, l. 12, delete `B6'.

4 Ibid. p. 184, delete ll. 13–14.

5 Ibid. p. 184, l. 18, after `coursework' insert `modules'.

6 Ibid. p. 184, l. 18, delete `These will be taken into consideration in the assignment of the degree' and substitute

`Failure to complete coursework modules to a satisfactory standard will also be taken into account by the examiners, except that exemption from the requirement to complete coursework modules shall be granted to any candidate who, in Trinity Term of the second year, participates in an exchange scheme approved by the Sub-faculty'.

(c ) Honour School of Engineering and Materials (i ) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 204, l. 32, delete `seven' and substitute `six'.

2 Ibid. p. 204, delete ll. 33–8 and substitute `Papers A1, A2, A5 as set for the Honour School of Engineering Science, and:
ME1. Structure of Materials.
ME2. Properties of Materials.
ME3. Structural Transformations.

In addition candidates will sit shortened versions of the Honour School of Engineering Science papers A3 and A4. The results of the two papers (A3s and A4s) in combination will be treated by the examiners as the equivalent of one paper.'

3 Ibid. p. 204, l. 39, after `schedule.' insert:

`They will be required to take three further subjects, each of which will be considered by the examiners as equivalent to one written paper, as follows:

A6, Engineering Practical Work
A7, Engineering and Society Coursework
ME4, Materials Practical Work.'

4 Ibid. p. 204, delete ll. 42–50 and p. 205, ll. 1 and 2, and substitute `Candidates shall be required to submit a portfolio for Engineering and Society coursework (A7) as specified in the regulations for the Honour School of Engineering Science.'

5 Ibid. p. 205, l. 3, delete `of the two essays' and substitute `The portfolio of work'.

6 Ibid. l. 5, after `examination.', insert `The materials must be the candidate's own work and the candidate shall sign and present with the portfolio a detachable certificate to this effect'.

7 Ibid. l. 8 after `Essays' insert `or reports'.

8 Ibid. l. 10 after `essay' insert `or report'.

9 Ibid. l. 12, after `institution.', insert `Resubmitted work must be physically presented at the time and in the manner prescribed for submission.'

10 Ibid. l. 14, after `study' insert `(papers A6 and ME4)'. 11 Ibid. ll. 14–15, delete `Practical work reports taken together shall be considered by the examiners as equivalent to one written paper'.

12 Ibid. l. 26, after `institution.', insert `Resubmitted work must be physically presented at the time and in the manner prescribed for submission'.

13 Ibid. delete ll. 29–39 and substitute:

`A1, A2, A5, A6, and A7: as specified in the Honour School of Engineering Science

A3s: a shortened version of A3 as specified in the Honour School of Engineering Science

This paper will contain questions on dynamics, kinematics and vibrations; computer architecture.

A4s: a shortened version of A4 as specified in the Honour School of Engineering Science

This paper will contain questions on structural forms and analysis; analysis of elastic continua; structural failure.

ME1: Structure of Materials

Crystallography and crystal defects. Elementary quantum mechanics and bonding. Metals, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, composites. Statistical mechanics. Electronic structure of materials; physics of semiconductors.

ME2: Properties of Materials

Hardness, toughness, and strength; plasticity; fracture. Ceramics and glasses. Mechanical properties of polymers. Electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of materials.

ME3: Structural Transformations

Thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations. Microstructure. Diffusion. Surfaces and interfaces. Engineering alloys.'

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first Part II examination in 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 206, delete l. 11 and substitute `The subjects of these papers shall be published in the University Gazette by the Standing Committee for Engineering and Materials not later than then end of the Trinity Full Term of the academic year preceding the year of the examination of Part II.'

2 Ibid. p. 206, delete ll. 41–51, and p. 207, ll. 1–13.

(d ) Pass School of Engineering and Materials With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first Part I examination in Trinity Term 1998, and first Part II examination in Trinity Term 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 207, l. 23, delete `vii' and substitute `vi'.

2 Ibid. l. 23, after `A1,' insert `A2,'.

5 Ibid. l. 25, delete `(viii) the two extended essays on Engineering and Society.' and substitute: `(vii) Papers A3s and A4s. The results of the two papers (A3s and A4s) in combination will be treated as the equivalent of one paper.

(viii) Paper A7, Engineering and Society'.

6 Ibid. l. 29, after `study', insert `(Papers A6 and ME4)'.

21 Board of the Faculty of Theology (a ) Honour School of Theology (i ) With immediate effect (for examination in 1996 and 1997)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 539, delete ll. 2–15 and substitute:

`Candidates will be expected to answer questions related to the following:

Principles of psychological explanation with particular reference to the psychology of religious experience and behaviour. Methods of investigation in the psychology of religion. The accounts of the psychology of religion given by James, Freud, and Jung, and by more recent scientific investigators. Individual and social factors in the development of religious experience. The psychology of at least one of the following areas of concern for pastoral practice: religious eduction; group relationships; marriage; sickness and health; death and bereavement. Elements of theological psychology: Body and Soul; reason, will, and emotion; religion and the concept of mental health; religious consciousness and prayer.'

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 539, delete ll. 2–15 and substitute: `The paper will cover theories about aspects of behaviour or experience relevant to religion and the empirical evidence on these theories. Psychological research methods and their applicability to different aspects of religion such as conversion, prayer, worship. Cognitive and non-cognitive (i.e. psychoanalytic and affective) accounts of religion. Normal and abnormal religious behaviour. Origin and development of religious concepts. Moral development. Constructs of theological psychology (e.g. soul; conscience, sin, and guilt; repentance; forgiveness; mercy) and their status in contemporary psychology. Psychology applied to pastoral concerns: religious education; marriage; health; death and bereavement; substance abuse.'

(iii) With effect from 1 October 1996 for one year (for examination in 1997 only)

Under the provisions for paper 34 ( Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 540), the Theology Board offers the following paper for examination in 1997.

`The Formation of Rabbinic Judaism (70 ce–950 ce)

The course will describe the formation of rabbinic Judaism as reflected in its primary texts. Some reference will be made to the contexts of late Antiquity, early Christendom, and the Zoroastrian and Islamic worlds.

It will consider the following issues:

How did the rabbis translate (Targum) and interpret (Midrash) the Hebrew scriptures? How did they structure the religious system which emerged from their reflections on scripture (Mishna/Tosefta)? What forms of liturgy and spirituality did they create, and how did they relate to the Jewish mystidal tradition?

The Babylonian Talmud and its definition of Torah. Judaism under Islam—the Gaonic period. Confrontation with other faiths, with rationalist philosophy, and with serious critiques of both scripture and the rabbinic tradition.

The following primary rabbinic texts in translation are set for special study:

The Daily Prayer Book of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Commonwealth of Nations (Centenary Edition, London: Signer's Prayer book Publication Committee, 1990): pages 46, 56 (Amida prayer) and 251–4 (Ethics of the Fathers chapter 1))

The Mishnah translated by H. Danby (London: Oxford University Press, 1933). Tractate Berakhoth chapters 4, 5; tractate Baba Kamma chapter 8.

(iv) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 538, delete ll. 37–44 and substitute:

`Candidates will be expected to know at least two of the following options in detail:

(i ) K. Marx, Theses on Feuerbach and The German Ideology (ch. 1) (ed. C. Arthur, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1985), together with Capital (chs. 1 and 13) (Penguin Books, 1990).

(ii) E. Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (Allen & Unwin, London, 1976).

(iii) M. Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism (Harper Collins, 1991).

(iv) E. Troeltsch, The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches (2 Vols. Jn. Knox, 1992).

(v) Religion and History. ed. Adams (T. & T. Clark, 1991).

(vi) Talcott Parsons, Action Theory and the Human Condition (New York, 1978).

(b ) Pass School of Theology With effect from 1 October 1996 for one year (for examination in 1997 only)

As for the Honour School of Theology (see (a ) (iii) above).

(c ) B.Th. in Applied Theology

With effect from 1 October 1996 (for first examination in 1997) 1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 934, delete l. 8 and substitute: `Candidates will normally be expected to have five GCSE passes, one of which must be in English Language and two of which must be at Advanced Level. Exemptions from this requirement for mature student candidates or those otherwise qualified may be made at the discretion of the supervisory committee.'

2 Ibid. p. 952, delete ll. 1–6 and substitute ` Course requirements '.

3 Ibid. p. 936, after l. 8 insert:

`The dated certification of the committee's approval of essay titles (for 7,000, 10,000, and 15,000 word essays, and field studies), the statement from a college officer indicating the nature of the supervision provided (for 10,000 and 15,000 word essays), the certification from the college confirming that the other work in a subject area has been satisfactorily completed (for 7,000 word essays), and the signed statement from the candidate that the essays and field studies are his/her own work (for 7,000, 10,000, and 15,000 word essays, and field studies), must accompany the essays and field studies when submitted for examination. These certificates and signed statements must be submitted separately in a sealed envelope addressed to the Chairman of the Examiners for the Certificates in Theology/Bachelor of Theology, at the above address.'

22 Standing Committee for EEM and Related Schools Honour School of Engineering, Economics, and Management (i ) With immediate effect

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 199, delete ll. 17–19.

2 Ibid. delete ll. 31–2 and substitute:

`The industrial attachment and project will normally be arranged by, and must be approved by, the project co-ordinators in Management and/or Engineering. The report shall be on a topic, approved by the standing committee, normally in Management or Engineering. Topics in Economics may be approved, but the project co-ordinators cannot undertake to arrange projects in the field of Economics.'

(ii) With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first Part I examination in Trinity Term 1998, and first Part II examination in Trinity Term 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees. 1995, p. 197, delete ll. 19–23 and substitute:

`A2 Electricity and Electronics
A3 Control, Dynamics, and Computer
A4 Structures and Materials
A5 Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
A6 Engineering Practical Work'.

2 Ibid. delete l. 28, and renumber B5 and B6 as B4 and B5.

3 Ibid. delete ll. 32–43 and substitute:

`The list of subjects and the syllabuses from which the papers in Group C may be selected shall be approved by the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science and published by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Engineering Science not later than the end of the Trinity Full Term of the academic year preceding the year of the examination of Part II. The Sub-faculty will divide the papers into lists; candidates will be required to select their group C papers from different lists.'

4 Ibid. p. 198, ll. 18–19, delete `eight papers, consisting of any five from Group A' and substitute `nine papers, consisting of all papers in Group A'.

5 Ibid. pp. 198–99, delete sect. 1. and substitute:

`1. Written papers

Candidates will be required to take three papers, consisting of paper E2 and any two papers from E3, E4, E5, M2, M3, M4, and Group C (from which the equivalent of only one paper may be offered). Candidates choosing to offer a paper from Group C must take two papers in which they would be expected to answer, in two hours, three questions from each paper. The results of the two papers in combination will be treated as the equivalent of one paper. The arrangements for the publication and selection of group C papers are specified on p. 197.'

Footnotes

[1] Candidates seeking approval of the subject of their thesis should write to the Deputy Chairman, Board of the Faculty of English Language and Literature, English Faculty Office, St Cross Building, Manor Road.'
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[2] Those who offer B may not offer options (1) and (2) in Paper X.
Return to text

EXAMINATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

The examiners appointed by the following faculty boards give notice of oral examination of their candidates as follows:

Biological Sciences

A. ATTARAN, Wadham: `CTL cytotoxicity and cytoskeleton: a microscopical study'.
Department of Zoology, Wednesday, 29 May, 2 p.m.
Examiners. T.J. Elliott, D. Bray.

S. GREGSON, Jesus: `The early socio-demographic impact of the HIV-1 epidemic in rural Zimbabwe'.
Department of Zoology, Tuesday, 4 June, 11.30 a.m.
Examiners. G.P. Garnett, J. Cleland.

R.D. SHEIL, Linacre: `The ecology of long-term change in a Ugandan rain forest'.
Department of Plant Sciences, Thursday, 16 May, 9.30 a.m.
Examiners. D. Newbery, R.J. Whittaker.

S.D. VASCONCELOS, Linacre: `Studies on the transmission and dispersal of baculoviruses in lepidopteran populations'.
University Museum, Monday, 13 May, 2 p.m.
Examiners. S.J. Simpson, A. Cherry.

JIU-YAO WANG, St Cross: `Expression and functional characterisation of carbohydrate recognition domains of bovine conglutinin and human surfactant protein D'.
Glycobiology Institute, Thursday, 16 May, 11 a.m.
Examiners. R.A. Dwek, A.D. Postle.

Clinical Medicine

K.L.R. DUNN, Green College: `Cytotoxicity of Neisseria meningitidis for cultured human endothelial cells'.
Institute of Molecular Medicine, Tuesday, 28 May, 2.30 p.m.
Examiners. R. Bicknell, H. Kayhty.

English Language and Literature

J. PAULMAN, Merton: `An illumined chamber: aspects of scientific enquiry into the history of the Earth in selected Gothic novels 1789–1911'.
Exeter, Monday, 6 May, 2.15 p.m.
Examiners. M.S. Butler, P.A. Clemit.

J. RAINFORD, St Hugh's: `Olafr Haralddsson, king and saint of Norway, and the development of Skaldic style (c.1015–c.1153)'.
St Cross Building, Friday, 10 May, 2.30 p.m.
Examiners. D. Gray, R. McTurk.

Literae Humaniores

R.E. ASH, St Hugh's: `Individual and collective identities in Tacitus's Histories'.
Examination Schools, Wednesday, 26 June, 2 p.m.
Examiners. M.T. Green, C.S. Kraus.

J.E SHERWOOD, Corpus Christi: `Perceptions of gender and the divine in Greek texts of the second and third centuries ad'.
Examination Schools, Friday, 12 July, 2.15 p.m.
Examiners. J.A. North, R.C.T. Parker.

Modern History

H.-J.K.L.R. VOTH, Nuffield: `Time use in eighteenth- century London: some evidence from the Old Bailey'.
All Souls, Wednesday, 26 June, 9.30 a.m.
Examiners. E.A. Wrigley, C.H. Feinstein.

Psychological Studies

M.P. DA MOTA, Wolfson: `The role of grammatical knowledge in spelling'.
Department of Experimental Psychology, Wednesday, 15 May, 11 a.m.
Examiners. P.L. Harris, P. Seymour.

Committee for Management Studies

S.A. WAGNER, St Hugh's: `Environmentally-oriented consumer behaviour: a cognitive study with implications for communications management'.
Templeton, Friday, 3 May, 11.30 a.m.
Examiners. G.R. Foxall, E.B. Howard.

EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LETTERS

The examiners appointed by the following faculty board give notice of oral examination of their candidate as follows:

Modern History

M.V. WINSTONE, Lincoln: `The church in Cromwellian England: initiative for reform of the ministry during the Interregnum'.
Examination Schools, Thursday, 9 May, 11.15 a.m.
Examiners. C. Holmes, A. Hughes.

EXAMINATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

The examiners appointed by the following faculty boards give notice of oral examination of their candidates as follows:

Clinical Medicine

R.C. KNAPP, New College: `Noise in magnetic resonance imaging and the role of preamplifier technology'.
MRC Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, Tuesday, 21 May, 2 p.m.
Examiners. P. Styles, J.J.K. Best.

Mathematical Sciences

R. PINKETT, Keble: `Hardware/software co-design and digital speech processing'.
Department of Engineering Science, Friday, 3 May, 10 a.m.
Examiners. D.J. Edwards, A. Kay.