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Journal of the Plague Year

Journal of the Plague Year

Skyhorse Publishing 2012

The March 10, 2008, disclosure that Governor Eliot Spitzer had patronized prostitutes from the Emperors Club VIP sex ring shocked New Yorkers and his admirers around the world, who had celebrated Spitzer as the Sheriff of Wall Street and a likely future and first Jewish President of the United States. Ironically, one man's disillusionment with Spitzer had begun to disappear 15 hours earlier, when Spitzer confessed what the rest of the world would soon learn in a media storm of unprecedented intensity. For Lloyd Constantine, Spitzer's Senior Advisor and longtime friend, the confession explained the governor's recently erratic behavior and marked the end of a plague year encompassing the troubled Spitzer administration and its flawed transition to power. Journal of the Plague Year is Constantine's intimate account of the 17 calamitous months preceding the March 10 revelations and the futile 61-hour battle waged by the author and the governor's wife to persuade Spitzer not to resign but instead fulfill promises made to the voters who had elected him in a record landslide. The book concludes a month after Spitzer and Constantine resigned, as they confronted their shattered careers. People seeking information about Spitzer and prostitutes will find none here. Instead, they will learn how the Spitzer regime suffered crippling setbacks after the governor declared war with the legislature in his inaugural address, including defeat over the choice of a comptroller, a premature effort to end Republican control of the state senate, capitulation on a mediocre $122 billion budget negotiated behind closed doors, the scandal called Troopergate. and a controversial plan to give driver's licenses to illegal aliens, which sparked a national debate affecting the 2008 presidential election. Spitzer and his administration got their bearings at the beginning of 2008. However, the March 2008 revelations and Spitzer's refusal to fight for his job quickly ended his short and tragic reign.

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Project MUSE - Infection, Media, and Capitalism: From Early Modern Plagues to Postmodern Zombies

This essay examines the shift in fictional representations of plague and viral infection in relation to technological, medial, and economic developments. Ben Jonson's play The Alchemist and Daniel Defoe's novel A Journal of the Plague Year revolve around historical visitations of plague in London. This study takes London as its constant variable; the city governs our choice of texts. They negotiate anxieties of the early modern era as mercantilism gives way to the process of accumulation tied to the developing free market as theorized by classical political economy. Two recent motion pictures, set during fictional London outbreaks, display a similar preoccupation with transforming economic spaces. In these texts, however, the relatively young figure of the viral zombie stands in place of and performs a function similar to the more venerable plague. Shaun of the Dead and 28 Days Later both serve as vehicles for expression of the ever-accelerating viral nature of global capitalism. By adopting a transhistorical approach, we demonstrate the relationship between media and plague that emerges, as the fact of infection generates not only a surrounding rhetoric of plague but also a veritable plague of rhetorics. In keeping with recent plague scholarship, this approach emphasizes the close kinship between plague and textuality by treating plague as a text to be read on the individual and political body and the structure of plague writing itself as a mirror of its subject, proliferating with a serial contagiousness.

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“It was impossible to know these People”: Secondary Qualities and the Form of Character in A Journal of the Plague Year


A Journal of the Plague Year. Defoe’s Grammatology and the Secrets of Belonging


Keep Bleeding: Hemorrhagic Sores, Trade, and the Necessity of Leaky Boundaries in Defoe’s Journal of the Plague Year

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A journal of the plague year essay

A journal of the plague year essay

13 Mar 2016, 22:57

If you choose to write about a trial or problem you have faced, tell how it has made you better or stronger or what you have learned from the experience. Also, don't include unnecessary negative information, such as the fact that you're applying to this school because you didn't think you would get accepted to. "hostname m/pi useDefaultThumbs true defaultThumbImgs m/stm/images/placeholders/default_paper_m/stm/images/placeholders/default_paper_m/stm/images/placeholders/default_paper_m/stm/images/placeholders/default_paper_m/m/f essay essayId 33029659 categoryName Film categoryParentId 9 currentPage 1 format text pageMeta text startPage 1 endPage 4 pageRange 1-4 totalPages 4 access premium title Definition Essay: Murder additionalIds 17,13,3,100 additional Literature Health u0026 Medicine Business u0026 Economy Entertainment/Celebrities loadedPages html text 1,2,3,4 user null canonicalUrl m/signup joinUrl m/signup? What part of our lives didnt just suffer a massive body blow from which we will honestly never recover? Nonetheless, our desire for doubt still rages against the evidence. Our past moral imperatives still rile against corporatisms fait accompli in spite of ourselves. Generally normal readers are well armed to detect and resist such under-hand activity. But Conrad chose his subject well - one which was guaranteed not to put him in conflict with the psychological predisposition of his readers or raise the need for him to contend with their resistance. It is for this reason that Newspeak rather than torture is planned as the way to erase thoughtcrime (Stansky 88). However, while Newspeak is a very significant method of mind control through language, it is just a part of a greater Inner Party scheme.

Two new major publications

Release of Taiping Tianguo: A History of Possible Encounters and A Journal of the Plague Year

Para Site is pleased to announce the launch of two new publications co-published with Sternberg Press: Taiping Tianguo: A History of Possible Encounters . based on the highly acclaimed exhibition Taiping Tianguo, A History of Possible Encounters: Ai Weiwei, Frog King Kwok, Tehching Hsieh, and Martin Wong in New York presented at Para Site in summer 2012, and subsequently at SALT in Istanbul, NUS Museum in Singapore and e-flux in New York; and A Journal of the Plague Year . based on the exhibition of the same name presented at Para Site in summer 2013, and subsequently at The Cube in Taipei, Arko Art Center in Seoul, and Kadist Art Foundation and The Lab in San Francisco.

Taiping Tianguo: A History of Possible Encounters, edited by Doryun Chong and Cosmin Costinas and designed by Textandpictures. began as a series of questions: How did Ai Weiwei, Frog King Kwok, Tehching Hsieh, and Martin Wong—four artists of Chinese heritage from various corners of the world—end up in New York in the heady days of the 1980s? Did they know one another? By considering them together, what can we learn about the storied time and place in art history and about the divergent practices of these well-known figures? The publication includes original contributions by a wide range of authors: a conversation between co-curators Doryun Chong and Cosmin Costinas about the project; an essay by Anthony Yung on the presence of Chinese artists in New York in the ’80s; a conversation between groundbreaking choreographer Xavier Le Roy and Costinas on the influence of Tehching Hsieh’s practice on dance and performance today; an essay on Hsieh’s theatricality by Fukuen Tang ; an essay by Christina Li and Yung Ma on the life and work of Frog King Kwok; short essays on Martin Wong by Mark Dean Johnson. Barry Blinderman. and Lydia Yee ; as well as an essay by Anton Vidokle about his own experience in Lower Manhattan in the ’80s. The book also contains comprehensive images of the artists’ works, and an original chronology of the artists’ biographies within the general historical and artistic background.

A Journal of the Plague Year. edited by Cosmin Costinas. Inti Guerrero. and Lesley Ma and designed by Project Projects. New York, critically analyzes historical and contemporary imaginations and politics of fear in the face of disease and the specter of contamination in society and culture. Scholars, artists, novelists, and journalists depart from Hong Kong’s history of epidemic—the most recent being the SARS outbreak of 2003, shortly followed by the tragic death of pan-Asian pop icon Leslie Cheung, and tackle the galvanizing power and the varied perceptions of contagion in the context of lingering histories, myths, anxieties, and memories across geographies. The essay by Costinas and Guerrero introduces the many layers and tentacles of the project. The disappearance of the perished and appearance of ghostly spaces are represented in the poetic storytelling of Dung Kai-cheung ‘s Atlas: The Archaeology of an Imaginary City, while excerpts from Shih Shu-ching ‘s literary masterpiece, City of the Queen. A Novel of Colonial Hong Kong. vividly portray the interwoven social relations and colonial structures during the time of plague. Artist James T. Hong contributes an exposé on disease, race, purity, and cleansing; writer and curator Xiaoyu Weng departs from the stereotypical iconography for Chinese immigrants appearing in the print media of the 1910s in California, in an essay about yellow peril and artist Ming Wong’s recent works exploring the recurrent archetypes of Chinese and Asian identities in Hollywood films; artist Pak Sheung Chuen and writer Lawrence Pun discuss their personal memories of how protests, linked to the aftermath of SARS, transformed their ways of being in the world; Zuni Icosahedron ‘s humorous dramatic script The Phantom Mask visits the official cover ups and the political mood of parts of Hong Kong society at the time of the SARS crisis; journalist Fionnuala McHugh undertakes a deep analysis on the rhetoric of fear caused by the handling of the epidemic and paints a vivid portrait of societies in times of plagues; Taiwanese film and art critic Austin Ming-Han Hsu explores the Anti-Chinese rhetoric in the public sphere of Hong Kong through an extensive reading of an installation by Ai Weiwei; cultural theorist Natalia S. H. Chan discusses the way in which the roles that Leslie Cheung played reflected, and arguably enhanced, the versatility of the city’s identity over the past decades, before and after the Handover; Chinese cultural studies scholar Michael Berry explores how epidemics and diseases like SARS and Ebola have been cast in Hong Kong cinema; and a detailed contextual introduction of five historic performances that place the artist’s body at the forefront, offers models of resistance and empowerment.

Both publications are available online and at bookshops around the world.

The publications have been made possible through the generous support of The Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation.

Established in Hong Kong in 2005, The Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation is a private philanthropic organization that seeks to foster and support Chinese arts and culture and to promote a deeper understanding of Buddhist teachings and their application in everyday life. To learn more about The Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation and its activities, visit www.rhfamilyfoundation.org .

Para Site is Hong Kong’s leading contemporary art centre and one of the oldest and most active independent art institutions in Asia. It produces exhibitions, publications and discursive projects aimed at forging a critical understanding of local and international phenomena in art and society.

*Images above: 1. Taiping Tianguo: A History of Possible Encounters, ISBN 978-3-95679-116-1, 144 pages, 170 x 240 mm, paperback. 2. A Journal of the Plague Year, ISBN 978-3-956791-17-8, 196 pages, 145 x 210 mm, hardcover.

Print Essay: Defoe Daniel (Bibliography)

Defoe Daniel (Bibliography)

A Realistic Liar

Daniel Defoe is the founder of the English novel. "[Defoe] was one of the germinal minds in political and economical thought, a defender of religious toleration, and an opponent of the evils of human slavery" (Moore, 7). Defoe reflects his diverse experiences in many countries and in many lifestyles. Besides being a brilliant journalist and novelist, Defoe was a prolific author, producing more than 500 books, pamphlets, and tracts. Defoe was a religious man who stood up for the Christian code of ethics. He spent a great deal of his life trying to get men to act more morally, to abandon prejudices, and to right injustices. Defoe’s most effective writing style was to give as much precise detail so that the reader could not decipher whether the event actually took place, or was just all made up by a brilliant mind. He would incorporate details into his writing that would seem true only because the detail was so great the reader figured it to be the real thing." there is a quality in Defoe’s style that keeps them obstinately alive. It is mainly a matter of spiritual energy, a natural alertness and liveliness that kept him at a high pitch of intensity" (Sutherland, 6). Daniel Defoe perfected the art of giving his fiction the appearance of truth, thus making his works come alive and appear to be a matter of personal recollection.

Daniel Defoe was born in the year 1660 to Alice and James Foe. There is some controversy over the date because the date was never actually written down. The births of his two older sisters, Mary, on November 13, 1657, and Elizabeth, on June 19, 1659 were inscribed in St. Giles parish records, but not his. It is assumed that Daniel was born in the fall of 1660. "Probably we shall never know the exact date of his birth" (Moore, 1). Daniel was the first to be born in London. James, Daniel’s father, started an apprenticeship under John Levitt in 1644. James Foe, upon completing his apprenticeship became a tallow chandler in 1654. "The work of tallow chandlers required the skill of craftsmen as well as strength and stamina" (Backscheider, 27).

Daniel grew up in some of the toughest times for England. Charles II was invited to assume the English throne. The «Restoration» raised new hopes of change to come. The first effect on Daniel’s childhood was the great plague, which killed more than 69,000 in 1665. During the plague, all of the shops were closed and no one was out on the streets. The plague was due mainly to the poor sanitation. There were dead bodies lying around out on the streets. John Reresby reported that it was, "usual for people to drop down in the streets" (7). Another influence on Daniel was the fire in London. The Great Fire hit on September 2, 1666." nearly 229 houses in Cornhill burnt to the ground, and the official survey report gave 13,200 as the number of houses destroyed ninety percent of the city’s living accommodations burned" (Backscheider, 4).The fire was started in a bakehouse (or bakery) and was spread quickly by the breeze (Freeman, 43). During the four-day fire, eighty-nine churches burned. Property loss totaling ten million pounds. It is said about Defoe that, "His family probably took what they could to his uncle’s in St. Botolphs" (Backschieder, 6). The aftermath of the fire was horrendous. Ash and fallen houses blocked entire streets. Blocks of houses were completely burned to the ground.

Their post office, government buildings, exchange houses, courthouses, and jails all lost to the fire. Even if you had money, there was no place to buy anything. Moreover, with the jail burned to the ground, all of the criminals were free to haunt the streets. King Charles worked extensively to get the businesses back in London. He built new government buildings, post offices, and tried to get the economic system flowing again. Although the rebuilding had begun, the city would be in shambles for the next thirty years. The people of London were taxed horribly for the rebuilding of their homes.

Daniel’s main influence as a child was most likely his parent’s choice of religion. They decided that they did not want to conform to the Church of England, and thus they became outcasts. They were Nonconformists, or protestant "Dissenters." Samuel Annesley was the pastor of this new religion. Annesley and eighteen hundred clergymen were cast out of the church by the Act of Uniformity. Because of the Defoe’s choice of religion, Daniel was alienated from attending college. In addition, he was barred from military service. The second part of the Act of Uniformity required anyone that was teaching the word of God, to swear an oath stating that they forbade to take arms against the king. Annesley was a strong man and would help his people out any way he could. Daniel witnessed first-hand the cost of choice through Annesley’s persecution. If you were caught practicing, you were fined. Approximately 15,000 families went bankrupt because of these fines. "Defoe remembered trapdoors in pulpits, secret passages from one house to another, and hidden rooms with doors disguised as cupboards." (Backshieder,10). Persecution was the worst in 1662-1664, 1670, and in 1681 through 1685. The first twenty years of Defoe’s life were extremely influential. They taught him the price it takes to be different.

In 1681, at the age of twenty-one, Defoe was in London writing Meditations and in the throes of a deciding course for his life. He had completed four of the five years expected of ministerial candidates at Morton’s Newington Green Academy. James Foe was now a leader of the Butchers’ Company. During his term as Renter Warden, he made major changes in bookkeeping procedures. Meanwhile, Defoe was trying to figure out whether he wanted to become a minister or to get into his father’s line of work. By the end of 1681, Defoe decided he would become a wholesale hosier. The stocking knitting trade had become an enormous occupation. "The merchant who had the variety of sizes, lengths, textures, and patterns made with different kinds of raw wool, yarns, dyes, and decorations could expect to prosper" (Backshieder, 30). Defoe sold to towns all over London.

Defoe met Mary Tuffey, the seventeen-year old daughter of a wealthy businessman. In 1682, Daniel wrote Historical Collections" containing passages exerpted from several authors and prepared for the press" (Moore, 254). In it, Defoe complimented Mary’s knowledge and sense of dedication. On January 1, 1684, Daniel and Mary got married." Defoe always recommended that a man establish himself before he married" (Backscheider, 33). Altogether, she bore him two sons and six daughters (two of whom died in infancy). "During the next two or three years arrived his three eldest children, Hannah, probably the first-born; Mary, who died a child; and Daniel, born probably in 1685" (Wright, 17).

In June of 1685, Daniel left his family and his business to join the Duke of Monmouth’s rebellion. Facing new religious persecution and the prospect of a lifetime barred from public office, Defoe joined the rebellion. On July 6, the rebellion tried to attack forces at Sedgemoor. "A single shot, as Defoe said, ‘by accident, or treachery,’ alerted the king’s troops; the pace had to be accelerated, and Monmouth’s regiments were never well organized after that" (Backshieder, 38). After Monmouth was defeated, those who were alive tried to flee back to London. "Perhaps he [Defoe] found temporary refuge with a relative he excelled at disguising himself and mingling in a hostile crowd, and he was a fine horseman" (Moore, 54). The hunt was on to find the Dissenters. A five-shilling reward was given to those who turned in a Dissenter. They were starting to obtain search warrants to find the Dissenters. "That Defoe had remained uncaptured was simply amazing; at best a one-in-fifteen chance" (Backshieder, 40).

After the Monmouth rebellion failed, Defoe and others decided to create an anti-violence solution. They gathered together to create political pamphlets. These pamphlets were an early form of propaganda. "Defoe’s generation saw its potential as shapers of opinion, and Defoe would write more of such pamphlets than anyone else" (Backshieder, 44). Daniel wrote hundreds of pamphlets. One was entitled, A Letter to a Dissenter from His Friend at the Hague, concerning the Penal Laws and the Test. The pamphlet was put out to warn Dissenters of the motives behind King James’ Declaration of Indulgence.

In 1688, he was in serious financial trouble. He owed Joseph Braban ?396 in unpaid bills for goods he sold on commission. When Defoe did not pay off the full sum, Braban took him to court for the money owed. In November of that year, Defoe agreed to pay the balance but only without the penal sum. To help raise money, Defoe sold the part of the ship he owned to Robert Harrison. Harrison relinquished to pay and sailed off on Defoe’s ship before the deal was final. Defoe’s next couple of years were financially heart breaking. He began to borrow heavily for overseas trade. When his shipments did not come in he had no way of repaying those intended. Defoe declared bankruptcy in September of 1692. Defoe was taken to Fleet Prison in October of 1692. He owed over a whopping ?17, 000. Backshieder states," it might have been more had he not been committed to the Fleet Prison" (58).

Once out of prison, with his credit in shambles, Defoe wrote An Essay upon Products in 1697. He continued to write pamphlets for what he believed in. As a political writer under William, Defoe eventually achieved fame in 1701 with his brilliant satire, The True Born Englishman. "Rising above its immediate purpose of defending William’s character and his policies, this poem became the most famous of all attacks on the myth of racial superiority" (Moore, 233). Later in 1701, he daringly presented to the speaker of the House of Commons his Legion’s Memorial, in which he threatened Parliament with the wrath of the people for failing to heed their will.

The death of William in 1702 and the accession of Queen Anne, a strong adherent of the High Church, wrought a dramatic change in the political life of Defoe. High Church propagandists began to attack the Dissenters for holding positions in government. In 1702, Defoe published The Shortest Way with the Dissenters. "Here he [Defoe] no longer attacked individual dissenters who had proved too weak to undergo oppression, but the organized power which used oppression as an instrument of national policy" (Moore, 109). The pamphlet enraged the High Church." they were naturally furious when they realized that they had been imposed upon by an impudent parody of their own more violent protagonists" (Sutherland, 86).An order for his arrest was issued on January 3, 1703. Captured soon after, he was sentenced on July 9, 1703, to stand three times in the pillory. Had a mob been in an angry mood, the pillory might have meant Defoe’s death. He won the mob to his side by distributing a poem from A Hymn to the Pillory, in which he proclaimed his innocence and attacked the judges. Robert Harley, one of the secretaries of state, rescued Defoe from jail. Defoe was grateful and remained a supporter of Harley for the next 15 years.

In 1704, at the age of 44, Defoe began to write the Review. It started out being published once a week, then later three times a week. The contents of the Review "held all sorts of personal and peculiar views on all kinds of subjects" (Sutherland, 106). When Harley returned to power with the Tories in 1710, Defoe turned the viewpoint of the Review to support the new government. However, his lack of sympathy with some of the government’s policies frequently put him in a dilemma. Such conflicts made the Review useless as a vehicle for propaganda, and Defoe, in 1713, founded a new trade journal, Mercator. Queen Anne died in 1714. "With the death of the Queen Defoe’s tottering world suddenly fell to pieces" (Sutherland, 204).

Defoe next threw his energies into writing pamphlets defending Harley from charges of treason. At the same time, Defoe attempted to protect himself from his former Whig friends. In the first months of 1715, he published a defense of his own life, An Appeal to Honor and Justice, saying that," he had owed his freedom to the intervention of Harley" (Sutherland, 148). However, on July 12, 1715, the day on which Harley was sent to the tower, Defoe was tried on a false charge of libel and found guilty. Fortunately, he managed to convince the presiding judge that he was sympathetic to the aims of the Whig ministry and that he could be useful to them. The Whigs agreed, and Defoe was hired to act as a double agent.

After 1715, Defoe turned to a variety of fictional forms, including moral dialogues, such as the Family Instructor, and the fictitious memoirs, such as The History of the Wars of Charles XII. His masterpiece, Robinson Crusoe, was published in April 1719. Robinson Crusoe originated from Alexander Selkirk’s adventures. Selkirk was a Scottish sailor who had a dispute with the captain of the ship. In 1703, Selkirk was put ashore on an island upon his own request in the Juan Fernandez Island, off the coast of Chile. He lived isolated until 1709 when the commander of an English privateer rescued him ("Selkirk, Alexander"). Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is about a man who struggle time after time only to knock down every time. Crusoe gets stranded on a desert island after the ship he was on sinks in a horrendous storm. The next day he realizes that the ship did not sink at all, and that everyone would have survived if they had just stayed on board. Crusoe collects the things he needs from the ship and creates a hospitable place to live. Defoe uses his use of detail to flood you with facts that you cannot tell if it really happened. "Defoe’s favorite method of authenticating his narrative is to overwhelm us with details so trivial, and so apparently irrelevant, that we feel the only possible reason for being given them at all must be that they are true" (Sutherland, 15). Crusoe is given in such vivid detail that it makes it hard to believe it never really happened. An example of this is the journal that Crusoe is making to keep track of the days. The day to day descriptions makes it hard to believe anything else. Defoe writes: Dec. 10—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side, so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and not without reason too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a Grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which as of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down (73).

Defoe uses vivid detail to give you the chance to see the problems he encounters with every step he takes. Defoe gave Crusoe limited resources to make his character actually survive. He showed that it really is not easy to live on an island with little material to work with. All of Crusoe’s tools had to be made by hand. The reader was drawn in to follow." Defoe could therefore expect his readers to be interested in the very detailed descriptions of the economic life which comprise such an important and memorable part of his narrative" (Kalm, 72).

During his remaining 12 years, Defoe concentrated on books rather than on pamphlets. In 1720 came Memoirs of a Cavalier and Captain Singleton, and a collection of essays, Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe. At age 62, he published three of his greatest works: Moll Flanders, A Journal of a Plague Year, and Colonel Jack. Moll Flanders, like Robinson Crusoe, creates the vivid detail, which makes you believe the story is true. Moll is a woman motivated by greed. Her main objective in life is to marry a man with money. She marries a few with money and a few without, (one of whom she finds out to be her brother) but still she is unable to fulfill her need for money. She resorts to stealing anything she can. She will do anything to keep from becoming poor. Defoe uses explicit detail to tell Moll’s story. Defoe writes:

The next thing of moment was an attempt at a gentlewoman’s gold watch. It happened in a crowd, at a meetinghouse, where I was in very great danger of being taken. I had full hold of her watch, but giving a great jostle as if someone had thrust me against her, and in the juncture giving the watch a fair pull, I found it would not come, so I let it go for that moment, and cried as if I had been killed, that somebody had trod upon my foot (222).

Defoe shows the reader how Moll actually goes about stealing a watch. Whether it be Moll or an actual thief, the point he shows is that she could be a real figure or just another face in the crowd. "All this happens in real, particular place Defoe makes no attempt to describe it in detail, but the little glimpses that emerge win us over completely to its reality" (Watt, 97).

His next great production was the Journal of the Plague Year. "Defoe may have been elaborating upon a diary kept by his uncle (Henry Foe) in the year 1665, or perhaps recollecting some of the stories of the Plague that his uncle had told him in boyhood" (Sutherland, 9). Defoe’s own credibility fades due to that fact that he was five when it happened and obviously, he could not remember that much. "But Defoe was a great journalist; he could give a vivid picture of anything, whether he had seen it or not" (Sutherland, 6). There is a part in the book that shows Defoe’s incredible use of detail. People were so afraid to touch something that might have been in contact with someone else. Defoe writes: "In the middle of the Yard lay a small Leather Purse, with two keys hanging at it, and money in it, but no Body would meddle with it. I ask’d how long it had lain there; the Man at the Window said it had lain almost on Hour I had no such need for Money, nor was the some so big, that I had any Inclination meddle with it, or to get the Money to the hazard it might be intended with" (59).

Defoe shows the reader the trouble that could come along with the purse. The boy thinks if he really wants the money. He knows he is not it desperation for money, and he knows that the amount of the money inside is not that much. "Like so much in Defoe, this is a description of something happening, and he makes an immediate bid for our attention and our credulity by his careful setting of the event" (Watt, 16).

Defoe’s last great work of fiction, Roxana, appeared in 1724." the strange, belated flowering of Defoe’s imagination withered; and in A New Voyage Round the World, published in the following spring (1725), it may be said to have died" (Freeman, 262). Also in 1725, The Four Years Voyages of Captain George Roberts was published. The Memoirs of Captain Carleton, in 1728, and Robert Drury’s Journal, in 1729, are memoirs of actual persons with slight fictional embellishment; however, Defoe never abandoned the use of the short tale to make a social or moral point. His History of the Pyrites adds to its factual accounts the story of an archetypal fictional pirate, Captain Mission. Defoe’s volumes on the occult and his treatises on trade and economics are also replete with fictional narrative.

Defoe had been haunted by creditors almost all of his life, and finally, at the age of 70, he was forced to flee and hide from a creditor claiming payment on a bill Defoe had thought he had settled in 1704. On April 24, 1731, separated from his family, he died "‘ of a Lethargy,’ says the parish register," in a lodging house in London. "Eighteen-century diagnoses were crude and casual" (Freeman, 293).

Consequently, Daniel Defoe uses his use of extreme detail to overwhelm the reader, thus enabling him to create elaborate fantasies. Defoe crated a style unheard of at the time. He could show people how things really happen even though he was never there himself.

"When Defoe began to write fiction he took little notice of the dominant critical theory of the day, which still inclined towards the use of traditional plots; instead, he merely allowed his narrative order to flow spontaneously from his own sense of what his protagonists might plausible do next. In so doing Defoe initiated an important new tendency in fiction: his total subordination of the plot to the pattern of the autobiographical memoir is s defiant an assertion of the primacy of individual experience in the novel" (Watt, 15).

Defoe created excellence through his works. He created his own unique which captured the minds of million. "His [Defoe] Dissenting background engaged his sympathies with those who were struggling to assert their rights, rather than with those whose struggle was to maintain an inherited position and traditional privileges" (Boulton, 7).

Bibliography:

Backscheider, Paula R. Daniel Defoe-His Life. Baltimore and London: The Johns

Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Boulton, James T. ed. Daniel Defoe. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd. 1965

Defoe, Daniel. Journal of the Plague year. London: Society for Promoting

Christian Knowledge, 1871.

Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. New York: The Modern Library, 1994.

Defoe, Daniel. The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. London: Grant Richards, 1902.

Freeman, William. The Incredible Defoe. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1950.

Moore, John R. Daniel Defoe Citizen of the Modern World. Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 1958.

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A Journal of the Plague Year Study Guide

A Journal of the Plague Year Study Guide

A Journal of the Plague Year is one of Daniel Defoe 's most popular and strangest works; it is an amalgam of history and fiction that attempts to relate what life was like in London during the plague of 1665-66. Published in 1722, nearly 57 years after the events depicted, the work is a first-person narrative told from the perspective of H.F. a saddler. Defoe himself was only a small child at the time of the plague, so he conducted meticulous research into the medical treatises, bills of mortality, and broadsides of fifty years prior to write his work.

The Journal has a nonlinear structure. H.F.'s personal story is blended with copious statistics, graphs, charts, data, and dates, as well as anecdotes, rumors, and stories. His sources included the Orders Conceived and Published by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London concerning the Infection of the Plague, 1665. which he included in the text at length; Necessary Directions for the Prevention and Care of the Plague in 1665 ; An Account of the Plague in Naples in the Year 1656 ; the Bills of Mortality ; Britain's Remembrancer by John Bell; Loimologia (1672/1720) by Dr. Nathaniel Hodges; God's Terrible Voice in the City (1667) by Thomas Vincent.

Scholars debate why Defoe undertook this work. There was news of the plague in Marseilles in 1721; therefore, as fiction rooted in truth, the Journal could potentially a text that could help Londoners prepare for a potential outbreak. Its advice and factual information could allay the widespread panic that would most likely ensue. Defoe also wrote a smaller nonfiction work on this same topic: Due Preparations for the Plague, as well for Souls as Body (1722). One scholar speculated that the Journal was published to support the government's unpopular trade embargo with plague-stricken countries, while another believed it to be supportive of the policies of Robert Walpole. It also stands as a positive assertion of the fortitude and endurance of the people of London in the face of tragedy and chaos; literary critic Manuel Schonhorn wrote that the Journal "stands as a quiet yet authentic testimony of a city's victory in the face of disaster of frightful proportions. Throughout the experience Defoe's London has triumphantly asserted its illustrious qualities."

The work was well-received in the 18th and 19th centuries, but a second edition was not published until 1754 and it did not attain its cult status until nearly 200 years later. In 1830 William Hazlitt penned a review of the work, stating that it had "an epic grandeur, as well as heart-breaking familiarity, in its style and matter." Sir Walter Scott noted that the level of disgust and horror was high, but that "even had he not been the author of Robinson Crusoe . De Foe [sic] would have deserved immortality for the genius which he has displayed in this work." Another contemporary critic wrote that the Journal "is the most lively Picture of Truth which ever proceeded from imagination. we cannot take it up, after a hundredth perusal, without yielding, before we have traversed twenty pages, to a full conviction that we are conversing with one who has passed through and survived the which he describes." In the 1960s Anthony Burgess wrote an introduction to the Penguin English Library edition, concluding that the Journal 's "truth is twofold: it has the truth of the conscientious and scrupulous historian, but its deeper truth belongs to the creative imagination." Today students and scholars alike study the work as a historical record – the Journal mentions over 175 different streets, buildings, churches, taverns, inns, houses, villages, landmarks, and counties – as well as a novel, delighting in Defoe's vivid imagination, subtle sense of humor, and prevailing compassion for his subjects.

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A Journal of the Plague Year Questions and Answers

The Question and Answer section for A Journal of the Plague Year is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

One of the worst days we had in the whole time, as I thought, was in the beginning of September, when, indeed, good people began to think that God was resolved to make a full end of the people in this miserable city. This was at.

Asked by joey g #335054

Answered by jill d #170087 on 7/18/2016 5:57 PM View All Answers

It was dug to be a mass grave. Having a giant pit for rotting dead people is not a nice feeling, especially near a church. People did not want the plague or a reminder of the plague so close to their place of worship.

Asked by haille h #506254

Answered by Aslan on 3/15/2016 4:46 PM View All Answers

It was about the beginning of September, 1664, that I, among the rest of my neighbours, heard in ordinary discourse that the plague was returned again in Holland; for it had been very violent there, and particularly at Amsterdam and.

Asked by April H #509232

Answered by jill d #170087 on 3/9/2016 3:52 PM View All Answers

Study Guide for A Journal of the Plague Year

A Journal of the Plague Year study guide contains a biography of Daniel Defoe, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

Essays for A Journal of the Plague Year

A Journal of the Plague Year essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of A Journal of the Plague Year by Daniel Defoe.

E-Text of A Journal of the Plague Year

A Journal of the Plague Year e-text contains the full text of A Journal of the Plague Year by Daniel Defoe.

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