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Woodfordia Fruticosa Descriptive Essay

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Woodfordia fruticosa

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 40(2): 56 56 (1871)

Latin for 'shrub', referring to growth form.

Lythrum fruticosum L.
Lythrum hunteri DC.
Woodfordia floribunda Salisb.
Woodfordia fruticosa forma genuina Kurz ex Koehne
Woodfordia tomentosa Bedd.

Shrubs, 1-5 m tall. Stems and branches pendulous, long, pubescent when young, becoming glabrous. Leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 3-14 x 1-4 cm, leathery, abaxially sparsely to densely tomentose and orange to black glandular punctate, adaxially glabrous, base rounded to subcordate, apex acuminate. Inflorescences condensed axillary shoots of 1-15 flowers. Floral tube light red, red-orange, or deep red, greenish basally, narrowly cyathiform, 9-15 mm; sepals oblong-ovate or deltate, 2-3 mm; epicalyx segments scarcely present. Petals 6, thin, linear-lanceolate, 1-5 mm, ca. as long as sepals. Stamens 12. inserted above ovary base, long-exserted. Ovary 2-loculed; ovules 100+. Capsules elongate, elliptic. Seeds reddish brown, ca. 1.5 mm. [from Flora of China]

Common in forests and on open slopes.

The plant is a well-known non-wood forest produce that has long been in regular demand amongst practitioners of traditional medicines in different South East Asian countries. Although all parts of this plant possess valuable medicinal properties, there is a heavy demand for the flowers, both in domestic and international markets specialized in the preparation of herbal medicines. Plant pacifies vitiated kapha, pitta, skin diseases, burning sensation, hemorrhage, anemia, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, diarrhea, dysentery, ulcers, diabetes, oligospermia, urinary tract infections and jaundice. It is used to give natural color to ayurvedic preparations.

From Pakistan, Nepal and India to southern China, Indochina, and Indonesia.

Local names
China: Xia zi hua.
English: Fire flame bush.
Sanskrit: Dhai phul.

Other articles

Woodfordia fruticosa descriptive essay


Sorting Woodfordia names

Species on this page ( A = names approved by most authorities, s = approved as synonyms).

  • Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. -> Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz
  • Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz. var. punctata (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) Koehne -> Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz
  • Woodfordia tomentosa Bedd. -> Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz

(Bed) (Braj) (CRDP) (FAO) (FDAM) (Flcyb) (GCW) (GRIN) V (IPNI) (ISF) (ISTA) (JA) (JSent) (LibHerb) (Mansf) (M M P N D) (Mrkv) (Nep) (Pan) (Prosea) (SavMark) (Smit) (SwedMus) (USDA) (Wang) (W3Trop) (Yasu)

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz

SYNONYM(S). Grislea punctata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Grislea tomentosa Roxb. Lythrum fruticosum L. . Woodfordia floribunda Salisb. Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz. var. punctata (Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.) Koehne. Woodfordia tomentosa Bedd.

BENGALI. Dawai, Dhai, Dhai phul.

ENGLISH. Dhawai flower, Fire flame bush, Shiranji tea (India), Woodfordia.

GUJARATI. Dhavdi, Dhavadina.

HINDI. Dawi, Dhawai phool, Dhaura, Jaju, Santha.

MARATHI. Dhaiphal, Phulsatti.

ORIYA. Jaliko, Harwari.

SANSKRIT. Agnijvala, Agnijwala, Dhalaki, Dhataki, Dhauri.

TAMIL. Dhatari jargi.

TELUGU. Errapurvu, Seringi, Sirinji.


Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020, Sorting Woodfordia Names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database - A Work in Progress. Institute of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia. < http://gmr.landfood.unimelb.edu.au/Plantnames/Sorting/Woodfordia.html > (2004).

Specific & complementary

USDA, ARS. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN ). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Available: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxdump.pl?woodfordia (25 October 2004). (GRIN)

Contributors to this page (Personal communication). Pankaj Oudhia.

Date created: 09 / 10 / 2004
Authorised by
Last modified: 26 / 10 / 2004
Access: No restriction
Copyright © 1995 - 2020, I.L.F.R. - The University of Melbourne.
Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, E-Mail

Woodfordia Fruticosa, Fruticosa flowers, Woodfordia Fruticosa flowers, indian Woodfordia Fruticosa flowers

Woodfordia Fruticosa
  • Botanical Name : Woodfordia Fruticosa
  • Family Name : Lythaceae
  • Common Name : Fire-flame Bush, Shinajitea, Woodfordia
  • Part Used : Flowers
  • Habitat : Throughout india but abundantly found in north india upto 1600 m.
  • Product offered : Flowers
Uses : The flowers are acrid, astringent, styptic, depurative, utreine sadative, constipating, antibacterial, corrective of urinary pigments, febrifuge and alexeteric. They are useful in the conditions of kapha and pitta, leprosy, burning sensation, skindiseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, headache, hemorrhoids, herpes, internal hemorrhage, leukorrhea, liver disorders, menorrhagia, ulcers, wounds. Juice of leaves are used in bilious sickness. They are also valued as a stimulant in pregnancy. Dried flower powder is used in ulcers and wounds to reduce the discharge and promote granulation. The juice of its fresh flowers applied on the forehead, reduces the headache. Customized Solutions
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Description of Woodfordia Fruticosa

Botanical Name. Woodfordia Fruticosa
Sanskrit Name : Dhai phul
English Name. Fire flame bush
Family. Lythaceae
Part Used: Flower

Description ofWoodfordia Fruticosa :
A much-branched, beautiful shrub, with fluted stems and long, spreading branches, 1-3 m. high, rarely up to 7 m. commonly occurring throughout North India, ascending to an altitude of c. 1,500 m. in the Himalayas, but rather scarce in South India. It is sometimes cultivated in gardens for its flowers, which are borne during the summer months. Bark reddish brown, peeling off in thin, fibrous strips; leaves lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; flowers numerous, brilliant red in dense axillary paniculate-cymose clusters; capsules ellipsoid, membranous; seeds brown, minute, smooth obovate.

Medicinal Uses:
The flowers are acrid, astringent, styptic, depurative, utreine sadative, constipating, antibacterial, corrective of urinary pigments, febrifuge and alexeteric. They are useful in the conditions of kapha and pitta, leprosy, burning sensation, skindiseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, headache, hemorrhoids, herpes, internal hemorrhage, leukorrhea, liver disorders, menorrhagia, ulcers, wounds. Juice of leaves are used in bilious sickness. They are also valued as a stimulant in pregnancy.

Principal Constituents:
Woodfordins A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and were identified from the flowers.

The authenticity of the above information are not verified and established by us. You are requested to get it verified. The above given information are collected from various sources may be used for academic purpose.

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Leaf Extract and Host Toxicity Testing With In Vitro Cultured Lymphocytes From Human Umbilical Cord Blood
  • Debasmita Dubey a. b ,
  • Rajashree Patnaik b ,
  • Goutam Ghosh c ,
  • Rabindra N. Padhy b. . .
  • a Department of Botany and Biotechnology, B.J.B. Autonomous College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  • b Central Research Laboratory, IMS & Sum Hospital Medical College, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
  • c School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Received 28 June 2014, Revised 15 August 2014, Accepted 16 August 2014, Available online 6 September 2014 Abstract Objectives

To locate a plant with suitable phytochemicals for use as antimicrobial agents to control multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria as a complementary medicine, without host toxicity as monitored through cultured lymphocytes from human umbilical cord blood.


The methanol crude leaf extract of the plant Woodfordia fruticosa was subjected to antimicrobial assay in vitro with nine pathogenic MDR bacteria from clinical samples. This was followed by bioassay-guided fractionation with seven non-polar to polar solvents, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the n -butanol fraction, and monitoring of the host toxicity of the leaf extract with in vitro grown lymphocytes from human umbilical cord blood.


The leaf extract of W. fruticosa had a controlling capacity for MDR bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the n -butanol fraction were < 1.89 mg/mL extract and 9.63 mg/mL extract, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry spectrum of the n -butanol fraction confirmed the presence of 13 peaks of different compounds with retention times of 9.11 minutes, 9.72 minutes, 10.13 minutes, 10.78 minutes, 12.37 minutes, 12.93 minutes, 18.16 minutes, 21.74 minutes, 21.84 minutes, 5.96 minutes, 12.93 minutes, 24.70 minutes, and 25.76 minutes. The six leading compounds were: diethyl phthalate: IUPAC name: diethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate; 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol: IUPAC name: 5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylphenol; (E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1-thiol: IUPAC name: (2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1-thiol; 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E ): IUPAC name: 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol; 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E,E); 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phenol: IUPAC name: 2-methoxy-4-[(1E)-prop-1-en-1-yl]phenol; hexadecanoic acid: IUPAC name: hexadecanoic acid.


The presence of antimicrobial compounds that are therapeutically potent against MDR bacteria was confirmed in W. fruticosa. The crude leaf extract showed no host toxicity with human lymphocytes; the n -butanol fraction of the extract was the most suitable bioactive fraction. The terpenes isolated were: 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl) phenol, 2,6-octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-(E )-2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethylcyclohexanol, and cyclohexanol, 2-methylene-5-(1-methylethenyl) which were reported to have specifically antimicrobial activity.

  • gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis ;
  • human lymphocytes ;
  • multidrug-resistant bacteria ;
  • Woodfordia fruticosa
1. Introduction

Several plant species have been used by many generations of local ethnic tribes, especially those of the Kalahandi District, Odisha, India for holistic health care [1]. This practice has been validated by the Indian ayurvedic school, Indian traditional medicine, and Indian folklore medicine for several hundred plants [2]. In addition, a number of crude drugs known as aristha and asava are prepared, marketed, and consumed by much of the Indian population. Woodfordia fruticosa has many ethno-botanical roles as a traditional medicine, such as curing bowel disorders, dysentery, diarrhea, ulcers, and other infectious diseases, in addition to treating rheumatism 3. 4  and 5. This plant can cure peptic ulcers induced by Helicobacter pylori [6]. Therefore it was thought to be worthwhile to study its antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens from clinical samples.

Infection and morbidity as a result of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in both community and hospital settings has been a problem for many decades – for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is currently resistant to 23 antibiotic drugs [7]. Other pathogenic bacteria, such as various species of Acinetobacter. Pseudomonas. and Klebsiella have developed clonal nexuses so much that these, mainly Gram-negative, bacteria have been recorded as potent MDR bacteria in nosocomial surveys of patients in our hospital over the past 5 years 8. 9  and 10. The effect of MDR bacterial pathogens can be illustrated by the example of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are common infections affecting > 50% of the population at some time in their life. UTIs are treated empirically with an antimicrobial stewardship program, but when the causative bacteria in repeated infections are found to be MDR, the failure of the empirical treatment can be devastating [9]. A patient with a UTI may initially have cystitis, which, if neglected or if the empirical treatment fails, leads to kidney infection (pyelonephritis). Ultimately, the infection may spread to other vulnerable zones such as the heart and lungs. This may cause a cough and an infection spread via the bloodstream from the kidneys may lead to endocarditis and terminal respiratory tract infections. To overcome this snowball effect of a UTI infection, in addition to mainstream treatment with antibiotic drugs, the use of a medicine from a complementary/supplementary source might be a prudent approach in view of the thousands of published research papers claiming that medicinal plants may have antimicrobial activities [1] .

The resistant, or rather non-committal, attitude of mainstream medicinal practices has restrained the use of plethora of natural compounds from plant sources [11]. However, the most obvious method of treating a bacterial infection is to use antibiotics from microbes, i.e. from organisms with a similar heritage. If scaled up, crude plant extracts could be fractioned and the active antimicrobial fraction could be isolated and used as a complementary medicine together with the prescribed mainstream drug to control infectious diseases because no microbe, however well-equipped genetically by multidrug-resistance, can win over an array of phytocompounds.

This paper describes the antibacterial activities of crude leaf extracts of W. fruticosa and its fractions extracted using seven non-polar and polar solvents. The best solvent fraction was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values against MDR strains of nine pathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples. This work is better than other antimicrobial work with plants with standard bacterial reference strains from culture centers with undefined antibiotic sensitivity patterns of used bacteria, available in literature. The best solvent fraction was used for gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis to locate lead compounds that could be the coveted antimicrobial agents. The crude plant extract was tested for possible host toxicity by monitoring its activity against lymphocytes grown in vitro from human umbilical cord blood. The use of a bioactive fraction of a leaf extract of a plant without any host toxicity as a complementary antimicrobial agent for use alongside an antibiotic drug would be a novel approach against MDR bacteria.

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Collection of plant material and preparation of plant fractions

A methanolic extract was obtained from the dried leaf powders of W. fruticosa Kurz. via a 24-hour hot extraction method using a Soxhlet apparatus ( Figure 1 ). The extract was filtered and the filtrate dried in vacuo. The crude methanol extract was subjected to a bioassay-guided fractionation by solubilizing in water followed by sequential partition with n -hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n -butanol. The end product is referred to as the methanol fraction. Each collected fraction was concentrated under reduced pressure to form a dark residue.

Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.

Woodfordia fructicosa has an immunostimulatory effect and may protect the bone marrow

Woodfordia fructicosa has an immunostimulatory effect and may protect the bone marrow. - GreenMedInfo Summary

CONTEXT: Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (Lythraceae), a non-rasayana immunomodulatory Indian medicinal plant, used traditionally as an anthelmintic, in dysentery, leprosy, blood diseases, leucorrhea, and menorrhagia.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ethanol extract of W. fruticosa flowers on non-specific immune responses in mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the extract was examined on murine peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis (nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye reduction, lysosomal enzyme activity, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase) and on proliferation of bone marrow cells by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, while the in vivo potential on macrophages and bone marrow cells was evaluated by using carbon clearance test and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, respectively.

RESULTS: Significant increase in the release of myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide lysosomal enzyme and superoxide from macrophages along with significant increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance test indicate stimulatory activity of the extract on macrophages. The extract also demonstrated 60% increase in bone marrow cell proliferation and offer protection towards cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression which represents the stimulation of bone marrow activity.

DISCUSSION: Significant increase in mediators released from macrophages and phagocytic index in carbon clearance test suggests the release of cytokines from macrophages and stimulation of reticulo-endothelial system. Proliferation of bone marrow cells indicates the plausible release of colony stimulating factors, which further stimulates the immune system through generation of immune cells.

CONCLUSION: The result described here indicates the immunostimulatory activity of ethanol extract of W. fruticosa flowers by stimulating non-specific immune responses, macrophages and bone marrow cells.

Article Published Date. Sep 01, 2010

Study Type. Animal Study


Dhataki - Woodfordia fruticosa Uses, Dose, Side Effects

Dhataki – Woodfordia fruticosa Uses, Dose, Side Effects – Ayurveda

Dhataki is the backbone herb of almost all Asava and Arishta preparations. (Alcoholic liquid Ayurvedic medicines). It is used as ingredient in many products for its medicinal values. At the same time, it is also used as a fermenting agent in Asava and Arishta (such as Dashamoolarishta).

Botanical name: Woodfordia fruiticosa Kurz / Woodfordia floribunda.
Family: Lytheraceae
Hindi name: Dhaaya / Dhaay ke Phool
English name: Fire Flame Bush
Telugu Name: Are Puvvu, Sireenji,
Tamil Name: Dhatari Jargi
Gujarati Name: Dhaavadi
Bengali Name: Dhai
Marathi Name: Dhalas
Punjabi name: Dhavi
Farsi name: Dhaava

Sanskrit Synonyms:
Dhatupushpi – Having blood coloured (red) flowers
Vahnijwala – Flowers are red in colour, resembling flame
Tamrapushpi – has coppery red flowers
Madakara – Causes initiation of fermentation
Madyavasini – used in alcoholic preparations.
Dadimipatra – Leaves resemble pomegranate leaves.
Subhiksha, Kunjara, Ratispruha.

Classical categorization:
Charaka Samhita:

Pureesha Sangrahaneeya: Group of herbs used in increasing the bulk of faeces.
Mutra Virajaneeya: Group of herbs that are used to restore normal urine colour:
Sandhaneeya: Group of herbs that are used in wound healing and fracture healing

Sushruta and Vagbhata: Priyangvadi and Ambashtadi group of herbs.

Dhataki Distribution: It is a bushy shrub found throughout India upto 2000 meters height from sea leve.

Woodfordia fruiticosa medicinal uses :
Rasa (Taste): Kashaya (Astringent)
Guna (qualities): Laghu (light to digest), Rooksha (dry)
Veerya (potency): Sheeta (cold)
Vipaka (taste conversion after digestion): Katu (pungent)
Effect on Tridosha: It balances Kapha and Pitta.
Prabhava (special effect): Madakari causes Mada – delirium.

धातकी कटुका शीता मदकृत् तुवरा लघु: ।
तृष्णातीसार पित्तास्र विषक्रिमिविसर्पजित् ॥
– भाव प्रकाश
Madakrut – in higher doses, it causes delirium.
It is useful in
Trushna – Excessive thirst (due to its coolant property)
Atisara – diarrhoea, dysentery (due to its astringent properties)
Pittasra – useful in bleeding disorders such as menorrhagia, nasal bleeding, bleeding per rectum etc. (due to its astringent properties)
Visha – toxic conditions
Krimi – worm infestation, infection
Visarpa – Herpes, spreading skin disease

Side effects: As stated previously, its over dosage may cause delirium.
Ayurvedic medicines:
It is used in most of Asava and Arista preparations like –
Mustharishtam – used in digestive disorders.
Sarivadyasava – used in gout, skin diseases etc.

It is also used as ingredients in other Ayurvedic medicines such as Chandanadi Thailam. Kutajashtaka Kashayam etc.

Woodfordia fruticosa - Herb Information

Fire Flame Bush, Shiranjitea Latin name:Woodfordia fruticosaKurz., W.floribundaSalib.
Sanskrit/Indian name. Dawi, Santha, Dhaura General information:

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the plant’s flower in acute diarrhea, hemorrhages, ulcerations and erysipelas (skin infection). The dried flowers, powdered and sprinkled over ulcers and wounds, help in their healing. In small doses, the plant stimulates the central nervous system, while in large doses it depresses the central nervous system (Indian Medicinal Plants—An Illustrated Dictionary, C.P.Khare. 717. 2007).

Therapeutic constituents:

A wide range of chemical compounds including tannins (especially those of the macrocyclic hydrolysable class), flavonoids, anthraquinone glycosides and polyphenols are found in the plant, which renders Fire Flame Blush its pharmacological properties.

Key therapeutic benefits:
  • The astringent properties of the herb are effective in treating skin disorders, superficial wounds and cuts.
  • As a nervous central nervous system stimulant, Fire Flame Bush relieves depression and lethargy.