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Child Abuse Essay, Research Paper

The recent investigations of child abuse in America have become a recent

epidemic that have had surprising discoveries. A survey taken in 1999 regarding

child abuse revealed that 22 percent of abused children were done so physically,

8 percent sexually, 54 percent through neglect, and 16 percent by emotional

abuse. Psychological abuse can include a number of different factors including

neglect and verbal abuse. The majority of abuse that takes place is done so

psychologically rather than physically. Many children are simply ignored by

their parents and have little or no involvement with them because of this.

Children are also verbally abused and therefore get ?beaten down?

psychologically. Those who are abused psychologically tend to be very dependent

and take care of themselves, have poor self-esteem and confidence, and can have

a poor relationship with their peers. On the other end of the spectrum, physical

abuse occurs in 30 percent of child abuse cases. A very serious result of

physical abuse is known as SBS (Shaken Baby Syndrome). This condition is cause

by violent shaking of a small child, which in turn causes the brain to bruise

and eyes to bleed. Seizures, partial or total blindness, paralysis, mental

retardation, and death are all results of this form of abuse. The main reason

why this abuse occurs is the parent?s frustration from a crying baby. The

parent doesn?t want to hit the child, so they shake the child back and forth

to make him or her stop crying. Children show many signs of physical abuse in

their day-to-day life. These signs include: shying away from adult contact, lack

of trust, aggressive behavior, self-destructive behavior, extended days away

from home, and even suicide attempts. On average, fifteen out of every 1,000

children in the United States are abused either psychologically or physically

each year. In 1999 1,185 children died from physical abuse. An important thing

to consider regarding child abuse is the child abuser. There are many ways to

identify whether or not someone is an abuser or not. Typically, a child abuser

is a harsh disciplinarian, describes his or her child consistently in a negative

way, the explanations of the child?s injuries are not probable, and he or she

becomes defensive or refuses to explain when asked about the child?s injury.

The abuser may have a social or psychological problem such as depression or low

self-esteem. Other conditions may be that there is an alcohol or drug-related

problem, some lack basic skills of normal child development and parenting. Some

of the child abusers have unreasonably high standards for the child to love up

to, and when the child can not live up to them then he or she feels that it is

their duty to discipline the child. This discipline may lead to child abuse.

Stress is another factor for child abuse, but probably not the only factor. The

abuser may never have even had the thought or the urge to abuse the child but

under so much stress sometimes they do not understand that their punishment

would be considered abuse or they do it not realizing what they are doing. The

abuser may show signs of disregard for the child’s needs, welfare, limited

abilities, and feelings. Many abusive parents believe that children exist to

satisfy the parents needs and that the child’s needs are unimportant. The

children who don’t satisfy their parent?s needs may then become the victims of

abuse. Sexual abusers may have unusual personality traits and behaviors that can

result in sexual contact with a child. Sexual abusers may use threats, bribery,

coercion or force to get the child to engage in sexual activities. This violates

the natural trust between the child and adult, and if goes untreated may lead to

emotional and mental problems later in life and the abused child may become the

abuser. The child may not tell anyone because the abuser has threatened him or

her not to tell. Although child abuse is something that has just recently been

taken seriously, many advances have taken place to prevent it. The CPS (Child

Protection Service) has grown by 40 percent over the past two years. Public

awareness about this issue has grown enormously as well. Child abuse is very

hard to get rid of completely because of human nature. However, if people can

try and identify the problem before it grows into a way of life, perhaps it can

become less common.

Other articles

Реферат: Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Essay Research Paper

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Essay, Research Paper

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention

The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the information that has been collected in the area of child sexual abuse prevention. From the research studies critically examined, a decision will be made as to what areas improvements need to be made in, in order to adequately outfit children, teachers and child care workers with the skills and knowledge to help prevent child sexual abuse.

An exploratory study entitled “Child Sexual Abuse Prevention” was conducted by Michele Elliott of Kidscape Charity for Children’s Safety, London England and also by Kevin Browne and Jennifer Kilcoyne of the School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham England. The Nuffield Foundation sponsored the research. The aim of this study was to interview child sex offenders about the methods they used to target their victims with the hope of using this information to improve child abuse prevention programs.

The researchers chose ninety-one men who had been convicted and incarcerated for committing sexual offenses against children. Fifteen of these men were attending community based sex offender treatment programs, twenty two of the participants were in special hospitals and thirty-nine of these men were at the time of the first interview still incarcerated in prisons, with sentences ranging from nine months to life. No sexual offenders with mental illnesses were used for this study. “All of the participants were convicted of “hands-on” assaults, including indecent assault, unlawful intercourse, rape and buggery against children under the age of 18 and were receiving some form of therapy.” (Elliott, Browne and Kilcoyne 1995, page 580) “Participants were given no special consideration in either reducing their sentences or treatment programs.” (Elliott, et al, 1995, page 580)

Each participant was interviewed a total of three times, the first was to inform the men of the purpose of the study and to invite them to join. The second interview asked the men a total of seventy-two questions and was conducted by a female research psychologist. Some of the

questions were; the age and range of their victims, how they selected children, how they maintained them as victims and what suggestions they had for preventing child sexual abuse. The third interview was conducted six months after the second and the answers received were compared to those in the second interview to test for consistency. The offenders displayed a 90 percent consistency in the way they responded throughout the interviews.

The study concluded that in order for prevention programs to become more affective and successful they need to include information about the specific ways that child molester operate. “It also stated that it is potentially dangerous for children to tell the abuser “no” once the abuse as started and that Child Safety Programs needed to be re-evaluated and information reassessed in light of the information that offenders have revealed.” (Elliott et al, 1995, page 593)

The next research study that will be examined is entitled “Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program”. The aim of this research is to study the intended and unintended affects of the “Right to Security” child sexual abuse prevention program. “The aim of the prevention program is to enhance self-protective skills of children that are thought to contribute to safety in potential abuse situations.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 400) The program aims to outfit children to deal with their first encounter with persons who intend to sexually offend them. “The “Right to Security” program was adapted from the American “Feeling Yes, Feeling No” program and the “Child Assault Prevention Project”, to Dutch society.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 407) “The program consisted of eight sessions, three of which were given by actors and the others by teachers trained to administer the program.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 402) The duration of the program was six weeks.

This was a quasi-experiment research study. Both the experimental and control group was chosen from the Dutch elementary-school system and the participants ranged in age from eight to twelve years old. There were 161 participants in the experiment group, these subjects were participants in “Right to Security”, and thus they were non-randomly selected to participate in the study. Children who were on the waiting lists to attend the program and were assigned to the control group.

Both the experimental and control groups were instructed to complete six questioners. Each questioner addressed a specific question, there was; control in sexual conflicts, choice of safety strategy, feasibility, touch, relationship with teacher and relationship with classmates. The treatment group was tested three times, there was a pretest, posttest and they were tested six weeks later. The control group completed all the tests, however they did not complete the follow up test.

The program illustrated the different affects that the program had on the participants. The results varied with the different age groups of the participants. “Shortly after the program only the oldest children thought it easier to refuse unwanted sexual advances and they became more optimistic in the long run.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 408) The results were also the same for the younger children, but this affect did not last long. One of the negative affects of the program was that the older children experienced negative feelings about physical touches of any find in the long run.

The next study evaluated was entitled “Evaluation of the effectiveness of project trust: An elementary school-based victimization prevention strategy.” The aim was to find out children’s knowledge of general prevention concepts, knowledge of difficult-to-acquire prevention concepts. anxiety, and reporting of abuse. This study evaluated a play called Touch, sponsored by Project TRUST, an acronym for Teaching Reaching Using Students and Theater.

This study consisted of 1,269 children (658 in the experimental group and 611 in the control group). These children were enrolled in grades 1-6 in four public schools in a Midwestern city during the 1994-1995 academic years. There were 598 males and 671 females. The numbers of children at each level ranged from 184 – 252.

Trained high school students performed the play for the elementary students. “The presentation lasted approximately 30 minutes and followed by a 15 minute student question and response period.” (Oldfield. Hays. and Megel, 1996, page 822) The study design was a posttest only control group to assess the effects of observing the play. Classrooms of student in grades 1-6 at the four public schools were randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. The instruments used in this study were; the Children’s Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire –Revised (CKAQ), the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) and Maltreatment Disclosure Report Form (MDRF).

The project TRUST intervention was used during the first quarter of the school year prior to the students receiving any other school-based personal safety instruction. Parents and guardians were contacted for their permission for the research, 63 percent of students participated and classrooms at each grade level were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition.

Data was collected by assigned evaluators from the subjects in both groups on the same day. Data was collected within 2 days for the experimental group and the data was collected after the play for the control group. Data was collected with a blind assessment format. Instruments were given and testing lasted approximately 50 minutes. Abuse disclosure data was sent directly to Child Protective Services (CPS). Investigators collected the disclosure data without names, 3 months after the play.

Students exposed to Project TRUST demonstrated significantly greater knowledge of maltreatment prevention information, as well as difficult-to acquire concepts, than control group students. A 3 month delay reassessment of the experimental and subgroup showed loss in acquired prevention information. No differences in anxiety scores existed between the groups. First time student abuse disclosures were greater in the experimental than control group. Overall, project TRUST was a strategy to increase prevention knowledge and generate abuse disclosures without creating student anxiety.

This next study was entitled, “A longitudinal analysis of risk factors or child maltreatment: findings of a 17-year prospective study of officially recorded and self-reported child abuse and neglect.” The primary aim of this longitudinal study was to identify the demographic, family, parent and child factors that increased the risk for child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect.

Surveys were conducted on 644 families in upstate New York on four separate occasions between 1975 and 1992. New York State records were used to collect data on child abuse and neglect in the families studied. A retrospective self-report was also administered when the children were 18 years or older. “The participants were selected from a larger sample of families with children between the ages of 1 and 10 in 1975 who were randomly sampled on the basis of residence in one of two upstate New York counties.” (Brown, Cohen, Johnson and Salzinger, 1998, page 1067) The participants act as the representatives of the demographic compilation of the population in the northeastern region of the United States. At the time of the second study in 1983 there was only 79 percent participation.

The study reported that there were 18 cases of sexual abuse reported. “It also found that sexual abuse was associated with two demographic risk factors (maternal youth and parental death), four familial risk factors (harsh punishment, maternal sociopathy, negative life events and presence of a stepfather), one parenting risk factor (unwanted pregnancy) and two child risk factors (child gender and handicap).” (Brown, et al, 1998 page 1070) “It also concludes that daughters more than sons, handicapped children with a deceased parent, and children living with a stepfather were at risk for sexual abuse.” (Brown, et al, 1998 page 1073)

“The researchers identified one of the limitations of the study as: because data on risk factors were obtained through parent and child interviews, the occurrence of some risk factors may have been over or under reported.” (Brown, et al, 1998 page 1075) Also the relatively small number or cases made definitive comparisons of the effects of self-verses official identification.

From these finding social workers and others in contact with children can identify the children with the risk factors for sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect and maltreatment and then preventative measures can be implemented.

The next article that was reviewed was entitled “Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.” The objective of the research was “to see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities.” (Oates, Tebbutt, Swanston. Lynch and O’Toole, 1998 page 1113) The study followed the quasi-experimental design. There were “67 mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers,” (Oates, et al, 1998 page 1113) if they had experienced sexual abuse in their childhood.

The researchers conducted three interviews on the participants: at the time of disclosure, after 18 months and after 5 years. These assessments measured self-esteem, depression and behavior. The study concluded, “mothers of sexually abused children are more likely to have been sexually abused in their childhood” (Oates, et al, 1998 page 1116) than the control mothers. The study also found that adult females who were sexually abused had difficulty sustaining a reasonable balance of affection and discipline, they have more mental health problems and are less skillful in their maternal functioning’s.

Another study exploring the potential risk factors for childhood sexual abuse was examined in to order to compare the findings. This other study was entitled “A Study of potential risk factors for sexual abuse in childhood.” The study found that “the variables significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were physical abuse, having a mother who was mentally ill, not having someone to confide in, and being socially isolated.

This study had some similarities and confirmed some of the findings in the research article titled “Prior childhood sexual abuse in mother of sexually abused children.” However, one of the main limitations with the two studies is that their experimental and control groups excluded men in their studies. They both highlighted the risk factors that can be seen in mothers and not in the fathers if they were present in the family. These studies also including the study entitled “Longitudinal analysis of risk factors for child maltreatment” failed to secure experimental and control groups that included participants from various socioeconomic groups and demographics.

Before affective prevention programs can be designed to effectively protect children in this country and worldwide, we must understand: why offenders offend, how and why they target their victims, and what factors cause children to be targeted. This will enable child care workers and others to teach parents: how they can equip their children with the skills necessary to defend themselves against potential offenders, how to make their children less vulnerable to offenders and what factors in the parents parenting techniques can contribute to childhood sexual abuse. From this information childcare workers can also identify those families that demonstrate the risk factors that may possibly contribute to child sexual abuse.

Prevention programs should also not cause anxiety in the participants. Programs following the example of Project TRUST appear to be very effective in equipping children with the knowledge and skills needed to protect themselves from offenders and with no anxiety unlike the Dutch program “Right to Security”. Future studies also need to include father and male guardians in their studies instead of only mothers in order to include the portion of the population that is headed by single fathers. My study will include fathers, participants from all socioeconomic classes and provide additional information on the effectiveness of the different prevention programs.

Brown, Jocelyn. P. Cohen, J.G. Johnson, and S. Salzinger. (1995). A longitudinal analysis of risk factors for child maltreatment: findings of a 17-year prospective study of officially recorded self-reported child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(11), 1065-1078.

Elliott, Michele, K. Browne, and J. Kilcoyne. (1995). Child sexual abuse prevention: what offenders tell us. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(5), 579-594.

Fleming, Jillian. P. Mullen. and G. Bammer. (1197). A study of potential risk factors for sexual abuse in childhood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(1), 49-58.

Taal, Margot and Monique Edelaar. (1997). Positive and Negative Effect of a child sexual abuse prevention program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(4), 399-410.

Oates, R, Kim. J. Tebbutt, H. Swanston. D. Lynch and B. O’Toole. (1998). Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(11), 1113-1118.

Oldfield, Dick. B. Hays, and M. Megel. (1996). Evaluation of the effectiveness of project trust: and elementary school-based victimization prevention strategy. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(9), 821-832.

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What is Child Abuse? It is any mistreatment or neglect of a child that results in non-accidental harm or injury and consists of four types: physical, emotional, sexual and neglect. Physical abuse accounts for about one in four substantiated cases of child abuse. It is the most visible form of abuse and may be defined as any act that results in a non-accidental trauma or physical injury. Emotional abuse is commonly defined as the systematic emotional tearing down of another human being. It is considered a pattern of behavior that can seriously interfere with a child's positive development. Emotional abuse is probably the least understood of all child abuse, yet it can be the cruelest and most destructive of all types of abuse. Sexual abuse is defined as the involvement of dependent, developmentally immature children in sexual activities that they do not fully comprehend and therefore to which they are unable to give informed consent. It consists of any misuse of a child for sexual pleasure or gratification. Child neglect constitutes more than half of all substantiated cases of child abuse. It is the most common form of child maltreatment reported to child protective services. It is defined as a type of maltreatment that refers to the failure to provide needed age-appropriate care, such as shelter, food, clothing, education, supervision, medical care, and other basic necessities needed for development of physical, intellectual, and emotional capacities. Most abused and neglected children never come to the attention of government authorities because some do not even realize that their rights are being violated. Therefore, official government statistics do not indicate actual rates of child abuse but only those that are reported. Professionals who interact with children ¡Xsuch as teachers, day-care workers, pediatricians, and police officers ¡Xmay fail to recognize or report abuse. Many researchers believe that statistics based on off

Essays Related to Child Abuse

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Essay Research Paper

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Essay Research Paper

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Essay, Research Paper

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention

The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the information that has been collected in the area of child sexual abuse prevention. From the research studies critically examined, a decision will be made as to what areas improvements need to be made in, in order to adequately outfit children, teachers and child care workers with the skills and knowledge to help prevent child sexual abuse.

An exploratory study entitled “Child Sexual Abuse Prevention” was conducted by Michele Elliott of Kidscape Charity for Children’s Safety, London England and also by Kevin Browne and Jennifer Kilcoyne of the School of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham England. The Nuffield Foundation sponsored the research. The aim of this study was to interview child sex offenders about the methods they used to target their victims with the hope of using this information to improve child abuse prevention programs.

The researchers chose ninety-one men who had been convicted and incarcerated for committing sexual offenses against children. Fifteen of these men were attending community based sex offender treatment programs, twenty two of the participants were in special hospitals and thirty-nine of these men were at the time of the first interview still incarcerated in prisons, with sentences ranging from nine months to life. No sexual offenders with mental illnesses were used for this study. “All of the participants were convicted of “hands-on” assaults, including indecent assault, unlawful intercourse, rape and buggery against children under the age of 18 and were receiving some form of therapy.” (Elliott, Browne and Kilcoyne 1995, page 580) “Participants were given no special consideration in either reducing their sentences or treatment programs.” (Elliott, et al, 1995, page 580)

Each participant was interviewed a total of three times, the first was to inform the men of the purpose of the study and to invite them to join. The second interview asked the men a total of seventy-two questions and was conducted by a female research psychologist. Some of the

questions were; the age and range of their victims, how they selected children, how they maintained them as victims and what suggestions they had for preventing child sexual abuse. The third interview was conducted six months after the second and the answers received were compared to those in the second interview to test for consistency. The offenders displayed a 90 percent consistency in the way they responded throughout the interviews.

The study concluded that in order for prevention programs to become more affective and successful they need to include information about the specific ways that child molester operate. “It also stated that it is potentially dangerous for children to tell the abuser “no” once the abuse as started and that Child Safety Programs needed to be re-evaluated and information reassessed in light of the information that offenders have revealed.” (Elliott et al, 1995, page 593)

The next research study that will be examined is entitled “Positive and Negative Effects of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program”. The aim of this research is to study the intended and unintended affects of the “Right to Security” child sexual abuse prevention program. “The aim of the prevention program is to enhance self-protective skills of children that are thought to contribute to safety in potential abuse situations.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 400) The program aims to outfit children to deal with their first encounter with persons who intend to sexually offend them. “The “Right to Security” program was adapted from the American “Feeling Yes, Feeling No” program and the “Child Assault Prevention Project”, to Dutch society.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 407) “The program consisted of eight sessions, three of which were given by actors and the others by teachers trained to administer the program.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 402) The duration of the program was six weeks.

This was a quasi-experiment research study. Both the experimental and control group was chosen from the Dutch elementary-school system and the participants ranged in age from eight to twelve years old. There were 161 participants in the experiment group, these subjects were participants in “Right to Security”, and thus they were non-randomly selected to participate in the study. Children who were on the waiting lists to attend the program and were assigned to the control group.

Both the experimental and control groups were instructed to complete six questioners. Each questioner addressed a specific question, there was; control in sexual conflicts, choice of safety strategy, feasibility, touch, relationship with teacher and relationship with classmates. The treatment group was tested three times, there was a pretest, posttest and they were tested six weeks later. The control group completed all the tests, however they did not complete the follow up test.

The program illustrated the different affects that the program had on the participants. The results varied with the different age groups of the participants. “Shortly after the program only the oldest children thought it easier to refuse unwanted sexual advances and they became more optimistic in the long run.” (Taal & Edelaar, 1997, page 408) The results were also the same for the younger children, but this affect did not last long. One of the negative affects of the program was that the older children experienced negative feelings about physical touches of any find in the long run.

The next study evaluated was entitled “Evaluation of the effectiveness of project trust: An elementary school-based victimization prevention strategy.” The aim was to find out children’s knowledge of general prevention concepts, knowledge of difficult-to-acquire prevention concepts. anxiety, and reporting of abuse. This study evaluated a play called Touch, sponsored by Project TRUST, an acronym for Teaching Reaching Using Students and Theater.

This study consisted of 1,269 children (658 in the experimental group and 611 in the control group). These children were enrolled in grades 1-6 in four public schools in a Midwestern city during the 1994-1995 academic years. There were 598 males and 671 females. The numbers of children at each level ranged from 184 – 252.

Trained high school students performed the play for the elementary students. “The presentation lasted approximately 30 minutes and followed by a 15 minute student question and response period.” (Oldfield. Hays. and Megel, 1996, page 822) The study design was a posttest only control group to assess the effects of observing the play. Classrooms of student in grades 1-6 at the four public schools were randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. The instruments used in this study were; the Children’s Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire –Revised (CKAQ), the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) and Maltreatment Disclosure Report Form (MDRF).

The project TRUST intervention was used during the first quarter of the school year prior to the students receiving any other school-based personal safety instruction. Parents and guardians were contacted for their permission for the research, 63 percent of students participated and classrooms at each grade level were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition.

Data was collected by assigned evaluators from the subjects in both groups on the same day. Data was collected within 2 days for the experimental group and the data was collected after the play for the control group. Data was collected with a blind assessment format. Instruments were given and testing lasted approximately 50 minutes. Abuse disclosure data was sent directly to Child Protective Services (CPS). Investigators collected the disclosure data without names, 3 months after the play.

Students exposed to Project TRUST demonstrated significantly greater knowledge of maltreatment prevention information, as well as difficult-to acquire concepts, than control group students. A 3 month delay reassessment of the experimental and subgroup showed loss in acquired prevention information. No differences in anxiety scores existed between the groups. First time student abuse disclosures were greater in the experimental than control group. Overall, project TRUST was a strategy to increase prevention knowledge and generate abuse disclosures without creating student anxiety.

This next study was entitled, “A longitudinal analysis of risk factors or child maltreatment: findings of a 17-year prospective study of officially recorded and self-reported child abuse and neglect.” The primary aim of this longitudinal study was to identify the demographic, family, parent and child factors that increased the risk for child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect.

Surveys were conducted on 644 families in upstate New York on four separate occasions between 1975 and 1992. New York State records were used to collect data on child abuse and neglect in the families studied. A retrospective self-report was also administered when the children were 18 years or older. “The participants were selected from a larger sample of families with children between the ages of 1 and 10 in 1975 who were randomly sampled on the basis of residence in one of two upstate New York counties.” (Brown, Cohen, Johnson and Salzinger, 1998, page 1067) The participants act as the representatives of the demographic compilation of the population in the northeastern region of the United States. At the time of the second study in 1983 there was only 79 percent participation.

The study reported that there were 18 cases of sexual abuse reported. “It also found that sexual abuse was associated with two demographic risk factors (maternal youth and parental death), four familial risk factors (harsh punishment, maternal sociopathy, negative life events and presence of a stepfather), one parenting risk factor (unwanted pregnancy) and two child risk factors (child gender and handicap).” (Brown, et al, 1998 page 1070) “It also concludes that daughters more than sons, handicapped children with a deceased parent, and children living with a stepfather were at risk for sexual abuse.” (Brown, et al, 1998 page 1073)

“The researchers identified one of the limitations of the study as: because data on risk factors were obtained through parent and child interviews, the occurrence of some risk factors may have been over or under reported.” (Brown, et al, 1998 page 1075) Also the relatively small number or cases made definitive comparisons of the effects of self-verses official identification.

From these finding social workers and others in contact with children can identify the children with the risk factors for sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect and maltreatment and then preventative measures can be implemented.

The next article that was reviewed was entitled “Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.” The objective of the research was “to see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities.” (Oates, Tebbutt, Swanston. Lynch and O’Toole, 1998 page 1113) The study followed the quasi-experimental design. There were “67 mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers,” (Oates, et al, 1998 page 1113) if they had experienced sexual abuse in their childhood.

The researchers conducted three interviews on the participants: at the time of disclosure, after 18 months and after 5 years. These assessments measured self-esteem, depression and behavior. The study concluded, “mothers of sexually abused children are more likely to have been sexually abused in their childhood” (Oates, et al, 1998 page 1116) than the control mothers. The study also found that adult females who were sexually abused had difficulty sustaining a reasonable balance of affection and discipline, they have more mental health problems and are less skillful in their maternal functioning’s.

Another study exploring the potential risk factors for childhood sexual abuse was examined in to order to compare the findings. This other study was entitled “A Study of potential risk factors for sexual abuse in childhood.” The study found that “the variables significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were physical abuse, having a mother who was mentally ill, not having someone to confide in, and being socially isolated.

This study had some similarities and confirmed some of the findings in the research article titled “Prior childhood sexual abuse in mother of sexually abused children.” However, one of the main limitations with the two studies is that their experimental and control groups excluded men in their studies. They both highlighted the risk factors that can be seen in mothers and not in the fathers if they were present in the family. These studies also including the study entitled “Longitudinal analysis of risk factors for child maltreatment” failed to secure experimental and control groups that included participants from various socioeconomic groups and demographics.

Before affective prevention programs can be designed to effectively protect children in this country and worldwide, we must understand: why offenders offend, how and why they target their victims, and what factors cause children to be targeted. This will enable child care workers and others to teach parents: how they can equip their children with the skills necessary to defend themselves against potential offenders, how to make their children less vulnerable to offenders and what factors in the parents parenting techniques can contribute to childhood sexual abuse. From this information childcare workers can also identify those families that demonstrate the risk factors that may possibly contribute to child sexual abuse.

Prevention programs should also not cause anxiety in the participants. Programs following the example of Project TRUST appear to be very effective in equipping children with the knowledge and skills needed to protect themselves from offenders and with no anxiety unlike the Dutch program “Right to Security”. Future studies also need to include father and male guardians in their studies instead of only mothers in order to include the portion of the population that is headed by single fathers. My study will include fathers, participants from all socioeconomic classes and provide additional information on the effectiveness of the different prevention programs.

Brown, Jocelyn. P. Cohen, J.G. Johnson, and S. Salzinger. (1995). A longitudinal analysis of risk factors for child maltreatment: findings of a 17-year prospective study of officially recorded self-reported child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(11), 1065-1078.

Elliott, Michele, K. Browne, and J. Kilcoyne. (1995). Child sexual abuse prevention: what offenders tell us. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(5), 579-594.

Fleming, Jillian. P. Mullen. and G. Bammer. (1197). A study of potential risk factors for sexual abuse in childhood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(1), 49-58.

Taal, Margot and Monique Edelaar. (1997). Positive and Negative Effect of a child sexual abuse prevention program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(4), 399-410.

Oates, R, Kim. J. Tebbutt, H. Swanston. D. Lynch and B. O’Toole. (1998). Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(11), 1113-1118.

Oldfield, Dick. B. Hays, and M. Megel. (1996). Evaluation of the effectiveness of project trust: and elementary school-based victimization prevention strategy. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(9), 821-832.

Child Abuse - School Essays

Child Abuse


Abuse is the improper use of power by one person to the detriment of
another. In today�s society and world, spouses of marriages have been
receiving abuse more frequently over the years. In most cases, the victims
of the abuse are women but in other cases it can be men also. There is
still one more victim of abuse. the children. Out of all three of
these victims of abuse, children in today�s society receive the most abuse.
is a complex issue, no single factor can adequately explain why
parents physically abuse their children. There are several significant
variables that may contribute towards a situation in which a child is at
risk of physical abuse. They include the individual.

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their children. Australian research suggests that this
figure may be higher. F thermore, children are likely to be at greater risk
of physical abuse by mothers who are being physically abused by a spouse
than children living in families where violence is absent. Here are some of
the factors that tell why parents hit their children. 1) Substance abuse
(Alcohol and other drugs) 2) Poor self image 3) Distrust in others 4) Low
impulse control 5) Unrealistic expectations of children 6) Limited or
incorrect knowledge of child development 7) A negative view of children 8)
Fear of spoiling of children When a woman is threatened or assultated by a
man this is called spousal abuse otherwise known as domestic violence.
There is no reason that a man should ever hit a woman, simply because based
on the average structure of our bodies, men are stronger than women. When
husbands abuse their wives they tend to several things such as insulting
her, threatening to hurt her, showing off and.

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Child Abuse. (2006, December 14). Retrieved August 7, 2016, from http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Child-Abuse/57114

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"Child Abuse." Essayworld.com. December 14, 2006. Accessed August 7, 2016. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Child-Abuse/57114.

"Child Abuse." Essayworld.com. December 14, 2006. Accessed August 7, 2016. http://www.essayworld.com/essays/Child-Abuse/57114.