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Peter A Facione Critical Thinking

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Think Critically

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Project MUSE - A Look Across Four Years at the Disposition Toward Critical Thinking Among Undergraduate Students

A Four-Year Look at the Disposition Toward Critical Thinking Among Undergraduate Students

Teaching for thinking has always been central to the very concept of a liberal education. The liberally educated person is one who learns how to draw together knowledge from many different disciplines and makes good judgments about what to believe or what to do. That person who is so well educated that she or he is able to think for him or herself is the person whose mind is liberated. They are free to think, not just in the sense of having been given permission, but also in the fuller sense of having been given the skills and the deep desire to do so (Schneider & Shoenberg, 1998).

The emphasis on thinking reflected in current approaches to education can be traced back to the philosopher John Dewey, who wrote on the centrality of reflective thinking in the educational process (Dewey, 1933). Almost seven decades ago, Dewey presented an argument that educators should view the nurturing of the scientific attitude of mind at the core of their endeavors when teaching children (Dewey, 1933). Though the terminology has changed slightly over the years, developing students' critical thinking remains a central goal of the educational process. It is sometimes associated with the work of Perry (1970), the model of Reflect Judgment developed by Kitchner and King (1990), and the works of other cognitive psychologists and intelligence theorists such as Sternberg (1985). Critical thinking has conceptual connections with reflective judgment, problem framing, higher [End Page 29] order thinking, logical thinking, decision-making, problem solving and the scientific method.

Efforts to define, teach, and measure CT intensified throughout the last quarter of the century (Jones, 1993; Kurfiss, 1988; Norris & Ennis, 1989). In 1990, under the sponsorship of the American Philosophical Association, a cross-disciplinary panel completed a two-year Delphi project, yielding a robust conceptualization of CT understood as an outcome of college level education (APA, 1990). Before the Delphi Project no clear consensus existed on the definition of critical thinking, although the concepts advanced by Ennis, Paul, Meyer, Lipman, Norris, Swartz, Beyer, Siegal, and Sternberg, among others, were prominent and influential (see Colucciello, 1997 for a review).

Broadly conceived, CT is characterized as purposeful, self-regulatory judgment, a human cognitive process. As a result of this non-linear, recursive process, a person forms a judgment about what to believe or what to do in a given context. In so doing, a person engaged in CT uses a core set of cognitive skills - analysis, interpretation, inference, explanation, evaluation, and self-regulation - to form that judgment and to monitor and improve the quality of that judgment. CT is non-linear and recursive to the extent that in thinking critically a person is able to apply CT skills to each other as well as to the problem at hand. For example, one is able to explain one's analysis, analyze one's interpretation, or evaluate one's inference (APA, 1990).

The Disposition Toward Critical Thinking

Any conceptualization of critical thinking that focuses exclusively on cognitive skills is incomplete. A more comprehensive view of CT must include the acknowledgement of a characterological component, often referred to as a disposition, to describe a person's inclination to use critical thinking when faced with problems to solve, ideas to evaluate, or decisions to make. Attitudes, values, and inclinations are dimensions of personality that influence human behavior. The disposition toward critical thinking, as a dimension of personality, refers to the likelihood that one will approach problem framing or problem solving by using reasoning. [End Page 30] Thus, the disposition toward critical thinking is the consistent internal motivation to engage problems and make decisions by using thinking (Facione, Facione, & Giancarlo, 1997).

For liberal education, as well as for professional preparation at the collegiate level, educators must commit.

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THINK Critically by Peter A

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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1: Purposeful, Reflective Judgment Risk and Uncertainty Abound Critical Thinking and a Free Society The One and the Many What Do We Mean by Critical Thinking. Expert Consensus Conceptualization Critical Thinking Does Not Mean Negative Thinking How to Get the Most Out of This Book Evaluating Critical Thinking The Students' Assignment The Students' Statements The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric Chapter 2: The Able in Willing and Able to Think Critically Core Critical Thinking Skills Interpreting and Analyzing the Consensus Statement The Jury Is Deliberating Critical Thinking Skills Fire In Many Combinations Strengthening Our Core Critical Thinking Skills The Art of the Good Question Skills and Subskills Defined Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Nurses' Health Study - Decades of Data Inductive Reasoning Cosmos vs. Chaos Deductive Reasoning Chapter 3: The Willing in Willing and Able to Think Critically A Group Engaged in Crisis-Level Critical Thinking The Spirit of a Strong Critical Thinker Positive and Negative Habits of Mind Preliminary Self-Assessment Research on the Disposition toward Critical Thinking Seven Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind Negative Habits of Mind Is a Good Critical Thinker Automatically a Good Person? Building Positive Habits of Mind Reconnecting Skills and Dispositions Chapter 4: Clarifying Ideas Interpretation, Context, and Purpose How Precise Is Precise Enough? Language and Thought Vagueness: Does the Term Include This Case or Not? Problematic Vagueness Ambiguity: Does the Term Mean This, or Does It Mean That? Problematic Ambiguity Resolving Problematic Vagueness and Ambiguity Contextualizing Clarifying Original Intent Negotiating the Meaning Using Qualifications, Exceptions, or Exclusions Stipulating the Meaning Your Language Communities National and Global Language Communities Language Communities Formed of People with Like Interests Academic Disciplines as Language Communities Critical Thinking and College Introductory Courses Chapter 5: Using Maps to Analyze Arguments and Decisions Analyzing and Mapping Arguments Argument = (Reason + Claim) Two Reasons, Two Arguments Two Confusions to Avoid Reason and Premise Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusion Mapping Claims and Reasons Mapping a Line of Reasoning Mapping Implicit Ideas Interpreting Unspoken Reasons and Claims in Context Interpreting the Use of Irony, Humor, Sarcasm, and More Giving Reasons and Making Arguments in Real Life The El Train Argument from Twelve Angry Men Huckabee and Stewart Discuss The Pro-Life Issue -- Abortion Analyzing and Mapping Decisions We Should Cancel the Spring Trip #1 We Should Cancel the Spring Trip #2 Chapter 6: Evaluating Claims Assessing the Source -- Whom Should I Trust? Claims Without Reasons Cognitive Development and Healthy Skepticism Authority and Expertise Learned and Experienced On-Topic, Up-to-Date, and Capable of Explaining Unbiased and Truthful Free of Conflicts of Interest, and Acting in the Client's Interest Unconstrained, Informed, and Mentally Stable Assessing the Substance -- What Should I Believe? Donkey Dung Detector Marketing, Spin, Disinformation, and Propaganda Slanted Language and Loaded Expressions Independent Verification Can the Claim Be Confirmed? Can the Claim Be Disconfirmed? Independent Investigation and the Q-Ray Bracelet Case Suspending Judgment Chapter 7: Evaluating Arguments Giving Reasons and Making Arguments Truthfulness Logical Strength Relevance Non-Circularity The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments Test #1: Truthfulness of the Premises Test #2: Logical Strength Test #3: Relevance Test #4: Non-Circularity Contexts for Argument Making and Evaluative Terms Common Reasoning Errors Fallacies of Relevance Appeals to Ignorance Appeals to the Mob Appeals to Emotion Ad Hominem Attacks Straw Man Fallacy Playing with Words Misu

Peter Facione, PhD, wants to help everyone build up their critical thinking skills, for their own sakes, and for the sake of our freedom and democracy. Facione draws on decades of experience as a teacher, consultant, business entrepreneur, university dean, grandfather, husband, and avid old school pickup basketball player. Now he is taking his message about the importance of critical thinking directly to students. For improving reasoning skills for use in one's personal, professional, and civic life, there may never before have been a more practical, enjoyable, important, comprehensive, and engaging text than this. I've paid very close attention to the way people make decisions since I was 13 years old, says Facione. Some people were good at solving problems and making decisions; others were not. I have always felt driven to figure out how to tell which were which. He says that this led him as an undergraduate and later as a professor to study psychology, philosophy, logic, statistics, and information systems as he searched for how our beliefs, values, thinking skills, and habits of mind connect with the decisions we make, particularly in contexts of risk and uncertainty. As a teacher and as a college administrator, I focused on problem-solving and decision-making strategies so that I could be a more effective teacher and a more capable leader. I found it was always valuable when working with groups or individuals to be mindful of how they applied their cognitive skills and habits of mind to solve a problem, make a decision, or troubleshoot a situation. Careful analysis and open-minded truth seeking always worked better than any other way of approaching problems. A native Midwesterner, Facione earned his PhD in philosophy from Michigan State University and his BA in philosophy from Sacred Heart College in Detroit. He says, Critical thinking has helped me be a better parent, citizen, manager, teacher, writer, and friend. It even helps a little when playing point guard! In academia, Facione served as provost of Loyola University--Chicago, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Santa Clara University, and dean of the School of Human Development and Community Service at California State University--Fullerton. As a dean and provost, I could easily see that critical thinking was alive and well in every professional field and academic discipline. I've focused my research on the teaching and measurement of critical thinking since my earliest years as a faculty member in the 1960s and 1970s. But before you can measure something that crosses into every aspect of life, you have to be sure that you understand what it is. So in the 1980s, I first had to see whether there was a consensus among experts about the term critical thinking. After two years of research, a solid consensus emerged. That plus all the stats and behavioral science research I had studied and taught for years enabled me and my research team, during the 1990s, to design and validate tools to assess critical thinking skills and habits of mind. In the first decade of this century, our team has explored the connections between critical thinking and human decision making in its broadest sense. In fact, Facione spearheaded the international study to define critical thinking, sponsored by the American Philosophical Association. His research formed the basis for numerous government policy studies about critical thinking in the workplace, including research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. Today, his tools for assessing reasoning are used around the world in educational, business, legal, military, and health sciences. Today, Peter operates his own business, Measured Reasons. He is a speaker, writer, workshop presenter, and consultant for organizations large and small. His work focuses on strategic planning and leadership decision making, in addition to teaching and assessing critical thinking. With his wife, who

Think Critically

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We are pleased to introduce our wonderful site where collected the most remarkable books of the best authors. Only in one place together the best bestsellers for you dear friends. You can develop your knowledge and skills by downloading our books and guides. We are sure that you will enjoy our great project and it will make your life a little better. Our database is updated daily, taking the best that exists in the world. Are you a fan of classic detective or perhaps you like novels or just a professional trader, analyst, economist, doctor, soldier, lawyer, programmer, engineer, electrician, a physicist, an astrologer, a builder, a chemist, assembling, insurance agent. from you You will find a storehouse of knowledge required for your perfection or simply enjoy Leisure time with your best friend by the name of "book." We will be very glad to see you again.

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Think critically facione

Whether you like to study online, or print out materials to take with you, we've got you covered Critical thinking, also called critical analysis, is clear, rational thinking involving critique. Beeken, J. According to Barry K. Critical Thinking > What is Critical Thinking? What is Critical Thinking? In your Capella courses, you will often be told to “think critically” about a topic or. Test banks. Testbanks ,testbank online. test bank online, Test bank for. Solution manual for ,Solution manual. Solution manual online. Multiple choice. Home Critical Thinking Analyze. Its details think critically facione vary amongst those who define it. References. I love watching Gilmore Girls. "The critical habit of thought is a way of taking up possible term paper topics the problems of life. Teaching critical thinking? You might wonder if kids will work it out for themselves

" Dr. Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error [Kathryn Schulz] on Amazon. Why should we teach Critical Thinking? As explained in the pages above, critical thinking is essential for effective functioning in the modern world best buy financial statement analysis essays Program for Critical Thinking Program for better decision making Our umbrella site. PSA! DoSomething. Whether you like to study online, or print out materials to take with you, we've got you covered Critical thinking, also called critical analysis, is clear, rational thinking involving critique. The ThinkSpot | With ThinkSpot, you can study how you want. org Has a TON of Scholarship Opportunities Right Now. More background information on critical thinking, Rationale and. What Are the Benefits of Critical Thinking Skills? A good critical thinker knows how to separate facts from opinions, how to examine an issue from all sides, how to. William Graham Sumner. Its details vary amongst those who define it. SPOILER: college is crazy-expensive. REFLECTIVE LEARNING & CRITICAL THINKING PIR BUX JOKHIO 2. For the past month or so, I've been watching an average of two episodes a day—while eating, while cooking, while shirking my work Overview of Critical Thinking Skills

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Critical Thinking > What is Critical Thinking? What is Critical Thinking? In your Capella courses, you will often be told to “think critically” about a topic or. Why should we teach Critical Thinking? As explained in the pages above, critical thinking is essential for effective functioning in the modern world Program for Critical Thinking Program for better decision making Our think critically facione umbrella site. Did we spoil it? There are. SPOILER: college is crazy-expensive. Sorry. (1997). Objectives • Define Reflective Learning • …. William Graham Sumner

I love watching Gilmore Girls. sample fsot essay questions The ThinkSpot | With ThinkSpot, you can study how you want. Dr. What is Critical Thinking? Many researchers, including Facione, Simpson and Courtneay, Banning, Brookfield, Ornstein and …. For the past month or so, I've been watching an average of two episodes a day—while eating, while cooking, while shirking my work Overview of Critical Thinking Skills. REFLECTIVE LEARNING & CRITICAL THINKING PIR BUX JOKHIO 2. com. Beeken, J. (1997). Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error [Kathryn Schulz] on Amazon. Why should we teach Critical Thinking? As explained in the pages above, critical thinking is essential for effective functioning in the modern world Program for Critical Thinking Program for better decision making Our umbrella site. What Are the Benefits of Critical Thinking Skills? A good critical thinker knows how to separate facts from opinions, how to examine an issue from all sides, think critically facione how to. Test banks. Testbanks ,testbank online. test bank online, Test bank for. Solution manual for ,Solution manual. Solution manual online. Multiple choice. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers

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*FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. William Graham Sumner. Test banks. Testbanks ,testbank online. test bank online, Test bank for. Solution manual for ,Solution manual. Solution manual online. Multiple choice. Critical Thinking > What is Critical Thinking? What is Critical Thinking? In your Capella courses, you will often be cultural difference essay told to “think critically” about a topic or. Objectives • Define Reflective Learning • …. PSA! DoSomething. Its details vary amongst those who define it. Peter A (Pete) Facione is a Senior Researcher at Insight Assessment, a principal at Measured Reasons LLC, a Los Angeles based research and consulting firm. More background information on critical thinking, Rationale and. " Dr. For the past month or so, I've been watching an average of two episodes a day—while eating, while cooking, while shirking my work Overview of Critical Thinking Skills.

Pearson Education - THINK Critically

THINK Critically Description

For courses in Critical Thinking

Think currency. Think relevancy.Think Critically.
Think Critically. 2016 presents critical thinking as the optimal approach for solving real-world problems and making important decisions, boosting the relevance of course material to students’ lives. Authors Peter Facione and Carol Ann Gittens employ a simple, practical approach to deliver the core concepts of critical thinking in a way that students can easily understand. Incorporating contemporary material from a wide range of real-life situations, Think Critically ’s engaging examples and exercises hammer home positive critical thinking habits of mind that students can use — in the classroom and beyond.

Think Critically. 2016 is also available via REVEL ™, an immersive learning experience designed for the way today's students read, think, and learn.

Table of Contents

1. The Power of Critical Thinking
2. Critical Thinking Mindset and Skills
3. Solve Problems and Succeed in College
4. Clarify Ideas and Concepts
5. Analyze Arguments and Diagram Decisions
6. Evaluate the Credibility of Claims and Sources
7. Evaluate Arguments: Four Basic Tests
8. Valid Inferences
9. Warranted Inferences
10. Snap Judgments: Risks and Benefits of Heuristic Thinking
11. Reflective Decision Making
12. Comparative Reasoning
13. Ideological Reasoning
14. Empirical Reasoning
15. Write Sound and Effective Arguments
16. Ethical Decision Making
17. The Logic of Declarative Statements
Appendix: Extend Argument-Decision Mapping Strategies

Features

Features and content that help students develop and practice critical thinking skills
Think Critically exercises in each chapter build critical thinking skills and reinforce learning through real world applications.

• Visually dynamic Map It Out sections walk students through claims, reasons, assumptions, and conclusions, laying open the flow of reasoning in arguments and decision-making.

UPDATED! Many of the texts examples and exercises – which connect critical thinking to substantive, real-world concerns – are new or have been updated.

NEW! Increased emphasis on critical thinking across the curriculum. as well as on problem solving for student success. makes this new edition even more useful to students.

NEW! Dedicated chapters on Ethical Decision Making and Declarative Logic broaden the text’s scope.

Chapter-opening questions focus students on the key learning goals of each unit.
Chapter-ending materials boost retention and foster developmental of key skills.
Chapter Review sections recaps main ideas and connects them to the material presented in previous and forthcoming chapters
Reflective Log exercises reinforce critical thinking skill development
Group Discussion exercises encourage interaction among classmates
Think Critically. 2016 is also available via REVEL ™, an immersive learning experience designed for the way today's students read, think, and learn. Learn more.

Author

Peter A. Facione. PhD, has dedicated himself to helping people build their critical thinking to become better problem solvers and decisions makers. He does this work not only to help individuals and groups achieve their own goals, but also for the sake of our freedom and democracy. Facione draws on experience as a teacher, consultant, business entrepreneur, university dean, grandfather, husband, musician, and sports enthusiast. Now he is taking his message about the importance of critical thinking directly to students through Think Critically .

“I’ve paid very close attention to the way people make decisions since I was 13 years old,” says Facione. “Some people were good at solving problems and making decisions; others were not. I have always felt driven to figure out how to tell which were which.” He says that this led him as an undergraduate and later as a professor to study psychology, philosophy, logic, statistics, and information systems as he searched for how our beliefs, values, thinking skills, and habits of mind connect with the decisions we make, particularly in contexts of risk and uncertainty.

A native Midwesterner, Facione earned his PhD in Philosophy from Michigan State University and his BA in Philosophy from Sacred Heart College in Detroit. He says, “Critical thinking has helped me be a better parent, citizen, leader, consultant, teacher, writer, coach, husband, and friend. It even helps a little when playing point guard!” In academia, Facione served as provost of Loyola University–Chicago, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Santa Clara University, and dean of the School of Human Development and Community Service at California State University–Fullerton. “As a dean and provost, I could easily see that critical thinking was alive and well in every professional field and academic discipline.”

Facione spearheaded the international study to define critical thinking, sponsored by the American Philosophical Association. His research formed the basis for numerous government policy studies about critical thinking in the workplace, including research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. Published by Insight Assessment, his tools for assessing reasoning are used around the world in educational, business, legal, military, and health sciences. Today, Peter operates his own business, Measured Reasons. He is senior level consultant, speaker, writer, and workshop presenter. His work focuses on strategic planning and leadership decision making, in addition to teaching and assessing critical thinking. With his wife, who is also his closest research colleague and co-author of many books and assessment tools, he now lives in sunny Los Angeles, which he says, “suits [him] just fine.” You can reach him at pfacione@measuredreasons.com.

Carol Ann Gittens, PhD, is an Associate Dean in the College of Arts & Sciences at Santa Clara University (SCU). She is an associate professor with tenure in the Liberal Studies Program and directs SCU’s undergraduate pre-teaching advising program and the interdisciplinary minor in urban education designed for students interested in pursuing careers in PreK-12 education.

Gittens was the founding Director of Santa Clara University’s Office of Assessment from 2007 to 2012. As assessment director, she performed key activities related to institutional re-accreditation, educated academic and cocurricular programs in the assessment of student learning, and designed and oversaw an innovative multiyear, rubric-based assessment plan for a new core curriculum. She is an educational assessment mentor and accreditation evaluator for the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) as well as Board of Institutional Reviewers member of the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC), and a senior research associate with Insight Assessment, LLC.

The central focus of Gittens’ research is on the interface of critical thinking, motivation, mathematical reasoning, and academic achievement of adolescents and young adults from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Dr. Gittens is an author or co-author of numerous articles and assessment tools focusing on critical thinking skills, numeracy, and dispositions in children and adults. As of this writing, her forthcoming paper is “Assessing Numeracy in the Upper Elementary and Middle School Years.”

Gittens’ consulting activities include working with college faculty, staff and administrators, PreK-12 educators, as well as business executives, managers, and employees. Dr. Gittens’ areas of expertise include assessment of institutional effectiveness and student learning outcomes, institutional and professional accreditation planning, translating strategic vision into measureable objectives, designing sustainable assessment systems at all levels of the institution, critical thinking pedagogy and assessment, integrating critical thinking and information literacy across the curriculum and in cocurricular programs, as well as statistics and assessment design for individuals and institutions. Gittens earned her PhD in Social and Personality Psychology from the University of California at Riverside.

She received her BA in Psychology and Women’s Studies from the University of California at Davis. Prior to her appointment at Santa Clara University she taught at California State University, San Bernardino and at Mills College in Oakland, California. Gittens and her husband live in California’s Silicon Valley with their teenaged daughter and son, and their 4-year-old daughter. She is an active parent volunteer in her children’s school, and is involved with K-12 schools in the local community, offering teacher training workshops on nurturing and assessing students’ critical thinking.

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Change Magazine - Talking Critical Thinking

March-April 2007

by Peter A. Facione and Noreen C. Facione

B eneath the quad’s purple canopy of jacaranda blossoms, the dean of the faculty sat hunched over her laptop trying to gather her thoughts for her afternoon presentation to the board of trustees. As syncopated as a hip-hop beat, the approaching sound of a dribbling basketball invaded her consciousness. “What’s the matter, your e-mail down?” asked the women’s hoops coach, settling down beside her.

“No,” replied the dean, “Just enjoying the day. The morning session with the trustees was, let’s just say, challenging.”

The coach tucked the ball under her arm. “Budget issues?"

“No. We’re fine financially. They wanted to talk academic accountability. Don’t get me wrong—half those folks are alumni, and they love the place. But this one guy, he owns an engineering firm, said he couldn’t find any college graduates who knew how to think. That’s all it took. Everyone was into it: attorneys, bankers, the mayor, what’s-his-name who works at the capitol, all of them talking about critical thinking, and how colleges need to guarantee that their graduates can think.”

“What’s the problem? Isn’t that what we do?”

“Sure it is! But, with basketball you have a win-loss record. It’s easier. ”

“Whoa there, Dean! Meaning no disrespect, but training athletes to think as a team isn’t exactly easy.”

“Sorry, Coach. Didn’t mean to trivialize. But in sports there’s a clear definition of success. Our trustees probably can’t tell you what the term ‘critical thinking’ means.”

“I’ll bet they know it when they see it, right?” said the coach. “The average sportswriter can’t tell you all the rules of basketball, but they sure know good basketball from bad basketball when they see it. You don’t need a definition. Just agree on the basic idea. Then you get on with it. Introduce the core skills and have the kids play so they can begin enjoying the game.”

“We actually have a working consensus about critical thinking,” said the dean. “It comes down to reflective decision-making and thoughtful problem-solving about what to do or believe. You know, analyze the situation, evaluate claims, draw good inferences, supply sound reasons, and check to make sure you haven’t missed something important.”

“Sounds like passing, dribbling, shooting, and playing good defense to me. But you have to put the skills together to win games,” said the coach.

The dean looked at her for a few seconds and then said, “Thanks, you’ve given me the start I needed,” and then began typing furiously on her laptop.

Watching, the coach added, “One more thing. Desire. With Kobe and Shaq, the Lakers were loaded with skilled players in 2004, but the Pistons won the championship because they had the work habits, drive, persistence, confidence, and trust in their teammates. The Lakers didn’t.”

“Same applies to critical thinking,” said the dean. “Nothing like a passionate desire to know the truth, the courage to follow the reasons and evidence wherever they lead, and the integrity to be objective even if you learn things that go against your own cherished beliefs. Wow, if a college education could guarantee that!”

“Yeah. and if our players were as hardworking as Ben Wallace, Steve Nash, Magic, or Bird, we’d never lose a game.”

“I don’t know, Coach. Those guys were blessed with serious talent.”

“Maybe, but I know that each of those guys practiced and practiced all through their careers. Even as a pro, Nash shoots 500 baskets a day in the off season. It may seem natural when a player is at the top of his game. But there’s no greater insult to an athlete than saying he or she became successful without hard work, dedication, physical training, and mental conditioning.”

“I hear you, Coach. Skills and dispositions are mutually reinforcing. Expertise comes from practice and from the desire to continue perfecting your skills.”

“And good coaching,” said the coach, with a laugh. “If you practice mistakes, you’re only reinforcing errors.”

“We call that meta-cognition,” said the dean.

“We call it half-time,” said the coach. “We step back, evaluate things, and, if necessary, make adjustments.” With that, she stood up, wished the dean luck with the board, and strode away.

Watching her, the dean wondered: What’s my win-loss percentage? How many graduates left here last weekend with stronger critical-thinking skills and dispositions than they came in with?

Peter and Noreen Facione study human reasoning and decision-making. They have developed nationally and internationally used measurement tools, including the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory, the Health Sciences Reasoning Test, the Business Critical Thinking Skills Test, and the Test of Everyday Reasoning. Peter, a former academic dean and university provost, is a professor of philosophy at Loyola University Chicago. Noreen is a professor of nursing emerita at the University of California-San Francisco.

The full text of this article is available by subscription only.

What do we mean by critical thinking?

ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH FOR ASSESSMENT
Lisa Christenson
Office: Harder 114
(518) 580-5024
lchriste@skidmore.edu

What do we mean by "critical thinking"?

Doesn't this concept involve a multitude of skills and attitudes?

You are absolutely right: It is an all-encompassing concept. Peter A. Facione reports on the results of a project that brought together experts from higher education and business to define critical thinking (see ERIC ED 315 423 and Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction. Peter A. Facione, principal investigator, California Academic Press, Milbrae, CA 1990). Here is their consensus statement:

"We understand critical thinking to be purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based. CT is essential as a tool of inquiry. As such, CT is a liberating force in education and a powerful resource in one's personal and civic life. While not synonymous with good thinking, CT is a pervasive and self-rectifying human phenomenon. The ideal critical thinker is habitually inquisitive, well-informed, trustful of reason, open-minded, flexible, fair-minded in evaluation, honest in facing personal biases, prudent in making judgments, willing to reconsider, clear about issues, orderly in complex matters, diligent in seeking relevant information, reasonable in the selection of criteria, focused in inquiry, and persistent in seeking results which are as precise as the subject and the circumstances of inquiry permit. Thus, educating good critical thinkers means working toward this ideal. It combines developing CT skills with nurturing those dispositions which consistently yield useful insights and which are the basis of a rational and democratic society."

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