Critical Thinking Training Adults - Essay for you

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Critical Thinking Training Adults

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Critical Thinking - John Cartwright - Adult education and private tuition

Critical Thinking

As an academic subject, Critical Thinking is new, however, the study of language, reasoning and rhetoric has been important for thousands of years. Unlike most high level subjects, it is a skill that can be developed rather than a syllabus to be learned.

As an A level, Critical Thinking has been developed to demonstrate abilities in reasoning and criticality. Many universities and professional bodies test these abilities in their admissions testing.

Having been involved in teaching the subject at all available levels from GCSE to Advanced Extension Award, including AS & A2, I am well aware of the benefits of Critical Thinking training and is increasingly widely regarded and a vital component of the education of those who want to access the best universities and professions.

Key skills At all levels, the required skills are;
  • The analysis of the structure of arguments
  • The evaluation of the credibility of support given within arguments
  • The ability to demonstrate the ability to write well-structured and convincing arguments
The uninitiated will not be aware that an argument is a logical construction and differs from a rant or an opinion for that reason. It is also necessary to be able to differentiate between arguments and explanations. For example;
  • “The weather patterns this year are different from those last year. There has been more rain and less sunshine” - explains the view that there are differences in the weather from one year to another
  • “Climate change is the major threat to humanity in the 21st century. There are more and more instances of extreme weather events that disrupt economies and kill populations” - argues for a conclusion from reasons. It also allows us to inspect what the argument contains. We may, for example, dispute the claim that there are more adverse events and counter claim that a similar number of events are more widely reported
The process is more akin to athletics than it is to syllabus based subjects. There is nothing very difficult in learning how to run, but to be an Olympian requires constant practice and encouragement from a competent coach. I am a good coach.

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How to Practice Critical Thinking in 4 Steps

How to Practice Critical Thinking in 4 Steps

By Deb Peterson. Continuing Education Expert

Updated January 04, 2016.

Our lives are the result of the myriad choices we make all day long every day, from little things like what we eat for breakfast to life-changing decisions like whether or not we should go back to school. Big or small, every choice we make results in an outcome, and the accumulation of these outcomes shapes our lives. Eating too much of certain foods is eventually going to make a person fat and unhealthy. Going back to school can be the worst decision you've ever made if you don't manage your time. or it could increase your salary and be the best thing you've ever done. Practicing critical thinking makes the difference between good decisions and bad ones, but if you haven't been taught how to think critically, where do you begin?

I was lucky to have been assigned a fabulous college counselor as a freshman at St. Olaf College. Dr. Howard Hong. He was a philosopher and Kierkegaard scholar, and as a student in every course he offered, I learned to reason. It didn't happen overnight. I was 40 before I recognized the gift he had given me. I wrote to him to thank him. He replied on a postcard, "How wonderful that a spark struck so long ago finally caught flame."

I share that because I want you to know that it can take time to practice critical thinking, and that it's never too late to start. It is also a skill that nobody practices 24/7. Sometimes we are good at it, and sometimes we're not, but the more awareness we have of trying to think critically as often as possible, the better life becomes.

The Foundation for Critical Thinking, found at criticalthinking.org. suggests that practicing the following four steps will help you become a critical thinker.

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Critical thinkers start by asking questions about whatever is in front of them. They consider cause and effect. If this, then what? If that, then how is the outcome different? They understand that every action has a consequence, and they think about all possible outcomes of decisions before they make them. Asking questions helps this process.

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Once you have asked every question you can come up with about a matter (it helps to write them down), seek information that will help you answer those questions. Investigate! Do some research. You can learn almost anything on the Internet. but it's not the only place to do your research. Interview people. I'm a big fan of polling. Ask the experts around you. Gather information and various opinions you can use to make your own determination. The wider the variety, the better. More »

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You've got a pile of information, and now it's time to analyze it all with an open mind. This is the most challenging part, in my opinion. It can be pretty difficult to recognize the filters that were instilled in us from our first families. We are products of our environments, of the ways in which we were treated as a child, of the role models we've had throughout our lives, of the opportunities we have said yes or no to. of the sum of all of our experiences.

Try to be as aware as possible of those filters and biases, and turn them off. Question everything during this step. Are you being objective? Are you speculating? Assuming anything? This is the time to look at every thought as purely as possible. Do you know it to be absolutely true? What are the facts? Have you considered the situation from every different point of view?

Be ready to be surprised by how many times we all jump to conclusions that aren't reached through critical thinking. More »

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4. Communicate Solutions

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Critical thinkers are more interested in solutions than in placing blame, complaining, or gossiping. Once you've reached a conclusion through critical thinking, it's time to communicate and implement a solution if one is called for. This is the time for compassion, empathy, diplomacy. Not everyone involved will have thought the situation through as critically as you have. It's your job to understand that, and to present solutions in a way that everyone can understand.

Learn more about critical thinking at The Critical Thinking Community. They have lots of resources online and for purchase.

Critical thinking in children: Are we teaching our kids to be dumb?

Critical thinking in children: Are we teaching our kids to be dumb? © 2008 - 2014, Gwen Dewar, Ph.D. all rights reserved

In his review of critical thinking research, Stephen Norris wrote that critical thinking in children is uncommon:

“Most students do not score well on tests that measure ability to recognize assumptions, evaluate arguments, and appraise inferences" (Norris 1985).

Why is critical thinking so difficult? Some argue that humans aren’t designed for it.

According to this idea, evolution hasn’t equipped us for abstract, logical reasoning. Instead, natural selection has shaped the brain to solve specific, evolutionarily- relevant, problems-- like avoiding predators and identifying which people are breaking the rules (Tooby and Cosmides 1992).

Maybe these folks are right—I’m not going to argue that here. Instead, I want to make a different point:

We often train our kids to think in fallacious or illogical ways.

Consider these real-life examples of how TV, books, educational software, and even some teachers--discourage critical thinking in children.

How to discourage critical thinking in children: The case of Minnie Mouse

How about this a scene from Disney’s “Mickey Mouse Playhouse," a TV program for preschoolers.

Minnie Mouse--Mickey's feminissima pal--has a problem. She has been packaging and wrapping gifts, including a bow (just like the one on her head).

But Minnie forgot to label the packages she’s wrapped, and now she’s not sure which box contains the bow.

There are three possible boxes—small, medium-sized, and large.

Minnie asks: Which box might contain the bow?

Minnie holds out her hands to show us how big the bow is. She compares this with the size of the boxes. The bow seems too big for the smallest box. But it appears small enough to fit in the other two.

So. the answer is that the bow might be in either the medium-sized box or the big box. Right?

Minnie tells us that the bow MUST be in the medium-sized box.

Why does Minnie deny the logical possibility that the bow might be in the big box?

Presumably because the writers weren’t thinking straight and didn’t say what they meant.

Apparently, what they really wanted to ask was this:

“Which is the smallest box that the bow could fit in?"

But then again, there is the possibility that the bow could be in the smallest box. The bow seems too big for the smallest box. But what if Minnie had folded or wadded up the bow to make it fit?

So perhaps the writers should have posed this question:

“Which is the smallest box that the bow could fit in—assuming that Minnie didn’t scrunch up the bow?"

Does this sound nit-picky or pedantic? Maybe it does to the writers of the Mickey Mouse show. But I’m really just asking for some common sense.

In the real world, people do scrunch and they really do sometimes package items in boxes that are a bit larger than needed. Why should we—the viewers—assume that they don’t?

The answer is that we shouldn’t. Not unless we know something about Minnie Mouse. Not unless we know what her unstated assumptions are.

And that’s the point. I don’t know what goes on in Minnie Mouse’s head, and I don’t suppose that my kids do, either. The writers of the Mickey Mouse show asked us to solve the problem based on information about the size of the bow and the size of the boxes.

Critical thinking means that we consider all the possibilities, not just the one that the Mouse thinks is most likely.

What happens when your child watches this sort of thing? It seems to me that the Mickey Mouse show is teaching something very different from critical thinking. It’s teaching kids conformist thinking. Don’t look at problems objectively or logically. Instead, figure out what the authorities want you to say.

You might wonder if young children really think this way. Aren't kids -- like the boy in the story of the Emperor's New Clothes -- supposed to speak their minds?

But experiments suggest that preschoolers are inhibited by the pronouncements of authoritative adults.

When grown-ups tell them how something works, kids don't question it. They act as if the adults have told them everything they need to know, and afterwards the children show less evidence of critical thinking (Bonawitz et al 2011; Buchsbaum et al 2011).

Not just Minnie Mouse: How formal educational experiences discourage critical thinking in children

It's bad enough if children's television programs are undermining critical thinking. But what about textbooks, educational software, and everyday experiences in the classroom?

I've found the Minnie Mouse fallacy in a book intended to teach math concepts to preschoolers. In this case, the reader was asked to find the right birdhouses for an assortment of (differently-sized) birds.

And of there are lots of other illogical or wrong-headed lessons that are kids are asked to absorb.

For instance, consider this story reported by educational psychologists Clements and Sarama (2000):

Young Leah is playing a computer game that teaches geometry. It asks Leah to choose a fish that is shaped like a square.

Leah picks a fish with a perfectly square body, but the shape is rotated so that one of its corners points straight down.

The program tells Leah that she’s wrong. That’s not a square. That’s a “diamond fish!"

Uh-oh. A square is only a square when two of its sides are aligned with the horizontal?

Teaching kids misconceptions about geometry

Clements and Sarama report other mistakes, including these misconceptions that kindergarten teachers have been observed to pass along to their impressionable young students:

• All diamonds are squares

• A square is not a rectangle

• If you put two triangles together you’ll make a square

• If you cut a square in half you’ll make a triangle

And so on. You get the idea.

How much does this matter?

Clearly, we don’t want people teaching our kids things that are illogical and wrong. But how much damage does this really do?

Quite a bit, I’d say. In the case of Minnie Mouse, kids learn to think with blinders on. Don’t consider all the possibilities. Stick to the conventional solutions.

In the case of the square that isn’t really a square, kids learn bad facts and they lose the opportunity to build up a coherent theory of geometry.

The consequences may be long-lasting. Clements and Sarama report that 6-year olds may hold their misconceptions about geometry until they reach middle school.

What about Minnie? The kids who pass Minnie’s test are socially perceptive. They recognize their teachers’ implicit assumptions and tell their teachers what they want to hear. And they get rewarded for it until they meet up with a logical, less culture-bound teacher. Or a logical test. And then, perhaps for the first time ever, these kids start to fail.

What happens then? Do these kids conclude that they aren’t cut out for “hard core" courses in math or science? Maybe.

Experimental interventions suggest that we can teach critical thinking skills to middle school students, and maybe even younger kids.

As I note in that article, it appears that teaching critical thinking in children can actually boost their IQ scores.

And as for parents with very young kids--the kids who might be watching Mickey Mouse?

We should take seriously the research about the effects of pedagogy on preschoolers -- the studies showing that children become less questioning when adults issue authoritative pronouncements about how things work.

If we want to encourage young children to think for themselves, we should probably avoid addressing them in lecture-mode. As I explain in this article, adults may encourage critical thinking by asking more questions and offering fewer answers.

This approach might have other benefits, too, because critical thinking goes hand-in-hand with unblinkered, innovative thinking.

In a new experiment, researchers found that 4- and 5-year-old children were better than college students at figuring out how an unusual new device worked. The children were constrained by fewer assumptions, and paid more attention to the evidence at hand (Lucas et al 2014).

So we should monitor the messages our children are getting--from people, books, electronic media--and discuss the errors we spot with our kids. We need to teach our kids that sometimes even smart, authoritative adults make mistakes.

And most of all, our kids need positive reinforcement for thinking critically, for being logical, and for offering unconventional solutions to problems. Before we correct a child’s wrong answer, we should reflect on whether or not it really is wrong.

References: Critical thinking in children

Bonawitz E, Shafto P, Gweon H, Goodman ND, Spelke E and Shultz L. 2011. The double-edged sword of pedagogy: Instruction limits spontaneous exploration and discovery. Cognition 120(3): 322-330.

Buchsbaum B, Gopnik A, Griffiths TL, and Shafto P. 2011. Children’s imitation of causal action sequences is influenced by statistical and pedagogical evidence. Cognition 120(3): 331-340.

Clements DH and Sarama J. 2000. Young children’s ideas about geometric shapes. Teaching Children Mathematics 6(8): 482-487.

Lucas CG, Bridgers S, Griffiths TL, Gopnik A. 2014. When children are better (or at least more open-minded) learners than adults: Developmental differences in learning the forms of causal relationships. Cognition 131 (2): 284

Norris SP. 1985. Synthesis of Research on Critical Thinking. Educational leadership 42(8): 40-45.

Tooby J and Cosmides L. 1992. Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In: J Barkow, L Cosmides and J Tooby (eds): The adapted mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Critical thinking training adults

Bar Code: 01-05001
Title: Creating Practical Knowledge through Action research
Author: Quigley, B. Allan and Kuhne, Gary W.
Publish Date: 1997
Publisher: Jossey-Bass Publishers
Category :
Description: This sourcebook is written on three levels. First, it is intended for educators and trainers of adult’s formal settings. It is also intended for those working in many of the informal adult education activities, including volunteer training, some types of distance education, and community development work. New Update
Bar Code: 01-05002
Title: Developing Critical Thinkers
Author: Brookfield, Stephen D.
Publish Date: 1987
Publisher: Jossey-Bass Publishers
Category :
Description: In this book author shows that critical thinking is not simply an abstract, academic exercise for college students, but a productive process enabling people to be more effective and innovative in every aspect of life and work.
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Bar Code: 01-05003
Title: Consider The Issues
Author: Numrich, carol
Publish Date: 1987
Publisher: Longman
Category: Advanced Listening and Critical Thinking Skills
Description: This book consists of twelve authentic radio interviews and reports from National Public Radio. The broadcasts were taken from” All Things Considered” and “Morning Edition”.
Bar Code: 01-05004
Title: Face The Issues
Author: Numrich, carol
Publish Date: 1990
Publisher: Longman
Category: Intermediate Listening and Critical Thinking Skills
Description: This book consists of twelve authentic radio interviews and reports from National Public Radio. The broadcasts were taken from” All Things Considered” “Morning Edition”, and “Weekend Edition-Sunday”.

Bar Code: 01-05005
Title:Contents Points
Author: Johnston, Jean and Johnston, Michael
Publish Date: 1990
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
Category:Book A
Description: The activities in CONTENT POINTS are bound together by a single purpose: to help students develop skills and learning strategies that will prepare them for higher levels of academic work.
Back to top Bar Code: 01-05006
Title:Contents Points
Author: Johnston, Jean and Johnston, Michael
Publish Date: 1990
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
Category:Book B
Description: The activities in CONTENT POINTS are bound together by a single purpose: to help students develop skills and learning strategies that will prepare them for higher levels of academic work. Bar Code: 01-05007
Title:Contents Points
Author: Johnston, Jean and Johnston, Michael
Publish Date: 1990
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
Category:Book C
Description: The activities in CONTENT POINTS are bound together by a single purpose: to help students develop skills and learning strategies that will prepare them for higher levels of academic work.
Bar Code: 01-05008
Title:Contents Points
Author: Johnston, Jean and Johnston, Michael
Publish Date: 1990
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
Category:Teacher’s Guide for Books A, B, and C
Description: The book has expansion activities that extend the learning experience beyond the student page, and answer keys.
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Bar Code: 01-05009
Title:Problem Solving
Author: Little, Linda W. and Greenberg, Ingrid A.
Publish Date: 1991
Publisher: Longman
Category:Teacher’s Guide for Books A, B, and C
Description: This a learner centered and interactive text for intermediate students. It encourages students to discuss their problems and share their beliefs. Bar Code: 01-05010
Title:Problem Solving and Decision Making
Author: Braham, Barbara J and Wood, Merle
Publish Date: 1992
Publisher: South-Western Publishing Co.
Category:
Description: This book reflects the step-by-step process a person goes through from first identifying a problem to taking action to solve it.


Bar Code: 01-0501 1
Title:Critical Thinking For Adults
Author: Barnes etal
Publish Date: 1986
Publisher: Steck- Vaughn Company
Category:
Description:
Back to top Bar Code: 01-0501 2
Title: Problem Solving Across The Curriculum
Author: Beaver, John F.
Publish Date: 1994
Publisher: International Society for Technology in Education
Category:
Description: This book is specifically designed to provide elementary and middle school teachers with motivating problem-solving activities to use with their students. This text is filled with interesting and challenging problems from mathematics, language arts, social studies, and natural science. The activities permit students to practice a variety of problem-solving strategies and have fun at the same time.

Bar Code: 01-0501 3
Title: Phasing into the New GED 2002: Preparing Students to Think Critically
Author:
Publish Date: 2000
Publisher: Western Illinois University
Category:
Description: This book has been developed for adult educators to meet the identified need for intensive training and resources for the new GED 2002.
Bar Code: 01-0501 4
Title: Teaching Students to Think Critically
Author: Chet Meyers
Publish Date: 1986
Publisher: Jossey Bass inc.
Category:
Description: This books shows instructors in all disciplines how to help students develop the skills for applying serious, critical thinking to their subjects.
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Bar Code: 01-0501 5
Title: Teaching For Thinking
Author: James W. keefe, Herbert J. Walberg
Publish Date: 1992
Publisher: National Association of secondary School Principals
Category:
Description:

Bar Code: 01-0501 6
Title: Towards The Thinking Curriculum
Author: Lauren B. Resnick, Leopold E. Klopfer
Publish Date: 1989
Publisher: ASCD
Category:
Description: This yearbook introduces teaching techniques that are based on recent conceptions of the nature of thinking and has been validated by cognitive research.

Bar Code: 01-0501 7
Title: Critical Problem Solving Techniques
Author: Julie L. Ellis
Publish Date: 1987
Publisher: Trillium Press
Category: Critical Thinking
Description:
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Bar Code: 01-0501 8
Title: The International Transfer of Cognitive Skills
Author: Sticht, Beeler & McDonald
Publish Date: 19 92
Publisher: Ablex Publication Corporation
Category: Volume II: Theory and research in cognitive science
Description:

Bar Code: 01-0501 9
Title: Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood
Author: Jack Mezirow s
Publish Date: 19 90
Publisher: iB
Category: A guide to transformative and emancipator learning
Description:

Bar Code: 01-05020
Title: Dimension of Thinking
Author: Marzano, Brandt, Huges, Jones
Publish Date: 1988
Publisher: SCD
Category: Critical Thinking
Description:
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Bar Code: 01-050 21
Title: Cognition Curriculum and Comprehension
Author: John T. Guthrie
Publish Date: 19 77
Publisher: ira
Category: Critical Thinking
Description:

Bar Code: 01-050 22
Title: Critical Teaching and Everyday Life
Author: Ira Shor
Publish Date: 19 80
Publisher: South End Press
Category: Critical Thinking
Description:

Bar Code: 01-05023
Title: Problem Solving
Author: Steck-Vaughn
Publish Date: 19 99
Publisher: Steck-Vaughn Company
Category: Critical Thinking
Description:
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Bar Code: 01-050 24
Title: Bringing about Change in Schools
Author: JoAnne Vacca
Publish Date: 19 92
Publisher: International Reading Association
Category: Critical Thinking
Description:

Bar Code: 01-050 25
Title: Face The Issues
Author: Numrich, carol
Publish Date: 1987
Publisher: Longman
Category: Advanced Listening and Critical Thinking Skills
Description: This book consists of twelve authentic radio interviews and reports from National Public Radio. The broadcasts were taken from” All Things Considered” and “Morning Edition”.

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Critical Issues and Trends in Adult Education and Training

This course explores trends, issues, and innovative programs in adult education and training. It focuses on the demographics of adult learners and on the implications of diversity for instruction. Learners examine political, cultural, social, and ethical issues that impact adult education and training. The course also examines these issues within an historical context. Topics and Objectives Adult Education and Training as a Growth Industry Describe enrollment trends in various adult education and training settings. Examine the redefinition and implications of work environments, workplace productivity, personal well-being, and retirement on adult learning. Analyze the lack of standardization in adult education and training. Globalization of Adult Education and Training Describe the impact of globalization on adult education and training. Analyze the roles of educators and trainers in preparing learners to participate in a global world. Analyze instructional implications of globalization. Compare and contrast adult education and training opportunities in the United States with those of other countries. Adult Learners in a Contemporary Society Examine demographic trends and the impact of diversity on adult learners. Explore the implications of social change on adult learning opportunities. Public Policy and Economic Influences on Adult Education and Training Analyze the impact of public policy on adult education and training. Describe economic factors in adult education and training. Social Responsibility and Ethical Issues in Adult Education and Training Describe issues of social responsibility related to adult education and training. Analyze inequities impacting adult education and training. Analyze ethical issues related to adult education and training. Innovative Programs in Adult Education and Training Analyze innovative programs in adult education and training and how they reflect the theory of andragogy. Describe the challenges of innovative programs in adult education and training.

This course focuses on systematic approaches to instructional design. Learners create an instructional plan that outlines each of the five components of a systematic instructional design model (i.e. ADDIE: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation). The course identifies trends and issues in instructional design for adult learners. Topics and Objectives Instructional Design Models and Analysis Analyze systematic approaches to instructional design. Examine the components of a needs assessment. Identify performance gaps based on a needs assessment. Design Construct goals for an instructional plan. Create performance-based objectives that align with instructional goals. Describe a summative assessment to support learner outcomes. Analyze the impact of learner characteristics and learning context on instructional design. Development Determine delivery modality. Select instructional strategies. Implementation Create an implementation schedule for the instructional plan. Evaluate resources for instructional delivery. Analyze the purposes of formative evaluations. Evaluation Examine strategies for evaluating a systematic approach to instructional design. Identify criteria for determining that design goals, performance-based objectives, and learning outcomes were achieved. Analyze possible recommendations for future use. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design Describe issues and trends in various instructional settings. Analyze issues and trends in the use of various instructional modalities. Predict how current issues and trends will impact the future of instructional design.

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This course builds upon the foundation provided in the instructional design course and focuses on development and implementation of instruction that facilitates adult learning. Learners examine and apply models, strategies, and methods for planning and for implementing instruction. Instructional approaches, engagement strategies, and management of the instructional environment are explored. Topics and Objectives Effective Communication and Instructional Techniques Describe effective communication for facilitators. Analyze the relationship between interpersonal skills and instruction. Examine information components of an instructional module/training plan. Instructional Planning Explain components in the development of an instructional module/training plan. Analyze components in the implementation of an instructional module/training plan. Examine planning and instructional variables. Engagement of Adult Learners Analyze methods of engaging the adult learner. Describe the essential components of collaborative learning. Describe compelling questioning techniques. Instructional Approaches Examine the roles of the facilitator and the learner in various instructional approaches. Examine teaching/training concepts. Explain the rationale for selected instructional approaches. Create an audience-appropriate instructional module/training plan. Critical Thinking and Problem-Based Learning for Adults Examine problem-based learning. Employ components of critical thinking to improve cognitive skills. Management of the Instructional Environment Identify elements of effective course syllabi/instructional agendas. Analyze proactive management strategies. Describe appropriate responses to challenging participant behavior.

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This course focuses on developing the skills necessary to become effective assessors of adult learners in postsecondary and training environments. It provides the fundamentals of varied classroom assessments and training evaluation models, such as formative and summative tests and authentic assessments. Learners develop assessments and analyze how assessment data is used to improve instruction and learning. Additionally, the purposes, the methods, and the reporting of evaluation for trainers are explored. Topics and Objectives Overview of Assessment Identify what assessment is and how it is used in learning environments Differentiate between assessment, evaluation, measurement, and testing Compare and contrast formative and summative assessment Assessment in Adult Education Explore the purposes of assessment in adult education Analyze the types of summative assessment Analyze ethical standards for assessments Using Assessment to Improve Instruction Describe effective assessment techniques Analyze the use of assessment to improve instruction and learning Evaluation Principles and Purposes Examine the guiding principles of evaluation Explore the purposes of evaluation in training Examine decision-making in evaluation Describe effective evaluation models Evaluation for Trainers Identify data sources for evaluation Explore data analysis for evaluation Examine the purpose and process of evaluation reporting

Coaching and Mentoring

This course provides an exploration into how mentoring and coaching improves teaching and learning. This course examines mentoring and coaching competencies, including ethical guidelines, creating collegial relationships, building learning communities, effective communication, problem-solving and conflict resolution, and facilitating learning and accountability. Candidates will be equipped with the knowledge and skills to integrate and apply these competencies in real life and instructional leadership situations. Topics and Objectives Foundations of Coaching and Mentoring Identify characteristics of coaching. Identify characteristics of mentoring. Compare and contrast coaching and mentoring. Identify the dispositions necessary to be an effective coach and mentor. Explore the International Coach Federation Code of Ethics. Collegial Relationships Identify the role and responsibilities of a coach and of a mentor. Examine the elements of cognitive coaching. Analyze the 16 Habits of Mind. Demonstrate effective collaboration skills. Effective Communications Describe factors that impact communication. Describe effective communication processes. Illustrate strategies for promoting dialogue, resolving conflict, and problem solving. Mentors as Instructional Coaches Examine topics for instructional coaching. Analyze opportunities to cultivate learning focused relationships. Facilitating Results Explain the stages of mentoring. Identify ways to create awareness. Establish realistic goals and objectives. Design an action plan. Analyze effective modeling and motivation strategies. Develop a process to monitor progress and accountability. Coaches as Leaders of Change Develop an understanding of the effects of change on school culture. Identify ways to create and communicate support. Examine ways to manage change effectively. Explore mentoring and coaching as elements of professional growth.

E-Learning Design Technologies

This Course Provides Adult Learners The Opportunity To Design A Web-based E-learning Tutorial. The Focus Is On The Importance Of Planning, Principles Of Good Web-page Design, Storyboarding, And Elements Of Multimedia. Web-based Design Standards, As Well As Appropriate Use Of Web Pages And Multimedia, Are Analyzed. It Reviews E-learning Software, Computer-mediated Delivery Platforms, And Learning Management Systems. Topics And Objectives Analysis Phase And Introduction To Multimedia Review The Addie Instructional Design Process. Perform A Needs Assessment To Address A Training Need That Will Be Solved By A Web-based Tutorial. Identify Performance Gaps Based On The Needs Assessment. Identify Different Types Of Multimedia That Can Be Integrated Into E-learning. Design Phase And Storyboarding Write Instructional Goals And Performance Objectives Based On The Needs Analysis (gap Analysis). Apply Storyboard Principles For Creating A Web-based Tutorial. Select Appropriate Web-based Platforms For E-learning. Identify Different Strategies That Increase Adult Learner Engagement. Development Phase And Introduction To Web Design Analyze Effective E-learning Instructional Strategies And Delivery Modalities. Examine Html Development Techniques For An Effective Web-based Tutorial. Review Effective Web Design Techniques. Creation Of A Web-based Tutorial Create An Effective Web-based Tutorial. Analyze Page Layout Techniques. Compare And Contrast Multimedia Elements. Determine A Summative Assessment For A Web-based Tutorial. Implementation Of E-learning Publish An E-learning Tutorial To The Web. Analyze The Preparedness Of Learners For E-learning. Review E-learning Standards. Evaluation Of A Web-based Tutorial Examine E-assessment Tools. Evaluate The Instructional Effectiveness Of A Web-based Tutorial.

Performance Improvement and Management

This Course Provides Learners With An Overview Of Performance Improvement Principles. Learners Identify And Analyze Organizational Performance Gaps, Create Learning Interventions To Diminish Those Gaps, And Evaluate Training Using Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels. Topics And Objectives Human Performance Technology Define Performance Improvement Describe The Human Performance Technology (hpt) Process Demonstrate That Performance Improvement Is Systems-based Compare And Contrast The Components Of Performance Improvement And Of Instructional Design Relate The Performance Improvement Process To The Addie Model Human Performance Management Define Performance Management Examine The Key Features Of Ideal Performance Management Analyze Learning Theories And Their Impact On The Performance Management Process Performance Gaps Determine The Nature Of A Performance Gap Based On Motivation (affective Domain), Declarative Knowledge (cognitive Domain), And Procedural Knowledge (psychomotor Domain) Examine The Role Of The Performance Model In Identifying Performance Gaps Inspect The Causes Of Performance Gaps Performance Interventions Define Performance Interventions And The Role They Play In The Hpt Process Examine The Types Of Performance Interventions Inspect The Factors That Influence The Selection Of Performance Interventions Determine The Risks In Selecting An Inappropriate Intervention Performance Evaluations Examine The Four Levels Of Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Model Examine The Types Of Performance Evaluations To Measure Results Of An Intervention Analyze The Factors That Influence The Evaluation Of Performance Justify The Success Of The Performance Intervention Becoming A Practitioner In Performance Management Inspect Roles Of Successful Practitioners In The Field Of Performance Management Review Opportunities In Performance Management Outline A Career Development Plan That Includes Certification, Continuing Education, And Job Outlook Examine Ethical Standards In Performance Management

Overview of the Community College

This course provides an overview of the community college. It examines global, national, and local perspectives of the community college. The course also examines the history and development, mission and purpose, functions, governance and organization, and trends and issues of community colleges. Topics and Objectives Historical Perspectives, Philosophies, and Missions Examine the history of community colleges Describe the historical and current functions of community colleges Explore the general mission of community colleges Governance and Organizational Structure Compare community college governance models Explore national and local governance issues Investigate community college organizational structures and their effects Examine the purpose of accreditation Investigate measurements of accountability Funding and Finances Identify sources of community college funding Analyze the relationship among funding, services, course and program offerings, and local and national economic issues Student Populations and Student Services Describe community college student populations Explore admission, enrollment, and registration policies Examine services offered to community college students Evaluate essential and non-essential services Explore retention issues Examine the role of articulation and its relationship to community college students Curriculum Explore community college curricula Examine curriculum development processes Identify types of degrees and certificates awarded by community colleges Instruction Examine instructional methodologies and delivery modalities Explore developmental education and its role in student success Describe services that support student learning Identify methods and challenges of assessment Roles and Challenges for Faculty Identify faculty roles Analyze faculty challenges and their effects on the institutional environment Examine faculty qualification and certification processes Explore the role and challenges of technology in the educational environment The Future of Community Colleges Describe research in and about community colleges Analyze trends and challenges related to the community college Investigate how community colleges respond to local social, political, and economic influences

Action Research and Evaluation

This course examines action research and its role in decision-making and in educational practices. Students are introduced to various types of action research and to the elements of the action research process, including identifying a problem, determining a problem statement and a purpose, conducting a literature review, planning for the collection and the analysis of data, and creating a plan of action. Methods for collecting, evaluating, and analyzing data are discussed. Students identify ethical issues related to research as well, including a professional code of ethics, confidentiality, and research using human subjects. In addition, they synthesize and apply the content of the course by writing a proposal for an action research study. Topics and Objectives Introduction to Action Research Define action research. Distinguish between types of action research. Identify the components of action research. Review examples of action research. Explain how action research can be utilized to effect school improvement and change. Examine opportunities to conduct action research collaboratively. Introduction to the Action Research Process Examine the role of reflection on practice in generating ideas for a research focus. Determine appropriate topics for an action research study. Identify the elements of an effective research question. Determine varied sources relevant to a research problem. Explain the importance of the literature review. Compare qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. Collecting Data Explain processes for selecting research participants. Describe varied types of data that can be collected to answer research questions. Examine qualitative research designs, methods, and issues in collecting data. Initial Steps in Developing an Action Research Study Examine quantitative research designs and methods, and issues in collecting data. Explain ways of ensuring validity in action research. Develop a plan for collecting data. Analyzing and Interpreting Data Explain the purpose of interim data analysis and its importance in action research. Describe ways to analyze and report results for qualitative data. Describe ways to analyze and report results for quantitative data. Draw conclusions from data. Ethical Issues Related to Educational Research Outline guidelines for conducting research using human subjects. Analyze the impact of technology on the ethical issue of confidentiality in educational research. Discuss the ethical use of data in educational decision-making. Assess ethical considerations when publishing reports of a research study. Develop a process for following ethical guidelines throughout an action research study. Creating a Proposal for an Action Research Study Produce a proposal for an action research study. Prepare an overview of the proposal for presentation.

Course Description This course focuses on e-learning for adult learners. Students apply instructional design techniques, learning theory, and technical tools for e-learning activities. The course also addresses the challenges associated with the e-learning environment. Topics and Objectives Foundations of E-Learning Identify the characteristics of e-learning. Summarize the evolution of e-learning. Analyze the purposes, benefits, and challenges of e-learning. Describe the instructional methods of an e-learning environment. Designing E-Learning Summarize the principles for designing effective e-learning instruction. Analyze the effect of personalization on e-learning. Evaluate the benefits of segmentation and pretraining. Explain methods for incorporating worked examples in e-learning environments. Instructional Considerations: Text and Graphics Summarize the principles for effective use of text in e-learning. Summarize the principles for integrating graphics in e-learning. Evaluate the use of text and graphics in instruction. Integrate text and graphics for effective instruction. Instructional Considerations: Text and Audio Identify the various technologies for audio in e-learning. Determine appropriate uses of audio in e-learning. Integrate text and audio for effective instruction. Analyze the application of audio in e-learning environments. Effective E-Learning Practices Describe the principles behind the effective use of practice in e-learning. Determine the effectiveness of feedback in practice exercises. Apply multimedia principles in practice exercises. Justify collaboration in e-learning. Evaluate the level of learner control in e-learning. Applications of E-Learning Guidelines Summarize e-learning principles that promote thinking skills. Analyze the role of simulations and games in e-learning. Prioritize guidelines for developing e-learning courseware.

Technology for the Adult Learner

This course explores a variety of ways in which technology can support and facilitate instruction for adult learners, including the use of web resources and multimedia.It also addresses the facilitator’s role in researching, selecting, integrating, and managing technology in an adult learning and training environment. The course focuses on technologies, software applications, and the evaluation of technology. Additionally, the course analyzes the effects of 21st century technology tools on intellectual property and other legal matters. Topics and Objectives Transformation of Online Learning Analyze how the delivery of adult education has changed over the past 50 years. Analyze the effect of modern technologies on adult education. Identify technology skills required by instructors. Facilitating Online Instruction Compare technology-based learning tools that enhance student learning. Analyze the importance of collaboration for student learning. Identify assessment strategies for the online environment. Synchronous Learning Identify the advantages and disadvantages of synchronous learning. Explain how technology tools can enhance synchronous learning. Identify strategies for facilitating synchronous online learning. Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Learning Identify the advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous learning. Identify strategies for facilitating asynchronous online learning. Compare synchronous learning to asynchronous learning. Administration of Technologies Identify challenges associated with managing the use of technologies. Evaluate an organization’s capacity for integrating technology to aid instruction. Analyze the functionality and purpose of various communication tools. Legal Matters Analyze the effect of modern technology tools on legal and ethical issues. Identify the key components of an acceptable use policy.

This course provides new graduate students in University of Phoenix programs with an introduction to strategies for academic success within the University of Phoenix adult learning model. Topics include oral and written communication, methods for finding and evaluating course resources, critical thinking, the purpose and use of portfolios, program standards, stress and time management, and tools for collaborative learning, in preparation for team assignments in future classes.

Program description: Our Adult Education and Training degree program gives you the tools you need to enhance adult learning.

You'll focus on methods and techniques for engaging adult learners in a corporate training or community college setting, or any other academic or recreational instructional environment.

The course work emphasizes adult learning theory, the needs of diverse learners, critical issues and trends in adult education and training, instructional design and strategies, the use of technologies as well as assessment and learning. You'll also focus on coaching and mentoring, e-learning and instructional web design technologies.

Be a part of a lifetime of learning for today's adult learners. Enroll today in our Master of Arts in Education/Adult Education and Training degree program.

For program disclosure information, click here .

While widely available, not all programs are available in all locations or in both online and on-campus formats. Please check with a University Enrollment Representative.

Program description: The doctoral Postsecondary and Adult Education specialization is designed to prepare learners to meet the challenges of changing global trends in education and help them develop and improve effective teaching and leadership skills. The curriculum emphasizes major theories of adult learning, the needs of the multicultural adult learner, the development of effective learning communities and environments, critical analysis, program and curricular evaluation, and best practices in postsecondary instruction. Learners who successfully complete this specialization are prepared to pursue instructional leadership positions in a variety of postsecondary education settings, including adult education, distance education, continuing higher education, health care education, community development, and military education.

This course teaches students how to apply fundamental research skills in developing and delivering adult education programs, with an emphasis on short term, applied research applications as opposed to theoretical research. In adult education, the educator is often called upon to justify the development or continuation of an educational program based on research into the usefulness of that program to achieve desired results. This course provides a means to that end. The course project, Applied Research Report: Designing, Implementing, and Publishing Research in a Learning Organization, prepares adult educators to evaluate the results of a program in order to justify curricula and/or instructional practices. The student works with a sponsor within an organization to develop and evaluate an applied research project. Prerequisites: Admission or application for admission to the degree program is required to enroll in this course.

Strategic Planning for Educators

This course establishes the requisite knowledge and skills needed to assist an educational organization in planning more effectively for a constantly changing internal and external environment. The course covers basic components of strategic planning processes that can be adapted to specific educational environments. In the course project, students develop a strategic plan that incorporates/facilitates the development of a vision and mission, and a positive school or organizational culture. For students in the MEd in Adult Education programs, the course project is called Strategic Plan: Improving Organizations and Culture. For students in the MEd in Education Leadership and Administration (K-12) programs, the course project is called Strategic Plan: Improving School Programs and Culture; it is a key assessment designed to demonstrate mastery of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) professional standards. In addition, students in the K-12 programs will be assessed on their ability to develop a strategic plan that incorporates/facilitates evidence-based practices when implementing effective instructional programs and: (1) respond to the diverse needs of families and communities, and (2) mobilize community resources.

EDU544 Business Management for Learning Organizations

This course establishes a working knowledge of business planning to achieve organizational objectives by introducing considerations related to: Finance Principles of management Applications of information technology and systems Human resource management Operational management In the course project, Business Proposal: Integrating Business Decision Making into Educational Organizations, students develop either a business case or a grant proposal for a real-world organization of their choosing. The purpose of the proposal is to convince a person (or persons) in authority to commit money, people, and/or resources (existing assets) to the proposal.

Needs Assessment for Learning Environments

This course introduces approaches and techniques for planning a training needs assessment so that the needs of an organization are not only met, but also anticipated. Assessment is a decision-making tool that helps an organization measure where it is, compared to where it wants to be. The course project, Needs Assessment: Planning for Learning Environments, demonstrates how analysis and assessment grow in importance as organizations become more concerned with competitive advantage and employee expertise. Applying analysis, theory, and skills to real problems, students create instruments, gather data, and consider how to counter objections and influence decision makers.

Assessment Strategies to Improve Adult Learning

This course provides adult educators with the necessary knowledge and skills to develop valid, reliable, and fair evaluation plans, tests, and assessments for adult education and organizational learning. The course is intended for adult educators who will develop and implement adult education programs. Many of the principles and practices, however, can also be applied to workplace performance assessment and program evaluation. In the course project, Assessment Plan: Evaluation in Adult Education, students will design valid, reliable, and fair tests and scoring rubrics as well as provide evaluation and reporting results and cost-benefit analysis. Additionally, they will write clear, concise, and complete learning objectives and employ them in formative and summative assessment elements

Adult Learning Theory

This course introduces students to adult education theories and practices. Teaching and learning strategies for adult learners, including case studies, problem-solving strategies, collaborative learning, and distance learning techniques are discussed and modeled throughout the course. The course project, Adult Learning Program: Applying Theories and Strategies to a Real-world Adult Learning Environment, focuses students on developing a unit of instruction or program for adult learners. By analyzing the adult learning environment and selecting strategies for instruction and assessment, this project moves the student from studying educational theories into creating personally useful and insightful applications.

Capstone: The Professional Adult Educator

This course represents the culmination of the master’s program. It is designed to give students a chance to synthesize their learning by producing a capstone project that exemplifies their newly acquired knowledge and expertise. Working alone or with a partner or team, they will select something from their educational portfolio and develop it further as proof of readiness to receive a master’s degree. In the course project, Capstone: Designing the Professional Portfolio, candidates apply knowledge and skills they have acquired during their tenure at JIU to a real educational issue or opportunity. The project may take any form, as long as it meets the specific educational objectives defined for the course. Project examples include: A grant proposal An environmental research scan A program development and/or implementation An appraisal of an existing program An internship A website Prerequisites: Academic advisor permission required for registration.

Orientation - Successful Online Learning

Every business begins with a dream. But what separates those that fail from those that flourish is someone who has the vision, strategy, and discipline to nourish and grow that dream. If you possess the entrepreneurial spirit but need the practical skills to run a successful business in the field of professional communication, this program is for you! In this specialization, you will study key principles and practices critical to establish a communications-oriented small business and position it for growth. This bachelor degree specialization uses 4 specialization courses from the MABC program, giving the student a head-start on their master’s degree.

BBA or BC course, level 300 - 499

Program description: JIU’s MEd in Adult Education will provide you the practical skills, techniques, and confidence to excel in this growing industry. Our project-based degree program is comprehensive – you will address not only theory, organizational development strategies and assessments of adult learning, but apply this new knowledge to real-world situations.

This course sequence offers doctoral students the opportunity to integrate their program of study into an in-depth exploration of an interest area that includes the completion of a research study. Students complete the dissertation with the guidance of a chair and committee members, in a learning platform classroom in which weekly participation is required. Students work with a dissertation chair to write the prospectus, complete an approved proposal (the first three chapters of the dissertation), complete an application for Institutional Review Board approval, collect and analyze data, and complete the dissertation. During the final quarter, students prepare the dissertation for final review by the university and conclude with an oral defense of their dissertation. Once students register for COUN 9000, they are registered each term until successful completion of the dissertation, for a minimum of four terms.

Program description: Walden’s Ph.D. in Education program offers educators and administrators the opportunity to grow as scholars and innovators in higher education. Gain access to distinguished faculty members, ongoing support, and three learning formats, depending on your chosen specialization. Conduct original research in your area of interest, deepen your research skills, and prepare to contribute as an education leader, administrator, faculty member, or policymaker.

Specializations (in addition to the General Program)
  • Adult Education Leadership
  • Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability
  • Community College Leadership
  • Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
  • Early Childhood Education
  • Educational Technology
  • Global and Comparative Education
  • Higher Education
  • K–12 Educational Leadership
  • Leadership, Policy, and Change
  • Learning, Instruction, and Innovation
  • Self-Designed
  • Special Education

Walden offers both state-approved educator licensure programs as well as programs and courses that do not lead to licensure or endorsements. Prospective students must review their state licensure requirements prior to enrolling.

Prospective Alabama students: Contact the Teacher Education and Certification Division of the Alabama State Department of Education at 1-334-242-9935 to verify that these programs qualify for teacher certification, endorsement, and/or salary benefits.

Prospective Washington state students are advised to contact the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction at 1-360-725-6275 to determine whether Walden’s programs in the field of education are approved for teacher certification or endorsements in Washington state. Additionally, teachers are advised to contact their individual school district as to whether this program may qualify for salary advancement.

Program Name: B.S. in Instructional Design and Technology

Communication Skills For Career Development

This online leadership course helps prepare students to assume a leadership role in the modern organization. The basic principles of leadership, motivational theory, the importance of communication, and current and future trends are introduced. Students assess, discuss, and learn how to apply their own styles of leadership in the workplace and the community. Emphasis is on ethical leadership through personal and interpersonal effectiveness and organizational development. Students also learn the importance of followership and the similarities between the roles of follower and leader at all levels of the organization. (Prerequisite: BUSI 1001 Introduction to Business.)

Dynamics of Change

Students examine change as it impacts people, processes, and products. They learn to employ tools for dealing with and managing change. They learn methods for coping with change as an individual, a member of a group, and a member of an organization. (Prerequisite: Introduction to Management and Leadership)

Program description: As technology transforms the way we learn in school and at work, instructional design professionals are in growing demand. Walden’s B.S. in Instructional Design and Technology prepares you to design training programs and leverage technology to improve individual and organizational performance. Gain the skills you need to succeed in corporate training, education, healthcare, military, or other sectors as you learn to identify training needs, apply learning theory, and design instruction. Learn cutting-edge instructional techniques from a recognized leader in online learning.

Concentrations
  • Business and Organizational Change
  • General Program
  • Human Factors and Interface Design
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