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What does Dicotyledonae mean? definition and meaning (Free English Language Dictionary)

DICOTYLEDONAE

Dictionary entry overview: What does Dicotyledonae mean?

DICOTYLEDONAE (noun)
The noun DICOTYLEDONAE has 1 sense:

1. comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae

Familiarity information: DICOTYLEDONAE used as a noun is very rare.

Dictionary entry details

DICOTYLEDONAE (noun)

Dicotyledonae [BACK TO TOP]

Comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae

Nouns denoting plants

Hypernyms ("Dicotyledonae" is a kind of. ):

class ((biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders)

Meronyms (members of "Dicotyledonae"):

Oleales ; order Oleales (coextensive with the family Oleaceae; in some classifications included in the order Gentianales)

Hamamelidae ; subclass Hamamelidae (a group of chiefly woody plants considered among the most primitive of angiosperms; perianth poorly developed or lacking; flowers often unisexual and often in catkins and often wind pollinated; contains 23 families including the Betulaceae and Fagaceae (includes the Amentiferae); sometimes classified as a superorder)

Dilleniidae ; subclass Dilleniidae (a group of families of more or less advanced trees and shrubs and herbs having either polypetalous or gamopetalous corollas and often with ovules attached to the walls of the ovary; contains 69 families including Ericaceae and Cruciferae and Malvaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder)

order Urticales ; Urticales (an order of dicotyledonous plants including Moraceae and Urticaceae and Ulmaceae)

Ebenales ; order Ebenales (trees or shrubs of the families Ebenaceae or Sapotaceae or Styracaceae or Symplocaceae)

order Sarraceniales ; Sarraceniales (plants that are variously modified to serve as insect traps: families Sarraceniaceae; Nepenthaceae; Droseraceae)

order Scrophulariales ; Scrophulariales (used in some classification systems; often included in the order Polemoniales)

Gentianales ; order Gentianales (an order of dicotyledonous plants having gamopetalous flowers; Gentianaceae; Apocynaceae; Asclepiadaceae; Loganiaceae; Oleaceae; Salvadoraceae)

Diapensiales ; order Diapensiales (used in some classifications: coextensive with family Diapensiaceae)

liliopsid family ; monocot family (family of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed)

dicot family ; magnoliopsid family (family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination)

dicot genus ; magnoliopsid genus (genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination)

dicot ; dicotyledon ; exogen ; magnoliopsid (flowering plant with two cotyledons; the stem grows by deposit on its outside)

Magnoliidae ; ranalian complex ; subclass Magnoliidae (a group of families or trees and shrubs and herbs having well-developed perianths and apocarpous ovaries and generally regarded as the most primitive extant flowering plants; contains 36 families including Magnoliaceae and Ranunculaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder)

Aristolochiales ; order Aristolochiales (order of plants distinguished by tubular petaloid perianth and inferior ovary)

Caryophyllidae ; subclass Caryophyllidae (a group of families of mostly flowers having basal or central placentation and trinucleate pollen (binucleate pollen is commoner in flowering plants); contains 14 families including: Caryophyllaceae (carnations and pinks); Aizoaceae; Amaranthaceae; Batidaceae; Chenopodiaceae; Cactaceae (order Opuntiales); Nyctaginaceae; Phytolaccaceae; corresponds approximately to order Caryophyllales; sometimes classified as a superorder)

Asteridae ; subclass Asteridae (a group of mostly sympetalous herbs and some trees and shrubs mostly with 2 fused carpels; contains 43 families including Campanulales; Solanaceae; Scrophulariaceae; Labiatae; Verbenaceae; Rubiaceae; Compositae; sometimes classified as a superorder)

order Primulales ; Primulales (Primulaceae; Theophrastaceae; Myrsinaceae; and (in some classifications) Plumbaginaceae)

Rosidae ; subclass Rosidae (a group of trees and shrubs and herbs mostly with polypetalous flowers; contains 108 families including Rosaceae; Crassulaceae; Myrtaceae; Melastomaceae; Euphorbiaceae; Umbelliferae)

Casuarinales ; order Casuarinales (order of chiefly Australian trees and shrubs comprising the casuarinas; 1 family: Casuarinaceae)

Holonyms ("Dicotyledonae" is a member of. ):

Angiospermae ; Anthophyta ; class Angiospermae ; division Anthophyta ; division Magnoliophyta ; Magnoliophyta (comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Angiospermae) and in others a division (Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta))

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DICOTYLEDONAE: related words searches

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What does class Dicotyledonae mean? definition and meaning (Free English Language Dictionary)

CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE

Dictionary entry overview: What does class Dicotyledonae mean?

CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE (noun)
The noun CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE has 1 sense:

1. comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae

Familiarity information: CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE used as a noun is very rare.

Dictionary entry details

CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE (noun)

class Dicotyledonae [BACK TO TOP]

Comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae

Nouns denoting plants

Hypernyms ("class Dicotyledonae" is a kind of. ):

class ((biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders)

Meronyms (members of "class Dicotyledonae"):

Oleales ; order Oleales (coextensive with the family Oleaceae; in some classifications included in the order Gentianales)

Hamamelidae ; subclass Hamamelidae (a group of chiefly woody plants considered among the most primitive of angiosperms; perianth poorly developed or lacking; flowers often unisexual and often in catkins and often wind pollinated; contains 23 families including the Betulaceae and Fagaceae (includes the Amentiferae); sometimes classified as a superorder)

Dilleniidae ; subclass Dilleniidae (a group of families of more or less advanced trees and shrubs and herbs having either polypetalous or gamopetalous corollas and often with ovules attached to the walls of the ovary; contains 69 families including Ericaceae and Cruciferae and Malvaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder)

order Urticales ; Urticales (an order of dicotyledonous plants including Moraceae and Urticaceae and Ulmaceae)

Ebenales ; order Ebenales (trees or shrubs of the families Ebenaceae or Sapotaceae or Styracaceae or Symplocaceae)

order Sarraceniales ; Sarraceniales (plants that are variously modified to serve as insect traps: families Sarraceniaceae; Nepenthaceae; Droseraceae)

order Scrophulariales ; Scrophulariales (used in some classification systems; often included in the order Polemoniales)

Gentianales ; order Gentianales (an order of dicotyledonous plants having gamopetalous flowers; Gentianaceae; Apocynaceae; Asclepiadaceae; Loganiaceae; Oleaceae; Salvadoraceae)

Diapensiales ; order Diapensiales (used in some classifications: coextensive with family Diapensiaceae)

liliopsid family ; monocot family (family of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed)

dicot family ; magnoliopsid family (family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination)

dicot genus ; magnoliopsid genus (genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination)

dicot ; dicotyledon ; exogen ; magnoliopsid (flowering plant with two cotyledons; the stem grows by deposit on its outside)

Magnoliidae ; ranalian complex ; subclass Magnoliidae (a group of families or trees and shrubs and herbs having well-developed perianths and apocarpous ovaries and generally regarded as the most primitive extant flowering plants; contains 36 families including Magnoliaceae and Ranunculaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder)

Aristolochiales ; order Aristolochiales (order of plants distinguished by tubular petaloid perianth and inferior ovary)

Caryophyllidae ; subclass Caryophyllidae (a group of families of mostly flowers having basal or central placentation and trinucleate pollen (binucleate pollen is commoner in flowering plants); contains 14 families including: Caryophyllaceae (carnations and pinks); Aizoaceae; Amaranthaceae; Batidaceae; Chenopodiaceae; Cactaceae (order Opuntiales); Nyctaginaceae; Phytolaccaceae; corresponds approximately to order Caryophyllales; sometimes classified as a superorder)

Asteridae ; subclass Asteridae (a group of mostly sympetalous herbs and some trees and shrubs mostly with 2 fused carpels; contains 43 families including Campanulales; Solanaceae; Scrophulariaceae; Labiatae; Verbenaceae; Rubiaceae; Compositae; sometimes classified as a superorder)

order Primulales ; Primulales (Primulaceae; Theophrastaceae; Myrsinaceae; and (in some classifications) Plumbaginaceae)

Rosidae ; subclass Rosidae (a group of trees and shrubs and herbs mostly with polypetalous flowers; contains 108 families including Rosaceae; Crassulaceae; Myrtaceae; Melastomaceae; Euphorbiaceae; Umbelliferae)

Casuarinales ; order Casuarinales (order of chiefly Australian trees and shrubs comprising the casuarinas; 1 family: Casuarinaceae)

Holonyms ("class Dicotyledonae" is a member of. ):

Angiospermae ; Anthophyta ; class Angiospermae ; division Anthophyta ; division Magnoliophyta ; Magnoliophyta (comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Angiospermae) and in others a division (Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta))

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CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE: related words searches

Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classification

Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classification

Taxonomy began with man's purely utilitarian interest in the flora of the earth. It grew with apparent observations of the various types of plants and their relationship which were, of course, based on the studies made by unaided eyes.

The word taxonomy was introduced by A.R de Candolle to designate the theory of plant classification. It has summoned innumerable people of the world since times gone by. It led to the systematic grouping of plants.

Classification is the inclusion of a plant or plants in categories based on a definite system and also according to the rules of International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).

Aristotle and Theophrastus may be regarded as the two intellectual giants who infused life in plant taxonomy. The history of classification may be divided into ancient, middle and modern ages.

There are various systems of classification:

According to this system, plants are classified on the basis of one or few convenient characteristics, e.g.

(1) Theophrastus (370 BC-285 BC), Father of Botany, ancient ages) in his book 'Historia Plantarum' classified about 480 plants into Trees, Shrubs, Undershrubs and Herbs.

(2) Linnaeus (1707-1778, Middle ages): Carious Linnaeus called 'father of plant taxonomy' described a sexual system of plant classification, details of which were published in 'Species Plantarum' (1753). He took into consideration, the nature and number of stamens and carpels.

(B) Natural System (Modern Classification):

According to this system, overall resemblance (all important characters of plants are taken into consideration.

Bentham & Hooker (1862-1883) gave most important system of classification of angiosperms and published in three volumes of 'Genera Plantarum'. They described 202 families.

Bentham & Hooker divided plant kingdom into two subkingdoms.

Subkingdom 1: Cryptogamia-it includes non- flowering plants.

Subkingdom 2: Phanerogamia-it includes flowering plants.

This subkingdom 2 includes:

(1) Class Dicotyledonae

(2) Class Gymnospermae

(3) Class Monocotyledonae

(1) Class Dicotyledonae. It is further divided into three subclasses

(i) Subclass Polypetalae Petals free.

Series (A) Thalamiflorae:

Petals & stamens are hypogynous.

Order 1: Ranales: Families 8

(a) Rununculaceae (b) Dilleniaceae

(c) Calycanthaceae (d) Menispermaceae

(e) Anonaceae (f) Magnoliaceae

(g) Berberidaceae (h) Nymphaceae.

Order 2: Perietales: Families 9

(a) Sarraceniaceae (b) Papaveraceae

(c) Cruciferae (d) Capparidaceae

(e) Resedaceae (f) Cistineae

(g) Violaceae (h) Canellaceae

Order 3: Polygalinae: Families 4

(a) Pittosporeae (b) Tremandreae

(c) Polyglaeae (d) Vochysiaceae.

Order 4: Caryophyllineae. Families 4

(a) Frankeniaceae (b) Caryophyllaceae

(c) Portulaceae (d) Tamariscineae.

Order 5: Guttiferales. Families 6

(a) Elatineae (b) Hypericineae

(c) Guttiferae (d) Ternstroemiaceae

(e) Dipterocarpaceae (f) Chlaenaceae.

Order 6: Malvales. Families 3

(a) Malvaceae (b) Sterculiaceae

The sepals are free or fused. These sepals are fused with ovary or free. A fleshy disc is found below ovary. Sometimes this disc is divided into some small glands. Here ovary is superior.

Order 7: Geraniales: Families 10

(a) Lineae (b) Humiriaceae

(c) Malpighiaceae (d) Zygophyllaceae

(e) Geraniaceae (f) Rutaceae

(g) Simarubeae (h) Ochnaceae

(i) Burseraceae (J) Meliaceae

Order 8: Olacales: Families 3

(a) Olacineae (b) Ilicineae

Order 9: Celastrales: Families 4

(a) Celastrineae (b) Rhamnaceae

(c) Stackhousieae (d) Ampelideaceae.

Order 10: Sapindales: Families 5

(a) Sapindaceae (b) Sabiaceae (c) Anacardiaceae

(d) Coriarieae (e) Moringeae.

Series (C) Calyciflorae:

Sepals are fused or free (sometimes) They are fused with ovary. Sepals are arranged in one or two whorls. Ovary is usually inferior.

Order 11: Rosales: Families 9

(a) Connaraceae (b) Leguminosae

(c) Rosaceae (d) Saxifragaceae

(e) Craunulaceae (f) Droseraceae

(g) Hamamelidaceae (h) Bruniaceae

Order 12: Myrtales. Families 6

(a) Rhizophoraceae (b) Combretaceae

(c) Myrtaceae (d) Melastomaceae

(e) Lythraceae (f) Onagraceae.

Order 13: Passiflorales: Families 7

(a) Samydaceae (b) Loaseae (c) Turneraceae

(d) Passifloraceae (e) Cucurbitaceae

(f) Begoniaceae (g) Datisceae.

Order 14: Ficoidales: Families 2

(a) Cactaceae (b) Ficoideae.

Order 15: Umbellales: Families 3

(a) Umbelliferae (b) Cornaceae (c) Araliaceae.

(ii) Subclass Gamepetalae:

The petals are fused. Stamens are usually epipetalous. Carpel may be syncarpour or apocarpous.

Overy is inferior and stamen usually equal to petal lobes.

Order 1: Rubiales: Families 2

(a) Caprifoliaceae (b) Rubiaceae

Order 2: Asterales: Families 4

(a) Valerianeae (b) Dipsaceae

(c) Calycereae (d) Compositae.

Order 3: Campanales: Families 3

(a) Stylidieae (b) Goodenovieae

Order 4: Ericales. Families 6

(a) Ericaceae (b) Vacciniaceae

(c) Monotropeae (d) Epacrideae

(e) Diapensiaceae if) Lennoaceae.

Order 5: Primulales. Families 3

(a) Plumbagineae (b) Primulaceae

Order 6: Ebenales. Families 3

(a) Sapotaceae (b) Ebenaceae

Series (C) Bicarpellate:

Ovary is superior. Stamens are usually equal to corolla lobes or lesser in number. Stamens are alternate to petals. Carpels are usually two, sometimes they may be lesser or more than two.

Order 7: Gentianales: Families 6

(a) Oleaceae (b) Salvadoraceae

(c) Apocynaceae (d) Asclepiadaceae

(e) Loganiaceae (f) Gentianceae.

Order 8: Polemonials: Families 5

(a) Polemoniaceae (b) Hydrophyllaceae

(c) Boragineae (d) Convolvulaceae (e) Solanaceae.

Order 9: Personates: Families 8

(a) Scrophulariaceae (b) Orobanchaceae

(c) Lentibulariaceae (d) Columelliaoeae

(e) Gesneraceae (f) Bignoniaceae

(g) Pedaliaceae (h) Acanthaceae.

Order 10: Lamiales: Families 5

(a) Myoporineae (b) Selagineae

(c) Verbenaceae (d) Labiatae

(e) Plantaginaceae (Anomalous family)

(iii) Subclass Monochlamydae:

Incomplete- In flowers perianth is in one whorl. Sometimes perianth may be absent. This subclass is divided into 8 series.

Series (A) Curvembrayae: Families 6

(a) Nyctaginaceae (b) Illecebraceae

(c) Amaranthaceae (d) Chenopodiaceae

(e) Phytolaccaceae (f) Batideae (g) Polygonaceae.

Series (B) Multiovulate Aquaticae: Family 1

(a) Podostemaceae Series (C) Multiovulate Terrestres: Families 3

(a) Nepenthaceae (b) Aristolochiaceae (c) Cytinaceae.

Series (D) Microembryeae: Families 4

(a) Piperaceae (b) Chloranthaceae

(c) Myristicaceae (d) Monimiaceae.

Series (E) Damphnales: Families 5

(a) Laurineae (b) Protecaceae

(c) Thymelaceae (d) Penaeaceae (e) Elaegnaceae.

Series (F) Achlamydosporeae: Families 3

(a) Loranthaceae (b) Santalaceae (c) Balanophoreae.

Series (G) Unisexuales: Families 9

(a) Euphorbiaceae (b) Balanopseae

(c) Urticaceae (d) Platanaceae

(e) Leitnerieae (f) Juglandaceae

(g) Myricaceae (h) Casuarinaceae (i) Cupuliferae.

Series (H) Ordines Anomali: Families 4

(a) Salicaceae (b) Empetraceae

(c) Lacitemaceae (d) Ceratophyllaceae.

(2) Class Gymnospermae: Families 3

(a) Gnetaceae (b) Coniferaceae

(3) Class Monocotyledonae:

Series (A) Microspermae: Families 3

(a) Hydrocharidaceae (b) Burmanniaceae (c) Orchidaceae.

Series (B) Epigynae: Families 7

(a) Scitamineae (b) Bromeliaceae

(c) Halmodoraceae (d) Irideae

(e) Amaryllidaceae (f) Taccaceae (g) Dioscoreaceae

Series (C) Coronaireae: Families 8

(a) Roxburgluaceae (b) Liliaceae

(c) Pontederiaceae (d) Philydraceae

(e) Xyrideae (f) Mayaceae

(g) Commelinaceae (h) Repateaceae.

Series (D) Calycineae: Families 3

(a) Flagellarieae (b) Juncaceae (c) Palmae.

Series (E) Nudiflorae: Families 5

(a) Pandanceae (b) Cyclanthaceae

(c) Typhaceae (d) Aroideae

Series (F) Apocarpae: Families 3

(a) Triurideae (b) Alismaceae

Series (G) Glumaceae: Families 5

(a) Eriocauleae (b) Centrolepideae

(c) Restiaceae (d) Cyperaceae

(C) Phylogenetic System:

These systems are based on evolutionary and genetical tendancies of plants. Some of the important phylogenetic systems are as follows:

(1) Engler & Prantl (1884-1930):

They formulated a detailed classification and published in 23 volumes of "Die Nuturlichen Pflanzen Families".

He published a book 'Families of flowering plants'in two volumes. (Vol. I. Dicotyledons, Vol. II. Monocotyledons.)

He divided angiosperms into 411 families.

(i) Dicotyledonae Groups

Division 1: Lignosae-246 families

Division 2: Herbacae-96 families

(ii) Monocotyledonae Groups

In his book "A System of Phylogeny of Flowering Plants" classified Angiosperms (Magnoliophyta). The outline of his classification is as follows:

Division:Magnoliophyta or Angiospermae

Class: Magnoliatae (or Dicotyledons)

Divided into: 7 subclasses

15 super orders

Class: Liliatae or Monocotyledons

Divided into 4 subclasses

Units of Classification:

In the modern classification, plant kingdom is divided in certain phyla. Each phylum is divided into classes. (Here phylum Anthophyta is taken as an example).

Whole of plant kindgom is divided into 25 phyla. The suffix of a phylum in either-ophyta or mycoty. Last phylum in Anthophyta.

Each phylum is divided into classes. Its suffix is usually -ae. The phylum Anthophyta has only a single class Angiospermae.

In modern classification, class is further divided into subsclass e.g. class Angiospermae in divided into two subclasses Dicotyledonae & Monocotyledonae.

Subclass is divided into more than one series.

This is the main part of the classification. Its suffix is -ales. In each order one or more families are included on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities in their specific characters.

This is smaller and important unit of taxon, in which plants of one or more than one genera are included. Its suffix is -aceae.

Each family has one or more than one genera. Generic nomenclature is important.

This is the smallest unit of taxonomical classification. Its first letter is denoted with small letter.

Bentham and Hooker s Classification, Class Dicotyledonae

Bentham and Hooker

George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker - Two English taxonomists who were closely associated with the Royal Botanical Garden at Kew, England have given a detailed classification of plant kingdom, particularly the angiosperms.

fig. 9.1 - Taxonomists: Bentham and Hooker

They gave an outstanding system of classification of phanerogams in their Genera Plantarum which was published in three volumes between the years 1862 to 1883. It is a natural system of classification. However, it does not show the evolutionary relationship between different groups of plants, in the strict sense. Nevertheless, it is the most popular system of classification particularly for angiosperms. The popularity comes from the face that very clear key characters have been listed for each of the families. These key characters enable the students of taxonomy to easily identify and assign any angiosperm plant to its family.

Bentham and Hooker have grouped advanced, seed bearing plants into a major division called Phanerogamia. This division has been divided into three classes namely:

2. Gymnospermae and

Class Dicotyledonae

This group includes angiosperms in which the seed bears two cotyledons and leaves exhibit reticulate venation. It is divided into three subclasses - Polypetalae, Gamopetalae and Metachlamydae.

Sub-class Polypetalae

The flowers contain distinct non-essential whorls calyx and corolla. In the corolla petals are free. This sub-class includes 8 series Thalamiflorae, Disciflorae and Calyciflorae.

  • Series Thalamiflorae: Many stamens in the androecium. Flower is hypogynous.
  • Series Disciflorae: Hypogynous flowers with a cushion-like disc around or below the ovary.
  • Series Calyciflorae: Flowers epigynous or perigynous. Thalamus is in the form of a cup.
Sub-class Gamopetalae

Flowers with distinct calyx and corolla. In the corolla petals are fused. This sub-class includes 3 series.

  • Series Inferae: Flowers with inferior ovary.
  • Series Heteromerae: Flowers with superior ovary. Number of carpels - more than two.
  • Series Bicarpellatae: Flowers with superior ovary. Number of carpels - two.
Sub-class Monochlamydae

The flowers are with only one non-essential whorl (perianth) or absence of non-essential whorls. It includes 8 series.

  • Curvembryae: Usually single ovule, embryo coiled around the endosperm.
  • Multiovulate Aquaticae: Aquatic plants with syncarpous ovary and many ovules.
  • Multiovulate Terrestris: Terrestrial plants with syncarpous ovary and many ovules.
  • Microembryae: Only one ovule, small, tiny embryo endospermic seed.
  • Daphnales: Only one carpel and single ovule.
  • Achlamydosporae: Ovary inferior, 1 to 3 ovules - unilocular.
  • Unisexuales: Flower unisexual, perianth usually absent.
  • Ordines Anomali: (Anomolous families) Plants with uncertain systematic position but closer to unisexuales.
Class Gymnospermae

This group includes the gymnosperms in which seeds are not enclosed in fruits. This class is divided into three families Gnetaceae, Confiraceae and Cycadaceae.

fig. 9.2 - Angiosperm Classification

Class Monocotyledonae

This group includes angiosperms in which the seed bears only one cotyledon. The leaves exhibit parallel venation. It is divided into the following seven series.

  • Microspermae: Ovary is inferior, seeds are minute and non-endospermic.
  • Epigynae: Ovary inferior, seeds are large and endospermic.
  • Coronarieae: Ovary superior, perianth petalloid.
  • Calycinae: Ovary superior, perianth sepalloid.
  • Nudiflorae: Perianth reduced or absent. Seeds are endospermic.
  • Apocarpae: Carpels more than one, free, seeds are endospermic.
  • Glumaceae: Perianth reduced or absent, scaly bracts present.

Each of the series mentioned under dicotyledonae and monocotyledonae have been further divided into orders and families. Bentham and Hooker classified the angiosperms into 202 families. They were able to provide distinct diagnostic key characters to each of these families. This is the reason for the popularity of Bentham and Hooker's classification particularly amongst the taxonomists.

Cactus Classification


Prickly Pear cactus (genus Opuntia)

Classification of Cacti.

Kingdom - Plantae (plants)
Phylum - Tracheophyta (vascular plants)
Division - Magnoliophyta = Anthophyta ] (angioperms )
Class - Dicotyledonae = Magnoliopsida (dicots )
Subclass - Caryophyllidae
Order - Caryophyllales
Family - Cactaceae (cacti)
Genus - About 100 genera and 1000-2000 species divided into three tribes
  • Tribe
    • Pereskieae - two genera, Pereskia and Maihuenia. They have woody stems, leaves are persistent or semideciduous, areoles are spiny and woolly at the leaf axils, flowers are pendulous, and the fruit is fleshy.
    • Opunitieae - genera Opuntia (prickly pear cactus), Pereskiopsis, Pterocactus, Quiabentia, Tacinga. Fleshy, branched plants, areoles may or may not have spines but always have fine hairs (glochids), leaves are flat or cylindrical, spines are usually straight, the fruit is a seedy berry.
    • Cactoidea - about 100 genera (most cacti are in this tribe).
      Subtribes of Cactoidea
      • Browninginae - genera: Armatocereus, Browningia, Calymnanthium, Jasminocereus, Neoraimondia, Pseudoacanthocereus Stetsonia
      • Cactinae - genera: Ariocarpus, Astrophytum, Aztekium, Coryphantha, Echinocactus, Echinofossulocactus, Epithelantha, Escobaria, Ferocactus, Geohintonia, Leuchtenbergia, Lophophora, Mammillaria, Neolloydia, Obregonia, Ortegocactus, Pediocactus, Pelecyphora, Sclerocactus, Strombocactus, Thelocactus
      • Echinocereinae - genera: Acanthocereus, Echinocereus, Harrisia, Leptocereus, Peniocereus
      • Cereinae/Cerinae - genera: Arrojadoa, Austrocephalocereus, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Cipocereus, Coleocephalocereus, Melocactus, Micranthocereus, Pilosocereus, Stephanocereus
      • Hylocereinae - genera: Disocactus, Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, Selenicereus, Weberocereus
      • Notocactereinae - genera: Austrocactus, Blossfeldia, Copiapoa, Corryocactus, Eriosyce, Eulychnia, Frailea, Parodia, Uebelmannia, Yavia
      • Pachycereinae - genera: Bergerocactus, Carnegiea (saguaro), Cephalocereus, Escontria, Myrtillocactus, Neobuxbaumia, Pachycereus, Polaskia, Stenocereus
      • Rhipsalidinae - genera: Hatiora, Lepismium, Rhipsalis, Hatiora, Schlumbergera
      • Trichocereinae - genera: Acanthocalycium, Brachycereus, Cleistocactus, Cintia, Denmoza, Discocactus, Echinopsis, Espostoa, Facheiroa, Gymnocalycium, Haageocereus, Lasiocereus, Leocereus, Matucana, Mila, Neowerdermannia, Oreocereus, Oroya, Pygmaeocereus, Rebutia, Samaipaticereus, Weberbauerocereus.

Note: The classification of cacti is controversial.

References.
Anderson, E.F. The Cactus Family, 2001, The Timber Press.

Simon & Schuster Guide to Cacti and Succulents, by Mariella Pizzetti, Stanley Schuler (Editor), 1985

Dicotyledonae - definition of Dicotyledonae by The Free Dictionary

Dicotyledonae

Dicotyledonae - comprising seed plants that produce an embryo with paired cotyledons and net-veined leaves; divided into six (not always well distinguished) subclasses (or superorders): Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae (considered primitive); Caryophyllidae (an early and distinctive offshoot); and three more or less advanced groups: Dilleniidae; Rosidae; Asteridae

class - (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders

liliopsid family. monocot family - family of flowering plants having a single cotyledon (embryonic leaf) in the seed

dicot family. magnoliopsid family - family of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination

dicot genus. magnoliopsid genus - genus of flowering plants having two cotyledons (embryonic leaves) in the seed which usually appear at germination

Angiospermae. Anthophyta. class Angiospermae. division Anthophyta. division Magnoliophyta. Magnoliophyta - comprising flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary; in some systems considered a class (Angiospermae) and in others a division (Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta)

dicot. dicotyledon. exogen. magnoliopsid - flowering plant with two cotyledons; the stem grows by deposit on its outside

Magnoliidae. ranalian complex. subclass Magnoliidae - a group of families of trees and shrubs and herbs having well-developed perianths and apocarpous ovaries and generally regarded as the most primitive extant flowering plants; contains 36 families including Magnoliaceae and Ranunculaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder

Aristolochiales. order Aristolochiales - order of plants distinguished by tubular petaloid perianth and inferior ovary

Caryophyllidae. subclass Caryophyllidae - a group of families of mostly flowers having basal or central placentation and trinucleate pollen (binucleate pollen is commoner in flowering plants); contains 14 families including: Caryophyllaceae (carnations and pinks); Aizoaceae; Amaranthaceae; Batidaceae; Chenopodiaceae; Cactaceae (order Opuntiales); Nyctaginaceae; Phytolaccaceae; corresponds approximately to order Caryophyllales; sometimes classified as a superorder

Asteridae. subclass Asteridae - a group of mostly sympetalous herbs and some trees and shrubs mostly with 2 fused carpels; contains 43 families including Campanulales; Solanaceae; Scrophulariaceae; Labiatae; Verbenaceae; Rubiaceae; Compositae; sometimes classified as a superorder

order Primulales. Primulales - Primulaceae; Theophrastaceae; Myrsinaceae; and (in some classifications) Plumbaginaceae

Rosidae. subclass Rosidae - a group of trees and shrubs and herbs mostly with polypetalous flowers; contains 108 families including Rosaceae; Crassulaceae; Myrtaceae; Melastomaceae; Euphorbiaceae; Umbelliferae

Casuarinales. order Casuarinales - order of chiefly Australian trees and shrubs comprising the casuarinas; 1 family: Casuarinaceae

Diapensiales. order Diapensiales - used in some classifications: coextensive with family Diapensiaceae

Gentianales. order Gentianales - an order of dicotyledonous plants having gamopetalous flowers; Gentianaceae; Apocynaceae; Asclepiadaceae; Loganiaceae; Oleaceae; Salvadoraceae

Oleales. order Oleales - coextensive with the family Oleaceae; in some classifications included in the order Gentianales

Hamamelidae. subclass Hamamelidae - a group of chiefly woody plants considered among the most primitive of angiosperms; perianth poorly developed or lacking; flowers often unisexual and often in catkins and often wind pollinated; contains 23 families including the Betulaceae and Fagaceae (includes the Amentiferae); sometimes classified as a superorder

Dilleniidae. subclass Dilleniidae - a group of families of more or less advanced trees and shrubs and herbs having either polypetalous or gamopetalous corollas and often with ovules attached to the walls of the ovary; contains 69 families including Ericaceae and Cruciferae and Malvaceae; sometimes classified as a superorder

order Urticales. Urticales - an order of dicotyledonous plants including Moraceae and Urticaceae and Ulmaceae

Ebenales. order Ebenales - trees or shrubs of the families Ebenaceae or Sapotaceae or Styracaceae or Symplocaceae

order Sarraceniales. Sarraceniales - plants that are variously modified to serve as insect traps: families Sarraceniaceae; Nepenthaceae; Droseraceae

order Scrophulariales. Scrophulariales - used in some classification systems; often included in the order Polemoniales

Cactus Classification


Prickly Pear cactus (genus Opuntia)

Classification of Cacti.

Kingdom - Plantae (plants)
Phylum - Tracheophyta (vascular plants)
Division - Magnoliophyta = Anthophyta ] (angioperms )
Class - Dicotyledonae = Magnoliopsida (dicots )
Subclass - Caryophyllidae
Order - Caryophyllales
Family - Cactaceae (cacti)
Genus - About 100 genera and 1000-2000 species divided into three tribes
  • Tribe
    • Pereskieae - two genera, Pereskia and Maihuenia. They have woody stems, leaves are persistent or semideciduous, areoles are spiny and woolly at the leaf axils, flowers are pendulous, and the fruit is fleshy.
    • Opunitieae - genera Opuntia (prickly pear cactus), Pereskiopsis, Pterocactus, Quiabentia, Tacinga. Fleshy, branched plants, areoles may or may not have spines but always have fine hairs (glochids), leaves are flat or cylindrical, spines are usually straight, the fruit is a seedy berry.
    • Cactoidea - about 100 genera (most cacti are in this tribe).
      Subtribes of Cactoidea
      • Browninginae - genera: Armatocereus, Browningia, Calymnanthium, Jasminocereus, Neoraimondia, Pseudoacanthocereus Stetsonia
      • Cactinae - genera: Ariocarpus, Astrophytum, Aztekium, Coryphantha, Echinocactus, Echinofossulocactus, Epithelantha, Escobaria, Ferocactus, Geohintonia, Leuchtenbergia, Lophophora, Mammillaria, Neolloydia, Obregonia, Ortegocactus, Pediocactus, Pelecyphora, Sclerocactus, Strombocactus, Thelocactus
      • Echinocereinae - genera: Acanthocereus, Echinocereus, Harrisia, Leptocereus, Peniocereus
      • Cereinae/Cerinae - genera: Arrojadoa, Austrocephalocereus, Brasilicereus, Cereus, Cipocereus, Coleocephalocereus, Melocactus, Micranthocereus, Pilosocereus, Stephanocereus
      • Hylocereinae - genera: Disocactus, Epiphyllum, Hylocereus, Selenicereus, Weberocereus
      • Notocactereinae - genera: Austrocactus, Blossfeldia, Copiapoa, Corryocactus, Eriosyce, Eulychnia, Frailea, Parodia, Uebelmannia, Yavia
      • Pachycereinae - genera: Bergerocactus, Carnegiea (saguaro), Cephalocereus, Escontria, Myrtillocactus, Neobuxbaumia, Pachycereus, Polaskia, Stenocereus
      • Rhipsalidinae - genera: Hatiora, Lepismium, Rhipsalis, Hatiora, Schlumbergera
      • Trichocereinae - genera: Acanthocalycium, Brachycereus, Cleistocactus, Cintia, Denmoza, Discocactus, Echinopsis, Espostoa, Facheiroa, Gymnocalycium, Haageocereus, Lasiocereus, Leocereus, Matucana, Mila, Neowerdermannia, Oreocereus, Oroya, Pygmaeocereus, Rebutia, Samaipaticereus, Weberbauerocereus.

Note: The classification of cacti is controversial.

References.
Anderson, E.F. The Cactus Family, 2001, The Timber Press.

Simon & Schuster Guide to Cacti and Succulents, by Mariella Pizzetti, Stanley Schuler (Editor), 1985

Understanding the Objective of Classification Essays - Best Essay UK - Free narrative papers, essays, and research papers

Understanding the Objective of Classification Essays


It is clear from the name itself as to what a classification essay is all about. It is about classifying the subject of study according to certain specific features. Understanding the objective of such an assignment is the key to being able to come out with an outstanding essay. To make it easier for you to grasp the whole idea of classifying an object, you just need to look into a very ordinary day of your life.

We use the principle of classifying an object, every day, without being aware of it. We generalize the aspect by calling it ‘common sense’. You would never try to drive straight into a wall because you know that it is a ‘hard object’. Your brain, the moment it sees the wall, classifies it as something hard. You never keep an egg or a light bulb at the verge of a table or platform. Because you know that any object which is classified as ‘round and fragile’ must not be kept in a place where it could roll over and break. So it is apparent that your everyday life is balanced by the unintentional classifications projected by your brain. While writing a classification essay, you are applying the same principle but in a more complex manner.

Classification makes it easier to understand the aspects of an object. When laid out neatly, classifications give you an overview of an object in an instant. Just think of how you look for the classifications of items, as you walk into a supermarket. If the items are not categorized according to its classifications, you might take hours to spot what you need. But the categories marked make the job easier for you. The same way, while studying a subject in detail, classification and further categorization helps you to understand the subject better. A classification essay also gives your instructor an accurate evaluation of your knowledge of the subject, easily. Only those who have a thorough knowledge of an object will be able to classify it wisely.

There are various methods of classification. You can classify an object by its nature, its physical aspects or its features. The classification essay assignments also vary from each other in many ways. Sometimes you might be asked to classify an object for the purpose of analyzing it. You might also be asked to classify two objects to study a particular feature specific to those objects. Some other times, classification is also used for comparing and contrasting objects. You must find out the objective of your essay from the guidelines, in order to figure out the best way to handle your classification essay assignment.

You must know how to organize your points well, if you wish to prepare a good classification essay as it is the base of good classification. A poorly organized classification assignment would not manage to make an impact. If the points are scattered all around the sheets, it will make it difficult for the reader to follow the classification pattern. If you need further help with completing your essay assignment, our writers shall be glad to assist you.

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